• A Thorough and Efficient Education: School Funding, Student Achievement and Productivity

      Many school districts are facing stagnant or reduced funding (input) concurrent with demands for improved student achievement (output). In other words, there is pressure for all schools, even those schools with student populations of low socioeconomic status, to improve academic results (accountability for output) without a directly proportionate increase in resources (adequacy of input); in essence, to improve productivity. This study a) examined the productivity of Indiana school districts, b) analyzed the effect of student populations of low socioeconomic status on district productivity, and c) explored the change in district productivity since the passage of accountability legislation. In Research Question #1, archival data on the expenditures and student performance of 292 Indiana public school districts was mined and analyzed. Productivity indicators were developed, revealing in 2008 13.9 students demonstrated mastery of Indiana academic standards on ISTEP+ for every $100,000 of General Fund expenditures. However, the range of productivity indicators between districts varied greatly, even among districts of similar socioeconomic status, calling into question whether demography was as critical a productivity predictor as it was generally argued to be. In Research Question #2, regression analysis revealed a statistically significant negative relationship between the socioeconomic status of its student population and its productivity on an overall basis, however a disaggregated analysis of socioeconomic quartiles revealed the relationship between socioeconomic status and productivity at some levels to be statistically insignificant. Such a finding seemed to indicate again that the predictive value of socioeconomic status to learning results was less reliable than generally suggested. Finally, in Research Question #3 analysis of variance of district productivity revealed that productivity declined steadily in years prior to enactment of the No Child Left Behind and began to improve the year the accountability legislation was enacted, suggesting that accountability measures may have changed educator behavior in a way that resulted in an increase of students able to demonstrate proficiency at state academic standards without a proportionate increase of expenditures.
    • Advanced Accreditation Impact Regarding the Achievement Gap between Schools of Poverty and Schools of Affluence for Secondary Education in a Five-State Region

      Langevin, Michael John
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether there are significant differences among AdvancED accredited middle and high schools that consist of those with high poverty populations and those affluent accredited schools regarding school effectiveness. This study examined whether there was a significant difference between schools of poverty and affluent schools on reading and mathematics state assessments. This study also examined which AdvancED school effectiveness accreditation standards predict student achievement success through standardized test performance in both reading and mathematics. Is there a significant difference between accredited schools of poverty and accredited affluent schools in the seven AdvancED school effectiveness accreditation standards? Is there a significant difference between AdvancED accredited schools of poverty and accredited affluent schools in state achievement scores in reading? Is there a significant difference between AdvancED accredited schools of poverty and accredited affluent schools in state achievement scores in mathematics? Are the AdvancED school accreditation standards predictors of success on student achievement through standardized test performance in the area of reading? Are the AdvancED school accreditation standards predictors of success on student achievement through standardized test performance in the area of mathematics? Based on the findings, this study determined schools of poverty were being rated significantly lower than schools of poverty in the following standards: governance and leadership, teaching and learning, resources and support programs, as well as stakeholder communication and relationships. Schools of poverty that enter the accreditation process still lag behind accredited schools of affluence, but a significant difference was determined when the accredited schools of poverty were compared to non-accredited schools of poverty. When school effectiveness accreditation scores for each standard were examined a relationship was significant between how affluent schools were scored in documenting and using results, as well as stakeholder communication and relationships and their success on standardized tests in reading and mathematics. When school effectiveness accreditation scores for each standard within schools of poverty a significant relationship between the following standards was determined in regard to standardized testing for reading and mathematics: teaching and learning, documenting and using results, as well as resources and support programs. A negative relationship was determined for schools of poverty between the test results in reading and mathematics and their rating on the commitment to continuous improvement standard.
    • AFRICAN AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR COLLEGE COUNSELING EXPERIENCE

      Turner, LaTonya M. (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
      This study looked at high school African American students’ perceptions of their college counseling experiences. Much research has been done to highlight the views and/or perceptions of various stakeholders regarding college counseling with respect to African American students (Cabrera & La Nasa, 2000; Hossler & Stage, 1992; Ng, Wolf-Wendel, & Lomardi, 2014). A few examples of stakeholders are administrators, teachers, parents or guardians, and college-going organizations. However, little research exists on the views and or perceptions of college counseling from the student’s perspective (Howard, 2003). Knowing the perceptions of students provides a better understanding of how African American students in urban settings perceive the college counseling provided to them.
    • An analysis of indiana schools implementing alternative teacher evaluation systems.

      Austin, Corey Wade
      The purpose of this content analysis research project was to determine if there were predictive qualities of the demographic groupings; student population, free and reduced percentage, and geographic setting on the teacher evaluation tools that are an alternative to the Indiana RISE model. This study surveyed Indiana superintendents regarding their anticipated 2012-13 evaluation tool. The schools that designated they would be using an alternative teacher evaluation tool were then asked to make available their research of their document for comparison to a research-based template. The research-based template is a derivative of the work of Danielson (2007), Marshall (2005), and Marzano (2004). It contains 12 elements that were commonalities among the researchers with emphasis on instruction. The alternative evaluation tools were scored and then multiple regression analysis was performed in the three predictor areas of demographics. The research indicated there were some elements from the demographics that did significantly influence the dependent variables. Some of the influence was positive where some of the influence was negative. This research can be used to explore the differences among variables and assist education programs in understanding which areas to pursue because of the positive influence and which areas to reduce because of its negative influence on the criterion variables. The predictor of free and reduced percentage was the demographic that had the influence on four of the elements (criterion variables). Free and reduced percentage had a positive significance with the elements of application. The three elements that were also significant, but negative, were connections/questions, clarity, and homework/feedback. The remaining eight elements showed no significant value. .
    • An Analysis of the Financial Aid and Political Consequences experienced by School corporations when closing a School or Consolidating Schools

      Morikis, Peter
      The purpose of this study was to identify the common consequences experienced by school corporations when closing or consolidating schools. The primary focus of the study was to identify the financial and political consequences experienced by school corporations when closing a school closing or consolidating schools. Specific questions regarding district facilities, district personnel, district expenditures, and district educational programs were asked. Four superintendents for this study were selected from a sampling of Indiana school corporations who had experienced declining enrollments and a school closure or consolidation. Once identified, superintendents were interviewed to determine the financial and political consequences experienced when closing a school or consolidating schools. After a review of the literature and obtaining the perspective of superintendents through interviews, the researcher was able to discover many common themes school corporations faced when closing or consolidating schools. Those themes can be found in the following statements: 1. There was community conflict that was generated when a neighborhood school closed. 2. Teacher associations were very protective of positions and were hesitant to agree to staff reductions. 3. The financial condition of the district was a strong consideration when contemplating a school closing or consolidation. 4. Administrative staff reductions were an integral part of working through the school closure or consolidation process. 5. Board members were reluctant to move ahead with a school closure or consolidation. 6. Non-certified personnel positions were eliminated during the closure or consolidation process. The literature review and accompanying interviews also helped answer the Grand Tour questions that prompted this research study. The answers to the Grand Tour questions follow: 1. There are significant financial and political consequences when closing a school or consolidating schools. 2. There are significant financial and political consequences to school districts when closing or consolidating schools. 3. There are significant consequences to district facilities, district personnel, and district expenditures when closing or consolidating schools. 4. There are few consequences to programs when closing or consolidating schools. The results presented above demonstrated consequences school corporations experienced when closing a school or consolidating schools.
    • An investigation of research-based teaching practices through the teacher evaluations in Indiana public schools

      Sargent, Michael Steven
      The purpose of this study was to identify if a rela tionship existed between the implementation of professional evaluation processes and the use of re search-based teaching practices, factoring in both perceptions of principals and practicing teach ers. The variables of professional development on the evaluation model and the princip al’s years of experience, degrees contained, and types of degrees were factored into the analysi s. For this study, principals were surveyed to identify the teacher evaluation model used in the s chool along with professional development, years of experience, degrees, and types of degrees. In addition, the principals identified the use of research-based teaching practices in the school, prior to and after implementation of the teacher evaluation model. Teachers within the eval uation model were surveyed to ascertain the use of research-based teaching practices, prior to and after implementation of the model within their schools. Through the principal and teacher s urveys, the following questions were researched. Is there a significant difference in p rincipals’ perceptions regarding the use of research-based teaching practices prior to and afte r implementation of different teacher evaluation models? Are there are any differences r eflected among the models? Is there a significant difference in teachers’ perceptions reg arding the use of research-based teaching practices prior to and after implementation of diff erent teacher evaluation models? Are any differences reflected among models? Is there a rel ationship between principal and teacher perceptions regarding the use of research-based tea ching practices prior to and after implementation of different teacher evaluation mode ls? Are any relationships more significant in some models than others? Do principal variables of professional development, years of experience, degrees, and type of degrees predict pr incipal perceptions regarding the use of research-based teaching practices of different eval uation models? Based on the findings, this study determined a relationship existed between pri ncipals’ and teachers’ perceived use of research-based teaching practices after the impleme ntation of the teacher evaluation model. However, statistically significant differences did not exist in the principals’ and teachers’ perceptions in the use of research-based teaching p ractices after implementation of the teacher evaluation models. The principal variables of prof essional development, years of experience, degrees, and types of degrees were not predictors i n the perceived use of research-based teaching practices prior to and after implementation of eith er category of teacher evaluation model of RISE Evaluation and Development System or adopted m odels.
    • An Investigation to Determine Influences on Teachers in Indiana School Districts

      Johns, Elizabeth K.
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the influences on teachers, as related to instruction, classroom management, professionalism, and attitude, while considering stage of teaching career, teaching level, and the demographic groups of gender and ethnicity. An analysis was conducted to determine the greatest influences on teachers in the areas of instruction, classroom management, professionalism, and attitude. Additional analysis was conducted to examine if significant differences existed when considering career stage, teaching level, gender, and ethnicity. An analysis was also conducted to test for significant interactions between the main effects of career stage and teaching level for each of the four influences for each of the four constructs. Influences on teachers are important to consider. The research was conducted in this study to further knowledge of influences on teachers in different aspects of teaching, while also considering stage of career, teaching level, gender, and ethnicity. Administrators can strive to improve opportunities for students by knowing what influences teachers. The research design involved a population of 1,786 Indiana K-12 public school teachers. Teacher demographics and beliefs about influences were collected using a 20-item survey. Sixteen items contained prompts for teachers to rate the level of influence exerted from four influences. Teachers assessed the influences by using a Likert-type rating scale. Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics regarding the mean, standard deviation, and frequency of selected items. Significance was identified at the .05 level. In all, 156 teachers of public school teachers responded to the survey instrument, which questioned teachers about what has influenced them. As a result of the analysis, the greatest influences on teachers were discovered in the four constructs of instruction, classroom management, professionalism, and attitude. Analysis was also conducted to consider influences with regard to career stage and teaching level. When considering each of these teaching constructs and the influences within the construct, significance was found in one or more of the 16 possible opportunities in stage of teaching career and teaching level.
    • Are college student success courses effective corequisites to developmental mathematics in community colleges?

      Reilly, Karen L.
      The purpose of this study was to examine the differ ences in the achievement rates of developmental mathematics students when a student s uccess course was taken in combination with mathematics. The study investigated changes t hat occurred in the developmental mathematics completion rates of the learners by exa mining age and the course sequence of mathematics in conjunction with a student success c ourse at a large community college in central Florida. Age was of interest as it related to the time lapsed from high school graduation and potential for mathematics atrophy. Course sequence was valued to determine if taking a student success course during or within one year of develop mental mathematics could enhance mathematics course completion. These attributes we re further divided and assessed according to the two specific developmental mathematics courses. Level 1 consisted of learners in deep remediation needing the most basic developmental ma thematics course. Level 2 was composed of people who placed into the developmental mathema tics course just below that of 100-level coursework. The results of the study from multiple analyses of association revealed that developmental mathematics course completion was sig nificantly correlated to student success courses. Students who took a student success cours e as a corequisite to their developmental mathematics course completed their mathematics cour se more often than those who took mathematics alone. Additionally, students in the h igher level developmental mathematics course also performed significantly better when a student success course was taken before but within one year of their developmental mathematics course. In the age groups of participants in the study, st udents who had been out of high school longer did not experience any observable mathematic s atrophy when taking mathematics without a student life skills course. As compared to young er students (20 years of age or younger), older students had a significantly higher course completi on rate. Moreover, all age groups in the study were shown to have benefitted significantly from th e inclusion of a student success course. Younger learners in the lowest level developmental mathematics course, however, benefitted most. This study provides implications for practic es and policies that enhance developmental mathematics course completion and facilitate academ ic momentum to degree completion in community colleges. It also provides insights to e nhance developmental mathematics curriculum success from an approach peripheral to the discipli ne.
    • Barriers to Implementation of RTI at the Secondary Level

      Holsapple, Nancy Jane
      The purpose of the study was to determine if there are differences among building administrators, guidance counselors, and special education directors on a perceived level of implementation of Response to Intervention (RTI) at the secondary level. The study also examined whether or not RTI serves as a predictor of students identified in special education. This study did not find a significant difference between perceptions of Indiana high school counselors, Indiana high school administrators and Indiana special education directors. The study also revealed the six indicators of RTI do not serve as predictors for students who are identified in special education. Of the three groups surveyed, one indicator was consistently identified as being fully knowledgeable in this model; the RTI administers curriculum-based measurements for progress monitoring easily and efficiently.
    • Barriers to Implementation of RTI at the Secondary Level

      Holsapple, Nancy Jane
      The purpose of the study was to determine if there are differences among building administrators, guidance counselors, and special education directors on a perceived level of implementation of Response to Intervention (RTI) at the secondary level. The study also examined whether or not RTI serves as a predictor of students identified in special education. This study did not find a significant difference between perceptions of Indiana high school counselors, Indiana high school administrators and Indiana special education directors. The study also revealed the six indicators of RTI do not serve as predictors for students who are identified in special education. Of the three groups surveyed, one indicator was consistently identified as being fully knowledgeable in this model; the RTI administers curriculum-based measurements for progress monitoring easily and efficiently.
    • CAD associate degree programs in public post-secondary eduaction.

      Duan, Xin-Ran
      This study investigated what community colleges were teaching in CAD associate degree programs in manufacturing and construction fields, and what knowledge and skills were required to empower CAD students to become successful in the workplace. In order to better meet business and industry needs, a model curriculum for CAD associate degree programs was developed and presented. This model curriculum could more effectively prepare students with the required knowledge and skills for successful employment.A three-round Delphi technique was used to collect data from CAD professors at community colleges and experts in industry. A total of 32 members in the Panel of Institution Experts, and a total of 30 members in the Panel of Industry Experts were selected from 29 states in four regions of the United States using a stratified random sampling method. The analysis of demographic data revealed geographic representation, professional background, and rich experience for the members of the two panels. The study found that AutoCAD was dominant in industry for CAD applications, and AutoCAD was the primary software used for CAD programs at community colleges.Also, the study found that all the surveyed colleges were accredited by six major regional accreditation agencies, and all the colleges were satisfied with program outcomes.In addition, alist of forty-seven items of required knowledge and skills were identified by the two panels, which should be included in the model curriculum as key elements.As a result of the study, a model curriculum, containing a core curriculum with 24 courses in four categories plus suggested general eduaction courses, was validated by the two panels. Thsi ideal curriculum for CAD associate degree programs provided a commbination of solid theoretical foundation, classroom studies, and laboratory practice. To make it deliverable at community colleges, adjustment may be necessary to accommodate general education courses and the core curriculum courses for an individual college.
    • Campus Environment Influence on Women’s Leadership Development at Small Private Institutions

      Weina, Kasie
      The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of women’s leadership and the important influential factors that impact women’s leadership development. Campus environmental factors and gender socialization were examined in an effort to understand women’s leadership identity and development and the potential influences on that development. Data were collected in a semi-structured interview with seven students from two different institutions. Both institutions were private and located in a Midwestern city. One institution had an entire on-campus population of women and the other institution had an on-campus population of 21% women. This study supported the existence of a connection between women’s leadership development, the campus environment, and gender socialization. Perceptions of their leadership were influenced by external factors such as role models, adult and peer affirmation, and the perceptions of others and internal factors such as confidence and initiative. The themes that emerged regarding the campus environmental differences were (a) self-perceptions through language, (b) demonstration of worth, (c) gender versus environment, and (d) expectations for behavior. Overall, the all-women’s institutional environment was perceived as more flexible and less dependent on gender socialization than the male-dominated institutional environment, which supports that the campus environment is an influential factor in how women perceive leadership.
    • Capacities facilitating school change involving project-based learning at the middle school level

      Browder, Lee Shane
      With schools continuing to fall short of No Child Left Behind standards and with future challenges just around the corner, educators must identify and make positive changes in schools. Researchers must work to recognize and exhibit how student achievement is fostered and inform educators of options on how to move in a positive direction according to research. The purpose of this qualitative, multiple-site case study was to examine what capacity-building factors were in middle schools identified as successfully implementing project-based learning. This study focused on the capacities that are consistently implemented leading to successful school change with the Schools to Watch®. The Schools to Watch® sample of three schools was purposefully selected with respect to this designation itself, as membership in that group served as a quality-assurance mechanism that participating schools strove to be high-performing, challenging to all students, infused with rigorous curriculum, imbued with rich instruction, and staffed with teachers who were trained at the highest levels with outstanding supports. These schools had completed rigorous training and development to achieve the status of being a School to Watch® member for the 2012-2013 school year. The sample schools had all addressed the issues of change as they implemented project-based learning during the past few years, since this is a focus of the Schools to Watch® program. The enrollments of these schools ranged from 255 to 915 and included Grades 5 through 8. This study focused on the capacity-building initiatives that occur within the building as a component when implementing school change. In doing so, it strived to answer the question, “What components of capacity building are essential when implementing selected school change?” Sub-questions included the following: 1.What capacities are needed to implement project-based learning at the middle school level? 2.What leadership characteristics are valuable to building capacities in implementing project-based learning at the middle school level? 3.What are the keys to sustaining successful change after implementation of project-based learning at the middle school level? This study focused on the use of interviews, observations, and document analysis to examine school capacity at the middle school level. This process created consistent results that indicated that these schools consistently focused on the personal sphere through a “we-centeredness,” through an interpersonal sphere with respect to coaching, and through the organizational sphere with respect to data, which worked together in the context of high-level school functioning.In the three conclusions, the focus was on creating better relationships that could enhance and expand upon a we-centered approach, using talent scouting and teambuilding to further the notion of leader-as-coach in school operation, and reconceptualizing the structures and operations of schools to maximize the opportunity to use data to increase the professional capacities within a school.
    • Chinese international student orientation to a U.S. public institution of higher education

      Lin, Yi
      The purpose of the present study was to gather information that would inform international student advisors about ways to create a new international student orientation program that would facilitate a successful cultural transition from Chinese culture to U.S. culture. Different language, different culture, different educational philosophy, different educational system s, different requir ement s , and different expectation s challenge Chinese international students in academic study and personal development dur ing their time as an international student in the United States. Cultural surprise and culture shock in the host environment confront them as they work to understand and operate within the values and norms of U.S. culture. Making a successful cross - cultura l transition in the classroom and in the wider society promotes the ultimate goal of attaining skills needed to lead the future of the world community. With targeted orientation activities and educational interventions, Chinese international students can i ncrease their self - awareness and intercultural sensitivity, and reduce the time needed for successful adjustment in the host culture. Developing skills in intercultural sensitivity promotes student development in personality, attitudes, and beliefs . Chines e international students can recognize, respect, accept, and appreciate the value of cultural differences to their advantage. A successful study abroad experience helps them increase their intercultural competence and enables them to flourish in the vibran t U.S. campus culture. Interacting with culturally confident Chinese international students, U.S. students can also increase their multicultural competence
    • Communication Satisfaction and its Relationship to Organizational Commitment Among Secondary Teachers in Kuwait

      Alanezi, Ahmad Salamah
      The purposes of the study were to examine the level of communication satisfaction and to investigate the relationship between communication satisfaction and four teachers’ demographic variables; gender, nationally, years of experience, and school district. Moreover, the study aimed to detect the relationship between communication satisfaction factors and organizational commitment among secondary teachers in the state of Kuwait. The applied instruments were Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) and Downs’s Commitment Scale (2008). Data for this study was collected from 465 secondary teachers who successfully completed the instruments. Descriptive data revealed that the majority of the sample was satisfied with communication within their schools. Also, t-test analysis revealed that there was no obvious difference between male and female teachers in their communication satisfaction. However, there was a significant difference between Kuwaiti and Non-Kuwaiti teachers. Furthermore, a one-way ANOVA test did not show a significant relationship between communication satisfaction, and both years of experience, and school district. Finally, a Multiple Regression analysis exposed that the following communication factors were the best to predict commitment; supervisor communication, media quality, horizontal communication, and communication with subordinates in addition to a strong predictable relationship between the overall scores of communication satisfaction and commitment was identified.
    • County superintendency in Indiana

      Fox, Crawford
      Not Available.
    • Culture in Successful Title I Middle Schools

      Lautenschlager, Bruce C.
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the culture of successful Indiana public Title I middle schools. This study examined differences in similar schools of poverty achieving adequate yearly progress as defined by No Child Left Behind. The study explored the cultural differences that allow for student success using middle schools with student populations from urban and rural areas. Schools at the middle level showing student success and growth as defined by adequate yearly progress should exhibit a school culture with a high degree of collaboration among the school staff. Schools showing little student growth or no student growth should show a somewhat negative relationship among staff which, to a degree, defines the school’s culture. Common themes which emerged from this study were  clean and well-maintained building and grounds,  school pride,  school community trusts school,  minimal turnover,  traditions passed to younger staff,  trust among staff,  data guides instruction, and  Title I not a label.
    • Cyberbullying and How It Impacts Schools

      Choucalas, Vida Zoe
      With all of its many benefits to humanity, one of the consequences of the Internet age is a far more pervasive and potentially damaging version of bullying called cyberbullying, which can also be referred to as ebullying, electronic bullying, cyberviolence, digital bullying, electronic harassment, and online harassment. Cyberbullying is being cruel to others by sending or posting harmful material or engaging in other forms of social cruelty using digital technologies. Because most children and young adults are computer literate and have access to a range of digital communication tools, cyberbullying has the potential to have more severe consequences than traditional bullying. This potential means that schools must find comprehensive approaches to combat the effects of cyberbullying, as it also undermines school climate and the safe and supportive environment that fosters student learning. The purpose of this research study was to gain a better understanding of the differing perceptions of cyberbullying based on the views of students, parents, educators, and school administrators. An Internet survey was used to gather information from groups of students, parents, and school staff of varying age groups, backgrounds, and locations. It was adapted from previously conducted surveys with several questions added for this specific project (Hinduja et al., 2009; Rogers, 2010; Trolley & Hanel, 2010; Willard, 2007b). The results of the study indicated that the perceptions of students, parents, educators, and administrators varied significantly in many issues. The most significant variations between subgroups occurred when looking at students’ willingness to talk to any adult when they or others are being cyberbullied. Another significant variation was seen between administrators and the other subgroups when looking at training of all stakeholders pertaining to cyberbullying and a school staff’s ability to identify and appropriately address cyberbullying. Results indicated that even school staff seemed to be in the dark about what, if any, policy or process their school district had in place to handle cyberbullying. As authority figures who are in the trenches with the students day after day, educators might have a better handle even than parents on students’ school personae, social hierarchies, and the ever-changing affiliations that bloom and wilt before their eyes in classrooms and hallways. This makes it imperative that they know what is in place to help them take care of their students and help keep the school environment safe.