• An Analysis of the Financial Aid and Political Consequences experienced by School corporations when closing a School or Consolidating Schools

      Morikis, Peter
      The purpose of this study was to identify the common consequences experienced by school corporations when closing or consolidating schools. The primary focus of the study was to identify the financial and political consequences experienced by school corporations when closing a school closing or consolidating schools. Specific questions regarding district facilities, district personnel, district expenditures, and district educational programs were asked. Four superintendents for this study were selected from a sampling of Indiana school corporations who had experienced declining enrollments and a school closure or consolidation. Once identified, superintendents were interviewed to determine the financial and political consequences experienced when closing a school or consolidating schools. After a review of the literature and obtaining the perspective of superintendents through interviews, the researcher was able to discover many common themes school corporations faced when closing or consolidating schools. Those themes can be found in the following statements: 1. There was community conflict that was generated when a neighborhood school closed. 2. Teacher associations were very protective of positions and were hesitant to agree to staff reductions. 3. The financial condition of the district was a strong consideration when contemplating a school closing or consolidation. 4. Administrative staff reductions were an integral part of working through the school closure or consolidation process. 5. Board members were reluctant to move ahead with a school closure or consolidation. 6. Non-certified personnel positions were eliminated during the closure or consolidation process. The literature review and accompanying interviews also helped answer the Grand Tour questions that prompted this research study. The answers to the Grand Tour questions follow: 1. There are significant financial and political consequences when closing a school or consolidating schools. 2. There are significant financial and political consequences to school districts when closing or consolidating schools. 3. There are significant consequences to district facilities, district personnel, and district expenditures when closing or consolidating schools. 4. There are few consequences to programs when closing or consolidating schools. The results presented above demonstrated consequences school corporations experienced when closing a school or consolidating schools.
    • An investigation of research-based teaching practices through the teacher evaluations in Indiana public schools

      Sargent, Michael Steven
      The purpose of this study was to identify if a rela tionship existed between the implementation of professional evaluation processes and the use of re search-based teaching practices, factoring in both perceptions of principals and practicing teach ers. The variables of professional development on the evaluation model and the princip al’s years of experience, degrees contained, and types of degrees were factored into the analysi s. For this study, principals were surveyed to identify the teacher evaluation model used in the s chool along with professional development, years of experience, degrees, and types of degrees. In addition, the principals identified the use of research-based teaching practices in the school, prior to and after implementation of the teacher evaluation model. Teachers within the eval uation model were surveyed to ascertain the use of research-based teaching practices, prior to and after implementation of the model within their schools. Through the principal and teacher s urveys, the following questions were researched. Is there a significant difference in p rincipals’ perceptions regarding the use of research-based teaching practices prior to and afte r implementation of different teacher evaluation models? Are there are any differences r eflected among the models? Is there a significant difference in teachers’ perceptions reg arding the use of research-based teaching practices prior to and after implementation of diff erent teacher evaluation models? Are any differences reflected among models? Is there a rel ationship between principal and teacher perceptions regarding the use of research-based tea ching practices prior to and after implementation of different teacher evaluation mode ls? Are any relationships more significant in some models than others? Do principal variables of professional development, years of experience, degrees, and type of degrees predict pr incipal perceptions regarding the use of research-based teaching practices of different eval uation models? Based on the findings, this study determined a relationship existed between pri ncipals’ and teachers’ perceived use of research-based teaching practices after the impleme ntation of the teacher evaluation model. However, statistically significant differences did not exist in the principals’ and teachers’ perceptions in the use of research-based teaching p ractices after implementation of the teacher evaluation models. The principal variables of prof essional development, years of experience, degrees, and types of degrees were not predictors i n the perceived use of research-based teaching practices prior to and after implementation of eith er category of teacher evaluation model of RISE Evaluation and Development System or adopted m odels.
    • An Investigation to Determine Influences on Teachers in Indiana School Districts

      Johns, Elizabeth K.
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the influences on teachers, as related to instruction, classroom management, professionalism, and attitude, while considering stage of teaching career, teaching level, and the demographic groups of gender and ethnicity. An analysis was conducted to determine the greatest influences on teachers in the areas of instruction, classroom management, professionalism, and attitude. Additional analysis was conducted to examine if significant differences existed when considering career stage, teaching level, gender, and ethnicity. An analysis was also conducted to test for significant interactions between the main effects of career stage and teaching level for each of the four influences for each of the four constructs. Influences on teachers are important to consider. The research was conducted in this study to further knowledge of influences on teachers in different aspects of teaching, while also considering stage of career, teaching level, gender, and ethnicity. Administrators can strive to improve opportunities for students by knowing what influences teachers. The research design involved a population of 1,786 Indiana K-12 public school teachers. Teacher demographics and beliefs about influences were collected using a 20-item survey. Sixteen items contained prompts for teachers to rate the level of influence exerted from four influences. Teachers assessed the influences by using a Likert-type rating scale. Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics regarding the mean, standard deviation, and frequency of selected items. Significance was identified at the .05 level. In all, 156 teachers of public school teachers responded to the survey instrument, which questioned teachers about what has influenced them. As a result of the analysis, the greatest influences on teachers were discovered in the four constructs of instruction, classroom management, professionalism, and attitude. Analysis was also conducted to consider influences with regard to career stage and teaching level. When considering each of these teaching constructs and the influences within the construct, significance was found in one or more of the 16 possible opportunities in stage of teaching career and teaching level.
    • Are college student success courses effective corequisites to developmental mathematics in community colleges?

      Reilly, Karen L.
      The purpose of this study was to examine the differ ences in the achievement rates of developmental mathematics students when a student s uccess course was taken in combination with mathematics. The study investigated changes t hat occurred in the developmental mathematics completion rates of the learners by exa mining age and the course sequence of mathematics in conjunction with a student success c ourse at a large community college in central Florida. Age was of interest as it related to the time lapsed from high school graduation and potential for mathematics atrophy. Course sequence was valued to determine if taking a student success course during or within one year of develop mental mathematics could enhance mathematics course completion. These attributes we re further divided and assessed according to the two specific developmental mathematics courses. Level 1 consisted of learners in deep remediation needing the most basic developmental ma thematics course. Level 2 was composed of people who placed into the developmental mathema tics course just below that of 100-level coursework. The results of the study from multiple analyses of association revealed that developmental mathematics course completion was sig nificantly correlated to student success courses. Students who took a student success cours e as a corequisite to their developmental mathematics course completed their mathematics cour se more often than those who took mathematics alone. Additionally, students in the h igher level developmental mathematics course also performed significantly better when a student success course was taken before but within one year of their developmental mathematics course. In the age groups of participants in the study, st udents who had been out of high school longer did not experience any observable mathematic s atrophy when taking mathematics without a student life skills course. As compared to young er students (20 years of age or younger), older students had a significantly higher course completi on rate. Moreover, all age groups in the study were shown to have benefitted significantly from th e inclusion of a student success course. Younger learners in the lowest level developmental mathematics course, however, benefitted most. This study provides implications for practic es and policies that enhance developmental mathematics course completion and facilitate academ ic momentum to degree completion in community colleges. It also provides insights to e nhance developmental mathematics curriculum success from an approach peripheral to the discipli ne.
    • Barriers to Implementation of RTI at the Secondary Level

      Holsapple, Nancy Jane
      The purpose of the study was to determine if there are differences among building administrators, guidance counselors, and special education directors on a perceived level of implementation of Response to Intervention (RTI) at the secondary level. The study also examined whether or not RTI serves as a predictor of students identified in special education. This study did not find a significant difference between perceptions of Indiana high school counselors, Indiana high school administrators and Indiana special education directors. The study also revealed the six indicators of RTI do not serve as predictors for students who are identified in special education. Of the three groups surveyed, one indicator was consistently identified as being fully knowledgeable in this model; the RTI administers curriculum-based measurements for progress monitoring easily and efficiently.
    • Barriers to Implementation of RTI at the Secondary Level

      Holsapple, Nancy Jane
      The purpose of the study was to determine if there are differences among building administrators, guidance counselors, and special education directors on a perceived level of implementation of Response to Intervention (RTI) at the secondary level. The study also examined whether or not RTI serves as a predictor of students identified in special education. This study did not find a significant difference between perceptions of Indiana high school counselors, Indiana high school administrators and Indiana special education directors. The study also revealed the six indicators of RTI do not serve as predictors for students who are identified in special education. Of the three groups surveyed, one indicator was consistently identified as being fully knowledgeable in this model; the RTI administers curriculum-based measurements for progress monitoring easily and efficiently.
    • CAD associate degree programs in public post-secondary eduaction.

      Duan, Xin-Ran
      This study investigated what community colleges were teaching in CAD associate degree programs in manufacturing and construction fields, and what knowledge and skills were required to empower CAD students to become successful in the workplace. In order to better meet business and industry needs, a model curriculum for CAD associate degree programs was developed and presented. This model curriculum could more effectively prepare students with the required knowledge and skills for successful employment.A three-round Delphi technique was used to collect data from CAD professors at community colleges and experts in industry. A total of 32 members in the Panel of Institution Experts, and a total of 30 members in the Panel of Industry Experts were selected from 29 states in four regions of the United States using a stratified random sampling method. The analysis of demographic data revealed geographic representation, professional background, and rich experience for the members of the two panels. The study found that AutoCAD was dominant in industry for CAD applications, and AutoCAD was the primary software used for CAD programs at community colleges.Also, the study found that all the surveyed colleges were accredited by six major regional accreditation agencies, and all the colleges were satisfied with program outcomes.In addition, alist of forty-seven items of required knowledge and skills were identified by the two panels, which should be included in the model curriculum as key elements.As a result of the study, a model curriculum, containing a core curriculum with 24 courses in four categories plus suggested general eduaction courses, was validated by the two panels. Thsi ideal curriculum for CAD associate degree programs provided a commbination of solid theoretical foundation, classroom studies, and laboratory practice. To make it deliverable at community colleges, adjustment may be necessary to accommodate general education courses and the core curriculum courses for an individual college.
    • Campus Environment Influence on Women’s Leadership Development at Small Private Institutions

      Weina, Kasie
      The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of women’s leadership and the important influential factors that impact women’s leadership development. Campus environmental factors and gender socialization were examined in an effort to understand women’s leadership identity and development and the potential influences on that development. Data were collected in a semi-structured interview with seven students from two different institutions. Both institutions were private and located in a Midwestern city. One institution had an entire on-campus population of women and the other institution had an on-campus population of 21% women. This study supported the existence of a connection between women’s leadership development, the campus environment, and gender socialization. Perceptions of their leadership were influenced by external factors such as role models, adult and peer affirmation, and the perceptions of others and internal factors such as confidence and initiative. The themes that emerged regarding the campus environmental differences were (a) self-perceptions through language, (b) demonstration of worth, (c) gender versus environment, and (d) expectations for behavior. Overall, the all-women’s institutional environment was perceived as more flexible and less dependent on gender socialization than the male-dominated institutional environment, which supports that the campus environment is an influential factor in how women perceive leadership.
    • Capacities facilitating school change involving project-based learning at the middle school level

      Browder, Lee Shane
      With schools continuing to fall short of No Child Left Behind standards and with future challenges just around the corner, educators must identify and make positive changes in schools. Researchers must work to recognize and exhibit how student achievement is fostered and inform educators of options on how to move in a positive direction according to research. The purpose of this qualitative, multiple-site case study was to examine what capacity-building factors were in middle schools identified as successfully implementing project-based learning. This study focused on the capacities that are consistently implemented leading to successful school change with the Schools to Watch®. The Schools to Watch® sample of three schools was purposefully selected with respect to this designation itself, as membership in that group served as a quality-assurance mechanism that participating schools strove to be high-performing, challenging to all students, infused with rigorous curriculum, imbued with rich instruction, and staffed with teachers who were trained at the highest levels with outstanding supports. These schools had completed rigorous training and development to achieve the status of being a School to Watch® member for the 2012-2013 school year. The sample schools had all addressed the issues of change as they implemented project-based learning during the past few years, since this is a focus of the Schools to Watch® program. The enrollments of these schools ranged from 255 to 915 and included Grades 5 through 8. This study focused on the capacity-building initiatives that occur within the building as a component when implementing school change. In doing so, it strived to answer the question, “What components of capacity building are essential when implementing selected school change?” Sub-questions included the following: 1.What capacities are needed to implement project-based learning at the middle school level? 2.What leadership characteristics are valuable to building capacities in implementing project-based learning at the middle school level? 3.What are the keys to sustaining successful change after implementation of project-based learning at the middle school level? This study focused on the use of interviews, observations, and document analysis to examine school capacity at the middle school level. This process created consistent results that indicated that these schools consistently focused on the personal sphere through a “we-centeredness,” through an interpersonal sphere with respect to coaching, and through the organizational sphere with respect to data, which worked together in the context of high-level school functioning.In the three conclusions, the focus was on creating better relationships that could enhance and expand upon a we-centered approach, using talent scouting and teambuilding to further the notion of leader-as-coach in school operation, and reconceptualizing the structures and operations of schools to maximize the opportunity to use data to increase the professional capacities within a school.
    • Chinese international student orientation to a U.S. public institution of higher education

      Lin, Yi
      The purpose of the present study was to gather information that would inform international student advisors about ways to create a new international student orientation program that would facilitate a successful cultural transition from Chinese culture to U.S. culture. Different language, different culture, different educational philosophy, different educational system s, different requir ement s , and different expectation s challenge Chinese international students in academic study and personal development dur ing their time as an international student in the United States. Cultural surprise and culture shock in the host environment confront them as they work to understand and operate within the values and norms of U.S. culture. Making a successful cross - cultura l transition in the classroom and in the wider society promotes the ultimate goal of attaining skills needed to lead the future of the world community. With targeted orientation activities and educational interventions, Chinese international students can i ncrease their self - awareness and intercultural sensitivity, and reduce the time needed for successful adjustment in the host culture. Developing skills in intercultural sensitivity promotes student development in personality, attitudes, and beliefs . Chines e international students can recognize, respect, accept, and appreciate the value of cultural differences to their advantage. A successful study abroad experience helps them increase their intercultural competence and enables them to flourish in the vibran t U.S. campus culture. Interacting with culturally confident Chinese international students, U.S. students can also increase their multicultural competence
    • Communication Satisfaction and its Relationship to Organizational Commitment Among Secondary Teachers in Kuwait

      Alanezi, Ahmad Salamah
      The purposes of the study were to examine the level of communication satisfaction and to investigate the relationship between communication satisfaction and four teachers’ demographic variables; gender, nationally, years of experience, and school district. Moreover, the study aimed to detect the relationship between communication satisfaction factors and organizational commitment among secondary teachers in the state of Kuwait. The applied instruments were Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) and Downs’s Commitment Scale (2008). Data for this study was collected from 465 secondary teachers who successfully completed the instruments. Descriptive data revealed that the majority of the sample was satisfied with communication within their schools. Also, t-test analysis revealed that there was no obvious difference between male and female teachers in their communication satisfaction. However, there was a significant difference between Kuwaiti and Non-Kuwaiti teachers. Furthermore, a one-way ANOVA test did not show a significant relationship between communication satisfaction, and both years of experience, and school district. Finally, a Multiple Regression analysis exposed that the following communication factors were the best to predict commitment; supervisor communication, media quality, horizontal communication, and communication with subordinates in addition to a strong predictable relationship between the overall scores of communication satisfaction and commitment was identified.
    • County superintendency in Indiana

      Fox, Crawford
      Not Available.
    • Culture in Successful Title I Middle Schools

      Lautenschlager, Bruce C.
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the culture of successful Indiana public Title I middle schools. This study examined differences in similar schools of poverty achieving adequate yearly progress as defined by No Child Left Behind. The study explored the cultural differences that allow for student success using middle schools with student populations from urban and rural areas. Schools at the middle level showing student success and growth as defined by adequate yearly progress should exhibit a school culture with a high degree of collaboration among the school staff. Schools showing little student growth or no student growth should show a somewhat negative relationship among staff which, to a degree, defines the school’s culture. Common themes which emerged from this study were  clean and well-maintained building and grounds,  school pride,  school community trusts school,  minimal turnover,  traditions passed to younger staff,  trust among staff,  data guides instruction, and  Title I not a label.
    • Cyberbullying and How It Impacts Schools

      Choucalas, Vida Zoe
      With all of its many benefits to humanity, one of the consequences of the Internet age is a far more pervasive and potentially damaging version of bullying called cyberbullying, which can also be referred to as ebullying, electronic bullying, cyberviolence, digital bullying, electronic harassment, and online harassment. Cyberbullying is being cruel to others by sending or posting harmful material or engaging in other forms of social cruelty using digital technologies. Because most children and young adults are computer literate and have access to a range of digital communication tools, cyberbullying has the potential to have more severe consequences than traditional bullying. This potential means that schools must find comprehensive approaches to combat the effects of cyberbullying, as it also undermines school climate and the safe and supportive environment that fosters student learning. The purpose of this research study was to gain a better understanding of the differing perceptions of cyberbullying based on the views of students, parents, educators, and school administrators. An Internet survey was used to gather information from groups of students, parents, and school staff of varying age groups, backgrounds, and locations. It was adapted from previously conducted surveys with several questions added for this specific project (Hinduja et al., 2009; Rogers, 2010; Trolley & Hanel, 2010; Willard, 2007b). The results of the study indicated that the perceptions of students, parents, educators, and administrators varied significantly in many issues. The most significant variations between subgroups occurred when looking at students’ willingness to talk to any adult when they or others are being cyberbullied. Another significant variation was seen between administrators and the other subgroups when looking at training of all stakeholders pertaining to cyberbullying and a school staff’s ability to identify and appropriately address cyberbullying. Results indicated that even school staff seemed to be in the dark about what, if any, policy or process their school district had in place to handle cyberbullying. As authority figures who are in the trenches with the students day after day, educators might have a better handle even than parents on students’ school personae, social hierarchies, and the ever-changing affiliations that bloom and wilt before their eyes in classrooms and hallways. This makes it imperative that they know what is in place to help them take care of their students and help keep the school environment safe.
    • Daddy, can we play Beatles rock band? The lived experiences of a married student with children in a cohort-based education doctoral program

      Thomas, Tony J.
      The purpose of this research is to understand more clearly the lived experiences of married doctoral students with children who are enrolled in a cohort - based program. Attempting to maintain a strong family relationship, balance a career, enr oll in a doctoral program, and provide for a family is an avalanche of emotion and pressure on all members of the family. All facets of family relationships that have been strained need to be relieved of stressors and more focus needs to be on the family during each semester. With the time commitment caused by classes, studying, and through the dissertation process, family relationships can be torn apart by the lack of attention to the family. The ability of a doctoral student to survive the outside stra ins of life is increasingly difficult (Gardner, 2009; Madrey, 1983) . This qualitative, phenomenological study examined the lived experiences of married studen ts with children under 18 years old, in a cohort - based doctoral program at a Midwestern research university. Data were collected from a purposeful sample of 10 participants who had bee n students in a doctoral cohort - based program between 1998 and 2009. The chosen participants were enrolled in th e cohort based doctoral program but did not need to hav e graduated. An analysis of the data elicited five themes: support — “can I do this alone?” the effect of a doctoral program on the marital relationship, walkin’ the tightrope: balancing it all, filling the gender gap, and advice for present and future doc toral students who are married with children . This study recognized challenges and opportunities to better understand married doctoral students with children. It also recognized that with communication, cooperation, and compassion, the married doctoral student with children can have a successful academic a career and maintain a strong family relationship. The findings of this study aim to serve as a guide not only for married doctoral students with children but also for spouses, families, mentor s, program faculty, dissertation chairs, friends, and coworkers. The experiences of married doctoral students with children are not only unique, they are also inspirational. It is vital more research on this topic should occur and subsequent finding s are discovered to allow similar students to persist toward their educational endeavors and allow for their family relationships to remain strong and thrive.
    • Development of an Instrument to Measure Faculty Adherence to the Norms Of Science

      Motycka, Eric D.
      The norms of science of Communalism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, and Organized Skepticism provide a framework for understanding and examining faculty activity related to the triple helix of university, industry, and government relations. Despite the increase in scholarship regarding faculty and the norms of science, there is a lack of research focused on measuring faculty adherence to the norms that is psychometrically valid and reliable. The goal of this dissertation was to contribute to the literature by developing and testing such an instrument. This instrument differentiates among the norms of Organized Skepticism, Universalism, Commercialism, and Scientific Puritanism, the latter two being refined labels that captured the questions involved with those scales. The instrument‘s psychometric properties demonstrated both construct validity and internal reliability via field testing with 290 faculty at United States Midwestern research universities.
    • Educational Referendum Voting in Ohio Based on District Size, Socio-Economic Status, and Median Income

      Galovic IV, Thomas A.
      The purpose of this study was to identify the successful tax levy votes for capital project referendums in Ohio over the past 17 elections and correlate those with the socio-economic level, median income, and district enrollment in which the votes took place. This will serve as a guide to predict what school districts in Indiana would have successful capital project referendum votes based on the Ohio results. The study used data provided directly from the Ohio Department of Education in regards to the levy votes and the poverty level of the school districts over the past 17 elections from school years spanning 2004-2009. Once data were compiled, a threshold was developed of the frequency of success rates of the votes relative to poverty level, median income, and enrollment.
    • Effect of Urine Agitation on Measurements of Hydration Status.

      Adams, Heather
      Hypohydration can have significant implications on physiological functions of the body and has the potential to decrease level of performance. In addition to performance decrements, hypohydration can also lead to increased thermal and cardiovascular strain. As a preventative measure athletic trainers are commonly required to attain urine specimen samples to assess athlete hydration status for weight checks and monitoring body mass losses. Unfortunately, immediate examination of urine samples is not always possible. As the urine sample sits, sedimentation develops. No current literature addresses the sedimentation of urine samples and what procedures should be performed to ensure an accurate hydration assessment. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine if agitation of urine samples is comparable to the criterion measure, urine osmolality measured within two hours of collection. DESIGN: We used a descriptive diagnostic validity test design to investigate the effects of agitation of urine samples on the measure of hydration status. SETTING: Biochemical Research Laboratory at Indiana State University. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-five healthy participants (41 males, 34 females; mean age=22±5years; mean self-reported height=172±23cm and mass=77±17kg) recruited from a university campus provided one or more samples (total samples=81). INTERVENTION: The independent variable was agitation type with 3 levels: vortex mixed, hand shaken, and no agitation. Following recruitment, participants completed the informed consent and a short health questionnaire to rule out any exclusion criteria such as kidney disease, diabetes, etc. Participants were provided with a clean specimen cup and were asked to provide a sample. Large samples were encouraged as they were then split evenly into three cups and labeled according to participant number and agitation type. Hand shaken samples were shaken 10 times in an hourglass fashion, from right side up to up side down. Vortex samples were placed on the vortex mixer for 10 seconds. Non-agitation samples were not disturbed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Urine osmolality, as measured by a freezing point depression osmometer was used to determine hydration status within two hours of specimen collection and again after 48 hours. Agitation was only performed prior to the second measurement of hydration status, after 48 hours had passed. A one-way ANOVA was performed to compare the two methods of agitation against the criterion control. RESULTS: No significant differences were identified (F3,316 = 0.00027, p =0.99, 1-β=1.00) between the no agitation (mean=724±262), hand shaken(mean=723±263) and vortex (mean=724±263) methods when compared to the criterion control(mean=723±262). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study demonstrated no differences in hydration status measurements between the two agitation methods and the control. For practitioners who are unable to immediately measure the hydration status of urine samples, agitation of the urine specimen is not necessary in order to obtain a valid measure of hydration status using an osmometer.
    • Effective Educational Leadership Attributes of Indiana High School Principals

      Perry, Bryan A.
      The purpose of this study was to gain insight about high school principals who are considered effective by organizations and institutions in the state of Indiana. Through a qualitative study, five Indiana high school principals participated in an interview with 26 structured questions. The participants were selected based on recommendations from major Indiana universities granting administrative licensure and the Indiana Association of School Principals. The participants could serve in rural, urban, or suburban districts in Indiana. Gender, race, or ethnic differences were not considered. State and federal test results were not a deciding factor for selection. There were five conclusions as a result of this study: 1. The preparation program establishes a solid base for aspiring principals regardless of program or internship. In addition, new principals benefit from an informal mentor. 2. Increased accountability is seen as a positive rather than a negative by effective principals. 3. Effective Indiana high school principals adapt their leadership skills to meet the demands necessary to lead successful schools. 4. Effective Indiana high school principals are optimistic people. 5. Stress is an accepted part of the job for Indiana high school principals.