• Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Spirituality: An Intersectional Identity Study

      Birch, Zachary G
      With college students becoming more interested in the spiritual dimensions of their lives (Astin, 2004; Lindholm, 2007), gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) students may have a harder time finding the support to navigate their spiritual selves. Because of this, the intersection of spiritual identity and GLB identity was investigated. Specifically, this study sought to see if students‟ GLB identities affect their spiritual identities, if their spiritual identities affect their GLB identities, and if there was a connection and intersection between the two. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with eight students. This study showed that there could be a relationship between the formation of GLB and spiritual identity. Themes from the interviews were (a) intrapersonal identity, (b) judgments, (c) life changing crises, and (d) moving from independence to interdependence. Additionally, the interviews were connected to Parks‟ (2000) model of young adult faith formation and Fassinger‟s (1998) model of sexual minority identity formation. This research‟s findings offer implications for student affairs and higher educational practice with GLB and spiritual students, as well as potential for further research on spiritual GLB students.
    • Gender differences and retention characteristics for first generation college students.

      Manuel, Ralph Stephen
      The purpose of this study were to determine if any significant differences existed between:a)the retention rate of first generation men and first generation women,b)first generation males and first generation females as measured by the SIQ,c)first generation men who persisted and first generation men who did not persist as measured by the SIQ.d)first generation women who persisted and first generation women who did not persist as measured by the SIQ.The participants of the study were 1026 first generation students who were enrolled at a midwest public university and completed a questionnaire.Additional information was supplied by the university research and testing office.A chi-squared analysis determined there was no difference in retention rates for first generation women and men.A stepwise discriminant analysis was used for the remaining hypotheses.Results showed First generation women and men attend college for different reasons,and men are more tied to financial,occupational and economic goals.Differences existed in what men women viewed as what college is supposed to help you accomplish.The single best predictor of whether a student would be retained or not retained for both the male and female groups was the high school grade point average.
    • Gender Self Concept and Sexual Behavior of Students in Greek-Letter Organizations

      Arthur, Julianne E.
      Originally designed as "gendered clubs" (DeSantis, 2007, p. 19) that reinforce traditional gender roles, modern-day fraternities and sororities create a world where Greek students are exploring what it means to be a sexual being while still maintaining the traditional expectations of what it means to be a man and a woman. "Hooking up" is a common tool that knits Greek sexual behaviors together, allowing for varied perceived levels of promiscuity. Aided by alcohol, expectations from their environment, and their own sex drive, Greek students engage in high-risk sexual behaviors, leading to emotional consequences, increased risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD), or even sexual assault. The conclusion of this research is that students are not conscious of and do not reflect on their gender roles and are therefore subject to engaging in traditional gender roles by default. However, the development of their sexual identities and the social implications thereof seem to play a much more significant role in the lives of Greek students. The social interpretation of sexual behavior influences how students engage in sexual behavior and how they view themselves because of their sexual behavior. Based upon these findings, student affairs professionals may have a more full understanding of how to educate and program for Greek students in regards to healthy relationship development and sexual behavior.
    • Graduation Success: Identifying and Overcoming Challenging Demographic Factors to Reduce High School Dropouts

      Schultz, Robert W.
      The importance of students completing high school with a diploma is the focus of increasing social, economic, and political attention across the United States. Posing a strong challenge to efforts to increase graduation rates are several key demographic factors. This study examines, through a case study, an Indiana high school that overcame the challenge of negative demographic factors to achieve a graduation rate above the state average for four consecutive years (2006-2009). Researching databases maintained by the Indiana Department of Education revealed specific demographic factors that had a strong correlation to graduation rates in Indiana. The four demographic factors with the strongest negative correlation to graduation rates were percent of students on free lunch, percent of students from single parent families, percent of children in district with at risk mothers, and percent of families in district below the poverty level. The high school examined, through the case study in this project, exhibited student numbers at or above the state average in each of those four negative demographic factors and also achieved a graduation rate at or above the state average for the four consecutive years studied. To overcome the challenges of those negative factors, the high school maintains a child-centered focus that seeks to address both affective and academic needs of students. Seizing every opportunity every day to help every child is not only a stated goal, but a pervasive attitude. Two alternative schools, a vocational career center, online classes for credit recovery, smaller classes targeted for at-risk freshmen, after school tutoring programs, and involvement of community resources are some of the programs employed by the school to reduce dropouts. Staff members of the school work cohesively in support of both students and each other. The demonstrated successes of this high school provide models for other high schools to emulate.
    • High School Principals‟ Attitudes toward the Implementation of E-administration in Kuwait‟s Public Schools

      AlShammari, Iqbal Abeid
      The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of high school principals toward the implementation of electronic administration (E-administration) in public schools in Kuwait. To collect data, the researcher used a questionnaire and employed a quantitative technique. The researcher distributed 135 surveys to all high school principals in public schools in Kuwait. The response rate reached 83.7%. Both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were conducted to analyze data. For each variable frequency and percentages were calculated. For all Likert-type scale variables, means and standard deviations were calculated. There was no statistically significant difference between respondents regarding all variables. However, the MANOVA analysis in the current study reported only one significant positive interaction between gender (male and female) and having ICDL (p-value= 0.028). Positive response rates in terms of the advantages, the most important factors enabling the implementation and the main obstacles facing the implementation of E-administration were generally high and may reflect the readiness to implement E-administration. Results from this study may provide baseline information for implementing E-administration in Kuwait and the Middle East. This study suggests that governments and policy makers gradually implement E-administration through a well organized plan. Therefore, a well organized plan should include all factors that enable the implementation. Furthermore, the study recommends that policy makers should offer rich professional development regarding E-administration in order to raise the awareness and acceptance of E-administration implementation. Also, it is recommended that governments provide support, financial aid and more decentralization.
    • High-Fidelity Manikin-Based Simulation: A Study of Implications for Interprofessional Healthcare Practitioner Education at the Associate Degree Level of Study

      Fowler, Luster
      Healthcare practitioner training programs, specifically at the associate degree level of study, have historically focused practitioner training efforts on discipline-specific programming and curricula. However, these institutions have now begun to examine the utility and efficacy of incorporating interprofessional experiences into their programs. One of the current pedagogical approaches being investigated is the use of high-fidelity manikin-based simulation in the training of their healthcare students. This study examined the use of interprofessional high-fidelity versus low-fidelity simulation within associate degree-granting institutions and examined potential differences in self-efficacy and learning outcomes of participants incorporating a preand post-assessment. A convenience sample of 75 students participated in this study, which included associate degree-seeking nursing students (n = 36) and associate degree-seeking respiratory care students (n = 39). Participants were divided into two groups: a high-fidelity group (n = 52) and a lowfidelity group (n = 23). Each group was composed of both nursing and respiratory care students. A subsequent assessment of pre-intervention and post-intervention self-efficacy and learning outcomes was also performed that examined students by course of study, identified as either nursing students or respiratory care students. Differences in self-efficacy between the high-and low-fidelity groups were not significant on pre-assessment or post-assessment, p = .529 and p = .246. Additionally, differences between nursing and respiratory care students were not significant on pre-assessment or post- assessment, p = .079 and p = .779 respectively. Differences in perceived learning outcomes between the high-and low-fidelity groups were not significant on pre-assessment or post-assessment, p = .747 and p = .219. Additionally, differences between nursing and respiratory care students were not significant on pre or postassessment,p = .408 and p = .611 respectively.
    • Hope and Spirituality and Their Relationship to The Overall Quality of Life in Cancer Patients

      Burt, Nathaniel
      In this study, hope, spirituality, stage of cancer, age, and gender were explored as predictors of the quality of life perceived by 100 cancer patients. The instruments used were the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy—Spirituality Well-Being, the Herth Hope Index, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy. The patients were being treated at two oncology medical centers in the mid-western region of the United States. The main findings indicated a predictive relationship between spirituality, hope, stage of cancer, age, gender, and quality of life. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis, using quality of life as a dependent variable and spirituality, hope, stage of cancer, age, and gender as independent variables, indicated that patients with a high level of hope and spirituality and an earlier cancer stage reported having a greater quality of life. Age and gender had no significant predictive relationship with patient quality of life. Further findings indicated that spirituality and hope were positively correlated. Hope and stage of cancer, as well as spirituality and stage of cancer were found not to be significantly related, suggesting that neither hope nor spirituality significantly change as a result of the stage of cancer. The results of this study have implications concerning the relevance of hope and spirituality in the treatment of cancer patients and the impact of hope and spirituality on cancer patients' perceived quality of life.
    • How a principal's knowledge and experience impact literacy achievement for English language learners

      Hardy, Pamela S.
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the impact of the knowledge and experience of elementary principals in the area of best practice in literacy instruction for English language learners (ELLs) and the potential impact on student achievement of ELLs. This study explored the principals’experience in education as a predictor of the principals’ knowledge of best practice in literacy instruction for ELLs and found it was not a predictor. Additionally, this study examined the principals’ experience as a building leader as a predictor of the level of implementation of best practice in literacy instruction for ELLs and found it was not a predictor. This study also examined the relationship between principals’ knowledge of best practice in literacy instruction for ELLs and the level of implementation of these same best practices in literacy instruction for ELLs in the principals' schools. Using a Pearson’s correlation, this study found a strong correlation between the principals’ knowledge of best practice in literacy instruction for ELLs and the schools’ level of implementation of this same best practice. Finally, this study examined the impact of the principals’ experience in education, the principals’ experience as a principal, the principal’s experience in the current school, the level of the principal’s knowledge of best practice in literacy instruction for ELLs, and the level of implementation of these best practices in literacy instruction for ELLs on ELL achievement, as measured with the Grade 3 Indiana Reading Evaluation and Determination (I-READ-3) statewide reading assessment. This study found no impact of these factors on student achievement as measured with the I-READ-3 assessment. This study provides additional information to principals who serve student populations with ELLs. It contributes to the growing body of research in identifying factors of principal characteristics that contribute to student learning and achievement. This research provides additional information to educators about the significance of principals being instructional leaders who serve all students.
    • How do Principals' Behaviors Facilitate or Inhibit the Development of a Culturally Relevant Learning Community?

      Kelley, Gwendolyn Julia
      The primary purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the question: “How do principals facilitate or inhibit the development of a culturally responsive learning environment?” A second question asked, “What is the principal’s role in developing a culturally relevant learning community?” The criteria for purposely selecting the 12 principals chosen for the study included finding principals who served in schools with a 50% or greater non-White population and who also had served a minimum of three years as the school’s leader at the time of the study. Additionally, the schools chosen from various districts around the state showed an upward trend in student performance and growth model data for all of their ethnic groups. Based on a literature review, which provided a cursory view of topics related to understanding cultural competency, questions were formulated that explored what creating a culturally responsive learning community looked like. The interviews revealed many practices that described effective schools and what effective principals do. Five themes emerged in the findings. Linked to each of the findings is a range of five to 11 subthemes. With varying degrees of understanding and implementation, principals in the study demonstrated practices that included (a) having high expectations for all, (b) developing a sense of community, (c) using analysis of data and monitoring/evaluation of staff, (d) providing professional development that addressed cultural competency issues, and (e) promoting awareness and knowledge about cultural proficiency practices. Noting their current progress, all of the principals expressed their desire for their staffs to have more training to increase their levels of cultural proficiency.
    • How Effective Superintendents Select and Develop Principals

      Willman, Robert W. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine how effective superintendents select and develop principals. Through this qualitative study, the perceptions of four superintendents explored several areas: a) the process by which principals are selected which includes qualities desired, interviewing, education, and internal versus external candidates and b) the professional development that takes place after the principal has been selected. The superintendents in the study were located in the state of Indiana and met the study criteria outlined in Chapter 3. The topics of related literature reviewed included the characteristics of instructional leaders, succession management and studies of professional development. In exploring these four superintendents, several elements emerged: a) the establishment of a clearly defined process of selecting principals, b) superintendents prefer to hire principals from within their districts but value external candidates in the process, and c) professional development for principals should be both global to the needs of the district as well as specific to their strengths and weaknesses. Insight gained from this study should assist superintendents in their efforts to create a selection process and a direction for professional development of principals that will work for their school districts.

      Hartlage, Kimberly C. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore educational elements that explain how high-achieving elementary schools improve struggling readers. The perceptions of the principals and teachers in three high achieving elementary schools were investigated in three areas of interest: (a) student achievement as it relates to literacy instruction, (b) early intervention leading to success, and (c) the role of school leaders who build a culture for success through change. All three schools that participated in the study were located in the state of Indiana. The topics of the related literature reviewed included a connection of reading instruction to student achievement as it relates to early literacy intervention and the dynamics of the school leadership and building a culture for success. In this study, findings of contributing factors of the manner in which high performing elementary schools improve struggling readers included data driven instruction, reflective practice, 90-minute literacy block with strong core instruction, planning and collaboration, and highly effective people. Aspects that emerged from the topic of early intervention revealed establishing a literacy framework of tiered instruction beginning in kindergarten, conducting benchmark assessments, analyzing data to identify sub skill deficits, developing and implementing an intervention plan, and monitoring student progress. In studying the role of school leadership in achieving success, three aspects surfaced: maintaining high expectations, trust, and respect; support for materials and resources; and strategic scheduling. Understanding obtained from this study should assist teachers and school leaders in their attempts to improve the overall academic achievement of elementary students who struggle in the area of reading.

      Monroe, Carey (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
      This was a phenomenological study of the lived experiences of women who serve as college presidents. Three women, who serve as current college presidents, participated in this study. The first was a president at a two-year community college in the upper Midwest for twelve years and served as president in another Midwestern community college for nine years prior. The second woman was a first-time president who had served for three years at a Catholic four-year college established to provide nurses for a health system. The third was a first-time president who served at a Research I institution in the upper Midwest and had been president for 13 years. Semi-structured, 90-minute interviews, observations, and curriculum vitae were used in the data collection process to represent how a woman constructs meaning for her position as president. Themes that emerged from this data analysis may be used to inform women who are potential candidates for presidential positions or women who aspire to become presidents. The information may also be used to provide context into the lived experiences of women who serve as college presidents for hiring committee members, campus constituents, and stakeholders. Women who have recently accepted their first presidential position may find this information helpful while they seek to create a leadership style for themselves and develop relationships with faculty, staff, and students. Moreover, women who possess a tendency to be leaders in their departments but may have never considered applying for promotion or considered a higher-ranking position may be informed and empowered to do so. The stories of these women presidents provide context for women becoming successful leaders in the academy.
    • I Don‘T Know Who I Am—Considering Where I Came from: First-Generation Working-Class College Graduates Describe Their Journeys to Baccalaureate Degrees

      Weirick, Janet K.
      This phenomenological study explored recent memories of some of the struggles and joys that first-generation students faced in their college experiences as they successfully completed four-year degrees at a private liberal arts college in the Midwest. These lived experiences included personal and structural issues of individual identity, class identity, first-generation observations, campus experiences, and family relationships. Their stories will inform research and provide insights for professionals working to improve levels of college retention and student growth. First-generation college students are retained and graduate at a lower rate than second-generation college students and are consequently at risk for dropping out or stopping out of college before graduation. Current retention programs for first-generation students have been only somewhat effective in increasing their completion rate. This qualitative exploration of the lives of successful first-generation college graduates gives insights into how these students achieved their goals of a college degree, in spite of the great odds against them. These graduates were expressly aware of those odds as they negotiated systems of complex bureaucracies and formed relationships in various social settings. While meeting and maintaining academic standards, they needed to learn new middle-class languages, system codes, and geography.

      Holder, April (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate how elementary principals identify, cultivate, and utilize teacher leaders within high-growth elementary schools. For the purpose of this study, high-growth schools are schools that surpassed the state average of high growth for the bottom 25% and top 75% in English/language arts and math for two consecutive years based on the Indiana Department of Education A-F Accountability Report Card. Through this qualitative study, the roles of the principals in three similar Indiana elementary schools were analyzed in regard to the commonalities of the identification of teacher leaders, cultivating talent and leadership, and the utilization of teacher leaders to improve student achievement.
    • Indiana's township high school principal

      Churchill, Paul K.
      Not Available.

      Wetherholt, Michael Shawn (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      This study sought to add to the limited scholarship on factors that affect federal research and development (R&D) funding activities at state comprehensive universities (SCUs). Second, the study sought to inform R&D policy and practice at SCUs in assisting this scale of institutions in maximizing their federal award streams. This study examined 216 masters-level large and medium institutions, and doctoral universities that were members of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities. Four statistical models were developed and tested whereby a set of predictor variables were regressed to view their association with a set of R&D performance measures of interest to SCUs. As determined from the four models, previous success in securing federal R&D funding carried the most weight in predicting future success, ceteris paribus. Other significant predictors were the level of institutional funds channeled to R&D activities, number of sponsored program staff members, and the number of research universities in a state. Policy implications identified were that the federal government should continue to invest resources in the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research and in other programs as the National Institutes of Health Academic Research Enhancement Award. Such programs assist SCUs in securing federal R&D funds and many such institutions serve as gateways for underrepresented groups and individuals from low-socioeconomic backgrounds to access higher education. A policy implication for states established was that states should continue to invest in SCUs as these institutions educate the largest number of college students and many are open access institutions attracting students who may not have had a chance to matriculate at more selective research institutions. Institutional policy implications identified were that if SCUs wish to enter the highly competitive federal R&D funding arena, they should first conduct a thorough analysis of the campus mission and determine if there are enough institutional resources and desire to pursue federal R&D funding grant awards. Other arguably more attainable avenues of federal funding that SCUs could explore are science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education projects and programs that train the future workforce. In addition, SCUs may also serve as flow-through subaward recipients from research institutions that may subcontract appropriate portions of larger federal R&D awards to the smaller SCUs. Such subawards can increase an SCU’s external funding portfolio and also provide undergraduate research opportunities at such institutions.
    • Intellectual backgrounds of the humanitarian concerns of the 'Clapham sect': a study in the history of ideas.

      Railsback, Rick.D
      The Clapham Sect was a group of Anglican Evangelicels of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries associated in numerous humanitarian endeavours, most notably the campaigns which resulted in the abolition of the Slave Trade in 1807 and of slavery itself, in the British Empire, in 1833.The Clamphamites were a fellowship of like-minded collegues, most of whom resided in the London suburb of Clapham.Among the Clamphamites were busniessmen,bankers,Cambridge professors, and Members of Parliament.On issues of public concern addressed by the Sect leadership was provided by William Wilberforce,Henry Thornton,Thomas Clarkson,James Stephen Sr.,Granville Sharp, and Zachary Macaulay.The thesis examines several of the concepts which spurred the Claphamites to moral concern and unstinted humanitarian labor. Claphamite unity was rooted in shared Evangelical commitments, yet other Evangelicals of their time had no similar interest in humanitarianism. The uniqueness of the Claphamites was dependent on the ideas they held.The Claphamites saw Britain as chosen by god to be a "Light to the Nations". This responsebility involved the practise of justice in all spheres. A clear violation in the Slave Trade-- so the Sect reminded the nation--was the casting aside of biblical prohibitions against "murder and rapine".Concern with the human rights was magnified by Claphamite belief in the equality of men. They were convinced that the Scriptures taught egalitarianism and the corollary that men have infinite personal worth because they possess souls. The Claphamites saw as their duty the eradication of oppresive conditions which impeded equality and human development.In the accomplishment of such tasks, the Claphamites believed they were merely carrying out their "calling in their sphere of "usefulness". An aspect of that "calling" was the restoration of men to their natural rights. While talk to the rights of men earned the Claphamites the opprobrium of Jacobins, they were convinced that injustice could never be rationalized as "politic".The Sect therefore relentlessly researched to demonstrate to those holding the purse strings of commerce, and to those with the power to enact laws, the impolicy of injustice.

      Ciolli-Stewart, Stephanie J. (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the traits of and strategies used by highly effective teachers. Two research questions were presented in this study: What are the traits of highly effective teachers? and What strategies are used by highly effective teachers? Elementary school principals in the Evansville-Vanderburgh School Corporation in Evansville, Indiana, were asked to recommend one to two highly effective teachers. After a thorough review of principal recommendations, participants were considered based upon gender, years of experience, and grade level or subject area taught. Once the participant selection process concluded, dates for six onsite classroom observations and teacher interviews were determined. The classroom observation began at the start of the teacher work day and ended at the time identified by each participant. This study generated a collection of personality traits commonly demonstrated by six highly effective teachers. Additionally, this study simultaneously identified and presented instructional strategies that were commonly used among the participants. Common themes emerged from the data providing insight as to the personality traits of and strategies used by the highly effective teachers. Specifically, 16 traits were presented in this study and grouped into four categories: work ethic, instructional demeanor, disposition, and attitude. Additionally, several instructional strategies were observed during this study; instructional strategies commonly used by the six highly effective teachers were presented in four themes that included preventative maintenance and classroom design, engagement, differentiation, and delivery of instruction. The data gathered from this study will serve many purposes including the hiring of teachers, a guide for teachers to improve performance, and a guide for school district leaders as they plan professional development opportunities.

      Larson, Christina (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore the influence of principal leadership behaviors and potential of utilizing adult learning strategies on the development of a school’s professional learning environment (PLE). The intention was also to determine if principals considered themselves prepared to develop and sustain such an environment. Research shows that principals and teachers perceive professional development needs and results differently. To obtain perspective from both groups, two separate surveys were administered. The results from this dissertation came from 262 principals and 433 teachers employed in K-12 public schools in Indiana. With the survey completed by principals, the focus was to determine if principals considered themselves prepared to be leaders of adult learners and well adept at developing a school PLE. Efficacy in developing and sustaining a PLE as well as efficacy in andragogical practices were analyzed to determine if they could result in a variance in a school’s professional learning environment. The survey completed by teachers focused on teacher perception of principal leadership behaviors and the use of adult learning strategies. The impact of a principal’s leadership behaviors and use of adult learning strategies were analyzed to determine if the two variables could result in the variance in a school’s professional learning environment. Results of the study found that there is a perceived need for additional training for principals in developing a PLE as well as understanding more about adult learning theory. Additionally, this research suggests that efficacy in professional learning environment and efficacy in adult learning strategies influence a school’s professional learning environment. iv Upon analysis of data provided by teachers, this dissertation concludes that principal leadership behaviors and implementation of adult learning strategies also influences a school’s professional learning environment. The purpose of this research is to provide possible insight into specific behaviors and practices that may support the development and sustainability of a professional learning environment and that this information can also be used to encourage and support future principal development.