• Hope and Spirituality and Their Relationship to The Overall Quality of Life in Cancer Patients

      Burt, Nathaniel
      In this study, hope, spirituality, stage of cancer, age, and gender were explored as predictors of the quality of life perceived by 100 cancer patients. The instruments used were the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy—Spirituality Well-Being, the Herth Hope Index, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy. The patients were being treated at two oncology medical centers in the mid-western region of the United States. The main findings indicated a predictive relationship between spirituality, hope, stage of cancer, age, gender, and quality of life. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis, using quality of life as a dependent variable and spirituality, hope, stage of cancer, age, and gender as independent variables, indicated that patients with a high level of hope and spirituality and an earlier cancer stage reported having a greater quality of life. Age and gender had no significant predictive relationship with patient quality of life. Further findings indicated that spirituality and hope were positively correlated. Hope and stage of cancer, as well as spirituality and stage of cancer were found not to be significantly related, suggesting that neither hope nor spirituality significantly change as a result of the stage of cancer. The results of this study have implications concerning the relevance of hope and spirituality in the treatment of cancer patients and the impact of hope and spirituality on cancer patients' perceived quality of life.
    • Relationship between First Year Success Programs and Second-Year Persistence

      Rupley, Elissa
      Much research has been conducted on the success and retention of first-year students. Little research has been done on second-year students and their experiences. This study was completed to understand the experience of second year students.The purpose of this research study was to explore the attitudes, perceptions, and experiences of current second-year students who participated in the Academic Opportunity Program at Indiana State University to determine if the skills gained during the program transfer to the second-year. Focus groups were conducted to collect data. The results revealed that while the Academic Opportunity Program at Indiana State University is a great opportunity for many students there are changes that could benefit many of the students. Results indicated that motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation, is a key factor in student success and retention.
    • The Black Body as a Counterspace: The Experiences of African American Students at a Predominantly White Institution

      Jones-Malone, Dionne LaShell
      This qualitative study examines the use of counterspaces by eight upperclassman African American students at a predominantly White institution. This study sought to identify how counterspaces were used by African American students and how those counterspaces foster a sense of belonging for students. Field observations and semi-structured, in-depth interviews were utilized as the qualitative techniques for data collection. Based upon the analysis of data, four major themes emerged: (a) the participants‘ impressions of student involvement; (b) the participants‘ encounters with microaggressions; (c) the utilization of individuals as academic and social counterspaces; and (d) the participants‘ comfort with ―being yourself.‖ The findings of the study resulted in implications and recommendations for higher education. In addition, the findings generated recommendations for future research and practice.
    • The Indiana Public School Dropout Dilemma Differences in Superintendents' Perceptions

      Adams, David Albert
      This quantitative study examined Indiana public school superintendents‘ perspectives of efficacy toward the student dropout dilemma. A survey was administered to a random sample of Indiana superintendents, and an analysis was made to investigate whether superintendents in Indiana believe that there is an internal or external locus of control (efficacy) concerning the dropout issue. Further examination was made to determine if superintendent opinions towards efficacy differ by school geographic location (rural, suburban, town, metropolitan), socioeconomic status of the community (percent of students on free and reduced lunch), or superintendents‘ age. The study also compared superintendent opinions concerning the dropout issue with those of teachers and principals as reported in Bridgeland, Dilulio, and Balfanz (2009) to see if their opinions correspond. Analysis of variance was computed for the variables of interest to identify significant difference between groups. An ANOVA was run on each research question. A factorial ANOVA was then run to determine whether significant main or interaction effects exist between the independent variables. The statistical analysis showed moderate efficacy among Indiana superintendent concerning student dropouts. The ANOVA and Factorial ANOVA showed insufficient evidence to conclude that significant differences exist between different groups of superintendents based on geographic location, free and reduced lunch populations, or age of the superintendent. The examination of superintendent responses to survey questions showed similar responses to those of teachers and principals on the national study. A general discussion is presented on the conclusions of the research with recommendations made for reducing the dropout rate and further research on the topic.
    • Student Plagiarism and The Use of a Plagiarism Detection Tool by Community College Faculty

      Thurmond, Bradley H.
      This study sought to better inform community college administrators and faculty regarding possible factors that contribute to higher levels of student plagiarism and to suggest appropriate preventative or responsive interventions. The specific purpose of the study was to investigate a set of faculty related factors that may be associated with particular levels of plagiarism. The specific research questions were as follows: 1. Are there particular instructor related factors that are associated with the level of suggestive plagiarism that occurs in the community college classroom? 2. Is there a difference in suggestive plagiarism based upon the campus on which the faculty member teaches? 3. How do faculty who use TII think about plagiarism and their role in educating students on how to properly cite works and avoid it? The quantitative portion of this mix-methods study found no statistical significance between the dependent variable of suggestive plagiarism and the independent variables of class level, instructor age, instructor gender, instructor employment status (full-time or part-time), years since hire, academic division and campus. The qualitative portion of the study interviewed nine faculty users of TII and revealed several convergent and divergent themes. The convergent themes were plagiarism due to ignorance vs. intentionality, lack of student objections to the use of TII, lack of faculty difficulty using TII, impact on teaching strategies, and replacement of TII with an alternative tool. The two divergent themes were faculty experience with training in the use of TII and the extent to which faculty sought to teach their students about plagiarism. The study offers implications for practice and policy as well as limitations and opportunities for future research.
    • Relationships Between Supervisory Behaviors and School Climate as Perceived by Secondary School Teachers in the State of Kuwait

      Alhajeri, Salem
      This study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of secondary school teachers of their principals‟ supervisory behaviors and of their schools‟ climate. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between supervisory behaviors and school climate in Kuwaiti secondary schools. Data was collected using two surveys. Bulach, Boothe, and Michael‟s (1999) survey was used to assess supervisory behaviors of principals as perceived by teacher. The School Climate Survey, which was developed by Gruenert (2008), was used to assess school climate. The participants of the study consisted of 575 male and female secondary school teachers from six school districts. The participants were selected randomly. The study results revealed that there were significant differences in perceived supervisory behaviors based on gender and district. Female teachers‟ perceived their female principals‟ ability in supervisory behaviors to be higher than male teachers viewed their principals. Also, there were significant differences in school climate based on gender and district. Male teachers‟ perceptions were more positive toward school climate than female teachers‟ perceptions.‟ Significant correlation was found between supervisory behaviors and school climate. Implications for findings and recommendations for future research are discussed.
    • Development of an Instrument to Measure Faculty Adherence to the Norms Of Science

      Motycka, Eric D.
      The norms of science of Communalism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, and Organized Skepticism provide a framework for understanding and examining faculty activity related to the triple helix of university, industry, and government relations. Despite the increase in scholarship regarding faculty and the norms of science, there is a lack of research focused on measuring faculty adherence to the norms that is psychometrically valid and reliable. The goal of this dissertation was to contribute to the literature by developing and testing such an instrument. This instrument differentiates among the norms of Organized Skepticism, Universalism, Commercialism, and Scientific Puritanism, the latter two being refined labels that captured the questions involved with those scales. The instrument‘s psychometric properties demonstrated both construct validity and internal reliability via field testing with 290 faculty at United States Midwestern research universities.
    • The Impact of Remedial Education on Nursing Student Success

      Peters, Laurie F.
      The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of remedial education on nursing student success. This quantitative, retrospective study utilized Alexander Astin’s (1993) Input-Environment-Outcomes (I-E-O) model to explore the relationship between demographic variables (inputs) and the number and type of remedial courses taken (environmental variables) on final cumulative grade point average (GPA) and first-time pass rates on the NCLEX-RN state licensure examination (outcomes). The study examined 1,678 associate degree nursing (ADN) graduates between 2004 and 2007 in a state-wide community college system. The analysis identified MAT 050/Basic Algebra as the only remedial course to have the statistical power to be included in the model as a predictor of final cumulative GPA. However, the model only accounted for .4% of the variance indicating there are other factors influencing students’ GPA besides the MAT 050 course. Results suggest that female students are less likely to need remediation in ENG 032/Reading Strategies for College II and more likely to need remediation in MAT 050/Basic Algebra. Ethnicity and age were found to be weak predictors of final cumulative GPA and pass/fail performance on the NCLEX-RN examination. Number and type of remedial courses showed no statistically significant, predictive relationships with pass/fail rates on the NCLEX-RN examination. Understanding the impact of remedial education on nursing student success can ultimately influence the number of nurses available to meet the needs of an aging population.
    • Juggling Toddlers, Teens, and Tenure: The Personal and Professional Realities of Women on the Tenure Track with Children

      Sipes, Jennifer Lynn Baker
      The purpose of this study was to understand the personal and professional experiences of women faculty on the tenure track with children. Despite more than 30 years of conversation about gender equity since the passage of Title IX as part of the Education Amendments of 1972, an inverse relationship persists between the prestige of an academic rank and the percentage of women in that rank. Recent research has drawn attention to differences in marital and family status between men and women faculty in higher education, suggesting that childrearing may serve as an impediment to the career advancement of women faculty in higher education. Discovering and understanding the lived experiences of women on the tenure track with children is critical to the recruitment and retention of talented women faculty. Utilizing a qualitative phenomenological approach, this study examined the unique stories of eight purposefully selected women faculty with children under the age of 18. Participants were selected from three Midwestern universities. Participant demographics varied by institutional type, academic rank, academic field, relationship status, age of children, and ethnicity/nationality. An analysis of the experiences of the participants in this study yielded five themes: enjoying it all…with some compromises, departmental support, sharing 50/50 at home, outside support systems, and challenges. This study recognized challenges for mothers in academia, but emphasized that mothers can be both successful and happy in the academy. The findings of this study serve as an encouragement to women who desire motherhood and a career in academia. Though some personal and professional decisions of academic mothers may need to be purposeful, the academy potentially offers a positive environment for balancing career and family. Because of the challenges faced by the participants in this study, the findings may also be used to influence institutional and departmental policies related to work and family.
    • The Effects of Using PBWorks in a Hybrid Collaborative Class Environment on Students' Academic Achievement

      Ibrahim, Abdullah
      E-learning plays an important role in higher education, especially with the appearance of web 2.0. The study investigated the effects of using PBWorks, as a free web 2.0 wiki, on students’ academic achievement, and students’ attitudes toward collaborative learning. The study was designed as an experimental study. There was comparison between two groups. These groups were the PBWorks hybrid class environment, and face-to-face class environment. Both classes used collaborative learning. The participants in this study were 51 female students in Educational Communication Aids. Both classes had the same instructor and they studied the same material. This study was conducted in the college of education in Kuwait University. The results of the study showed that there was not a significant difference in the post academic achievement test. However, the PBWorks group made more progress than the face-to-face group when we consider the pre-test. On the other hand, the result of the students’ attitudes toward collaborative learning showed there was a significant difference in the post-test in all six variables, which were monitoring working procedures, participation, monitoring group progress, helping each other, giving feedback, and the need to be monitored, and the face-to-face group had higher attitudes toward collaborative learning than the PBWorks group. Finally, one of the most important advantages of this study was that both groups had a positive increase in the academic achievement test and questionnaire that assessed attitudes toward collaborative learning.
    • Virtual schools and the affective domain

      Tucker, Kimberly J.
      The intent of this qualitative study was to explore the following research questions: Does online instruction differ from traditional classroom instruction in regard to the development of affective learning? What emphasis is placed on developing a ffective skills in the traditional versus the virtual classroom? What instructional techniques are common or different toward developing affective learning in comparison of the traditional and virtual classroom? What specific types of lessons, activities , and assessments do teachers in each format use to ensure affective learning? What perceptions do teachers in the traditional and virtual classroom have with regard to affective learning and the implications with present and future learning in the affect ive domain through online instruction? Purposeful sampling was utilized to select five traditional classroom teachers and five virtual classroom teachers from Illinois. The state of Illinois was selected because in addition to academic learning standards , the Illinois Department of Education provides specific standards for social and emotional learning (SELS) in all grades. Three themes identified within the data include d : acknowledg ment and valu e of the impact of teacher immediacy on student learning, c ommitment to providing affective learning opportunities within the curriculum, and teacher perceptions about affective learning in online education. The responses showed that teachers in both settings acknowledged that affective learning was highly valued in their instructional program s . Interview analysis showed that teachers in the traditional and virtual settings were aware of the importance of providing affective support and developing affective skills in the classroom. Interview analysis show ed that there were many similarities between traditional and virtual curriculum in the development of instructional methodology to develop affective learning . The perspectives about online v er s us traditional education were sharply divided along the lines of teac her experience within the virtual platform. Traditional teachers did not believe that the virtual teacher or the virtual classroom could provide the necessary supports to build affective learning. Virtual teachers were much more amenable to online learni ng. Their perceptions were based on their described successes in the virtual classroom. They reflected on their efforts to build in affective supports and to implement instructional methodology which they believed were successful in developing their stud ents in terms of the academic and affective domains. Overall, the study showed that virtual schools and virtual teachers do place significant emphasis on affective learning and that their overall pedagogy is similar to that of traditional classrooms and t raditional teachers. Virtual schools have the capacity to impact student affective learning. Research into the impact that virtual schools have on K - 12 students and the affective domain will provide parents with the information needed to place their chil d ren in the best - suited learning environment. It will also provide educators with the data to inform and reform instruction to better meet the needs of all K - 12 learners.
    • You’re Supposed to Care: Faculty Motivations to Incorporate Service Learning into Community College Classrooms

      Katowitz, Carol A.
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the motivations that cause some faculty in community colleges to embrace and actively pursue service learning pedagogy in their classrooms. It also identified the catalysts that move faculty to action in implementing this approach to instruction. The qualitative phenomenological case study approach was used to hear the stories of eight faculty members representing different areas of discipline in eight different campus locations in a Midwestern statewide community college system. Four primary themes and two sub-themes were identified through this study. The primary themes were (a) pedagogical connections to previous school experiences and personal and family values, (b) passion and commitment each faculty member had for this approach to instruction, (c) persistence of the faculty participants to use this approach despite the many barriers they faced, and (d) pleasure these faculty members get from watching their students perform in a service learning setting. The identified sub-themes were (a) bottom-up approach to instruction and (b) ability to take risks with instruction.
    • Principal Perceptions About the Implementation and Effectiveness of Online Learning in Public High Schools in Indiana

      Rayle, Timothy W.
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the principal perceptions and demographic relationship of the implementation and effectiveness of online learning in non-charter Indiana public high schools. An analysis was prepared to determine whether demographic factors played a role in the principal‘s perceptions of the implementation and effectiveness of online learning. Factors examined included school location, school size, technology and support costs, principal‘s age, and principal‘s gender. Principal‘s perceptions were examined because the principal is considered to be the building level educational leader. As such, the principal has a responsibility to provide the students with a sound curriculum that meets their needs individually and collectively. The research design involved a population of 343 non-charter public high school principals serving grades of at least 10 – 12. Principal beliefs in the implementation and effectiveness of online learning were collected using a 44-item survey. Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics regarding the mean, standard deviation, and frequency of selected items. A Pearson product moment correlation and multivariate analysis of variance were used to test the null hypotheses. Significance was identified at the .05 level. In all, 241 principals of non-charter public high schools in Indiana responded to the survey instrument which questioned the perceived level of effectiveness and perceived level of implementation of 15 specific uses of online learning. As a result of the analysis, significant findings were present in the overall perceptions of the implementation and effectiveness of online learning and also in the 15 individual uses of online learning. Significance was also found in one or more of the 15 uses of online learning in regards to the perceived implementation based upon gender, student enrollment, school locality, and the interactions based upon age and gender, and student enrollment and school locality. In addition, significance was found in one or more of the 15 uses of online learning in regards to the perceived effectiveness based upon student enrollment, school locality, and the interactions of enrollment and locality.
    • Effects of Monetary Incentives on Academic Performance of Fourth-Grade Students from Low Socioeconomic Status

      Dafiaghor, Sandra O.
      Scientific investigations of monetary incentives on students‘ academic achievement have not explored effects on performance of students from low socioeconomic status (SES), nor has there been exploration of teachers‘ perceptions of how monetary incentives impact academic performance of students from low socioeconomic status. The present study explored how low SES students perceive their academic performances being impacted by extrinsic monetary incentives. The study also explored the fourth-grade teachers‘ beliefs about the impact of monetary incentive on students‘ academic performance. The study found that students believe monetary incentives will increase academic performance, depending on the size of the cash incentive. The results were mixed for teachers. The findings from this study suggest that there is a need to delve deeper into the concept of cash for grades because of unanswered questions: What amount of money is sufficient, and why are teachers‘ beliefs incongruent with their students‘ beliefs?
    • What Highly Effective Leaders Do During Difficult Times

      Raisor, Michael Louis
      The purpose of this study was to determine what the most highly effective leaders do during difficult times to be successful. The backdrop of the study was the 2009 $300 million cuts to the Indiana K-12 education budget, a uniform crisis that affected all 293 public school districts at the same time. The subjects in this study were those identified as the most highly effective public school superintendents in the state of Indiana. Education authorities across the state were polled and provided recommendations. The results were tabulated and five superintendents distinguished themselves as outliers among their peers. On-site structured interviews were conducted with each of the superintendents. The initial generalized summary findings were then given back to the superintendents for their review and member data checking. The superintendents confirmed the summary findings as accurate representations of their individual philosophy and behaviors. The five outlier superintendents all shared the same basic philosophies and behaviors in relation to leadership during difficult times. The first most telling finding was in regards to crisis leadership. The research found that highly effective leaders do not have a different style of leadership during difficult times. Highly effective leadership behaviors and actions are universal regardless of the circumstance. Highly effective leaders share core philosophies when faced with a difficult time, however once again, these are their philosophies at all times. They believe that within any crisis lies opportunity. They believe that difficult times define leaders and their organization. They believe in finding the best people for the job, communicating their vision, giving autonomy, and then getting out of the way. They believe in the value of networking, collaborating, and the input of their community, including criticism. They believe in leading by example and from the front. They realize that people are looking to them for guidance, leadership, and direction. Highly effective leaders also share universal leadership behaviors. They are constantly planning and preparing for the future. They have a defined process of how they lead and do business and they do not deviate from it. They have a laser-like focus on their organization‟s core business and do not deviate from it. They build trusting relationships with their staff and community. They get out in front of situations by being highly visible and communicating clearly. They are positive and poised. They share accolades and own mistakes. They do not attack problems as a whole, but instead break them down into smaller manageable pieces. They ask a lot of questions and take the time necessary to make a good decision, and then take decisive action.
    • Examination of Quality Indicators in Public and Private Pre-Kindergarten Classrooms in Indiana

      Peterson, Rhonda M.
      The purpose of this study was to examine the current state of pre-kindergarten classrooms in the state of Indiana through the perspectives of public and private pre-kindergarten program directors. Survey results revealed a high concentration of female pre-kindergarten directors within the state of Indiana. Although directors rated their teaching staffs with a high level of early education background, they themselves felt less confident about their backgrounds in this field. Descriptive data also revealed that private student–teacher ratios are smaller, their instructional days are longer, their programs have been established for longer periods of time, and their directors have had longer tenures than their public counterparts. Statistical testing found that directors of public urban schools reported a higher quality rating than suburban and rural pre-kindergarten programs, based on the quality composite score. It was determined that student–teacher ratio and school type (public, private) both served as significant predictors of the quality composite score. It was revealed that as student–teacher ratio increases, the perceived pre-kindergarten quality decreases. Results also showed that pre-kindergarten directors’ perceived quality is less within the private setting than in the public setting, based on the composite quality score. The overarching purpose of this study was to provide an awareness of the potential benefits that quality pre-kindergarten programming could yield for the future citizens of Indiana as a whole and if perceived quality exists to some degree.
    • Summer learning loss: The influence of summer school programs on student achievement in language usage, Math, and Reading

      Bakle, Bradley R.
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze the effects of summer school remediation on elementary student achievement, while controlling for the effects of gender, socio-economic status (SES), and ethnicity, by comparing the differences between pre-test and post-test scores on the Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) for matched pairs (based on pre-test scores) of summer school participants and non-summer school participants for each of five years. The independent variables included summer school participation, gender, SES, and ethnicity.The dependent variables included the student post-test NWEA MAP scores in each of three subject areas (language usage, reading, and math) for each grade level (2–5), in each year of the study. The covariates included the student pre-test NWEA MAP scores in each of the same subject areas and grade levels for each year of the study.Study participants were convenience samples of summer school students and their non-summer school counterparts in grades 2–5 from multiple elementary school sites within a single school district in northeast Indiana. As summer school programming remained the same for each year of the study, scores from each of the five years were combined for analysis according to subject and grade level to lend an overall perspective. For language usage, data was collected for 850 matched pairs of students. For math, there were 828 matched pairs. The study also included 853 matched pairs of students for reading.Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) at the .05 probability level (p=.05) was used to determine if there was a statistically significant difference between student post-test scores for summer school participants and their non-summer school counterparts, while controlling for gender, SES, and ethnicity. In order to isolate the effects of summer school for each grade level (2–5), there were 4 separate analyses, one for each elementary grade level, and 3 sub-analyses within each grade level – reading, language usage and math–leading to a total of 12 sets of ANCOVA analyses.The results of ANCOVA analysis showed a significant interaction effect between summer school participation and SES for both language usage and math in grade 2. However, there were no significant interaction effects or main effects of the independent variables on post-test reading scores for second graders.For third grade, ANCOVA analysis showed a significant interaction effect between summer school participation and SES for language usage. Participation in summer school was shown to have a significant main effect on post-test reading scores with summer school students scoring significantly lower than their non-summer school counterparts.In grade four, ANCOVA analysis revealed a significant interaction effect between summer school participation and gender for language usage. SES showed a significant main effect on post-test math scores, with paid lunch students performing significantly better than their free/reduced lunch peers for both summer school and non-summer school student groups. Participation in summer school was shown to have a significant main effect on post-test reading scores in fourth grade, with summer school students scoring significantly lower than their non-summer school counterparts.For grade five language usage students, each of the main effects of gender, ethnicity, and SES were statistically significant. Ethnicity was shown to have a significant main effect on post-test math scores with White students scoring significantly higher than students of all other ethnicities, regardless of participation in summer school. There were no significant interaction effects or main effects of the independent variables on post-test reading scores for fifth graders.These results indicate a need of review, revision, and refinement at all grade levels (2–5) and in all subjects (language usage, math, and reading) of the summer remediation programming within the study in order to effectively serve the needs of its students. Further, the study serves as a model and a call to action for educational administrators who are ready to engage in an objective analysis of summer school program effectiveness and are willing to embrace whatever shifts in operational or instructional paradigms may be needed for improvement.
    • The Experiences of Working-Class College Students Who Became University Presidents

      Springer, Mary E.
      Working-class students enter college lacking necessary capital to predict their academic and personal success making college success less likely than for middle class students (Bufton, 2003; Mack, 2006; Paulsen & St. John, 2002; Rose, 1997; Wegner, 1973). This same social class origin helps to define experiences, provides context for understanding these experiences, and ultimately can be a strong motivation to succeed. With the help of personal and professional mentors, strong working-class family values, and an innate drive to succeed, the university presidents in this study have survived in a culture in which they did not have the necessary capital to naturally be academically, personally, and professionally successful. With a strong proportion of today’s first-time college students enrolling directly from high school, almost 55% nationally, and almost 40% nationally coming from working-class backgrounds, the university presidents in this study have provided a strong insight into the experiences and culture of working-class college students and those who become university presidents (U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2008).
    • A qualitative study of participation of students in online discussion in mathematics

      Seo, Daeryong
      Despite many recent developm ents in technology, there are still many people who are not fully utilizing advanced technologies to enhance learning. This issue has an impact on K-12 schools as well as higher education and makes a case for the development of better distance education programs, which can assist students in studying more effectively both in and out of the classroom. In particular, online discussion in distance education can encourage students who are having difficulty in solving mathematical word problems on tests. The purpose of this study was to understand the behavior, motivation, and interests of teacher education students who need remediation by means of online discussion in mathematics. In addition, this study aimed at investigating the benefits and drawbacks of online discussion boards when teacher education students participate in online discussions for math remediation as well as the degree to which an expert facilitator impacted the online remediation. For this study, 12 students participated in an online discussion forum related to mathematics word problems, and six students participated in virtual focus group interviews. The participants were divided into two groups: one with an online expert facilitator and one without. The results showed the importance of an online facilitator and social interaction in the online discussion board. Students posted and shared new ideas and opinions and enjoyed their online discussion activities. The reported advantages of the online discussion were no-time and space limitations and the improvement of critical thinking ability, and the reported disadvantages of the online discussion were time lag, only text -based settings, and unfami liar interface as well as the possibility of plagiarism of others’ ideas and opinions. This study took place over a period of one week for online discussion in mathematics word problems. It is hoped that the results of this study will have implications for educators working with distance education settings.