• Principal leadership behaviors in school operations and change implementations in elementary schools in relation to climate

      Whitaker, Margaret
      The two purposes of the study were to: (1) analyze the relationship between teacher perception of school climate and elementary principal instructional leadership behavoir, and (2) investigate the difference between the manner in which the principals of schools with more positive climates and principals of schools with less positive climates conduct school operations and implement change. Principles at 231 public elementary schools within a sixty mile redius of Terre Haute, Indiana were included in the original sample. These principals were surveyed to determine their instructional leadership behaviors. The priciples who responded to the survey were then asked to have ten teachers fill out a school climate inventory. The data from both instruments were tabulated and used to determine relationships between principals' instructional leadership behaviors and teacher perception of climate. On-site, structured interviews were conducted with three teachers and the principal in four of the elementary schools with more positive climate and four of th elementary schools with less positive climates. These interviews were used to determine the differences between the manner in which the principals of schools with more positive climates and principals of schools with less positive climates conduct school operations and implement change.Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics, Stepwise regression, Independent Sample t-test, and Pearson product moment correlation. Significant correlational relationships were found between the principal's perceptions of instructional leadership behavior and teachers' perception of school climate. No significant difference were found in principals' perception of instructional leadership behaviors between principals of more positive and less positive climates. Principal instructional leadership behaviors explained a significant amount of the variance of seven of the teacher climate subscales. Also, important differences were found between the way day to day operationsl were conducted and change implemented in more positive versus less positive schools.
    • Principal Perceptions About the Implementation and Effectiveness of Online Learning in Public High Schools in Indiana

      Rayle, Timothy W.
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the principal perceptions and demographic relationship of the implementation and effectiveness of online learning in non-charter Indiana public high schools. An analysis was prepared to determine whether demographic factors played a role in the principal‘s perceptions of the implementation and effectiveness of online learning. Factors examined included school location, school size, technology and support costs, principal‘s age, and principal‘s gender. Principal‘s perceptions were examined because the principal is considered to be the building level educational leader. As such, the principal has a responsibility to provide the students with a sound curriculum that meets their needs individually and collectively. The research design involved a population of 343 non-charter public high school principals serving grades of at least 10 – 12. Principal beliefs in the implementation and effectiveness of online learning were collected using a 44-item survey. Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics regarding the mean, standard deviation, and frequency of selected items. A Pearson product moment correlation and multivariate analysis of variance were used to test the null hypotheses. Significance was identified at the .05 level. In all, 241 principals of non-charter public high schools in Indiana responded to the survey instrument which questioned the perceived level of effectiveness and perceived level of implementation of 15 specific uses of online learning. As a result of the analysis, significant findings were present in the overall perceptions of the implementation and effectiveness of online learning and also in the 15 individual uses of online learning. Significance was also found in one or more of the 15 uses of online learning in regards to the perceived implementation based upon gender, student enrollment, school locality, and the interactions based upon age and gender, and student enrollment and school locality. In addition, significance was found in one or more of the 15 uses of online learning in regards to the perceived effectiveness based upon student enrollment, school locality, and the interactions of enrollment and locality.
    • Priorities and Practices of Career and Technical Education Directors in Indiana

      Herrin, Cory D.
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the importance and priority of practices for directors of career and technical education in the state of Indiana. An analysis was prepared to determine the rankings and correlations of importance and priorities of 50 leadership practices as well as 11 categories of practices for the career and technical education (CTE) directors. In addition, an analysis was prepared to discover the demographics factors within the director’s own leadership characteristics and the director’s district that played a role in the importance and priority. Factors examined included gender, age, years of experience in career and technical education administration, type of district served, number of school districts served, number of programs offered, total enrollment, and type of facility. Directors of career and technical education were examined because the director is considered the administrative leader of career and technical education districts for a unit of the state. As such, the director has the responsibility to provide the students, teachers, schools, and communities with appropriate career and technical education within the guidelines of sound educational practices, governmental mandates, and regional workforce need. The research design involved a population of 46 career and technical education directors serving 49 career and technical education districts in the state of Indiana. Director importance and priority of practice were collected using a 50-item survey. Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive statistics regarding mean, standard deviation, and frequency of the items. A Spearman product correlation, t-tests, and ANOVA were used to test the null hypotheses. Significance was identified at the .05 level. In all, 42 directors of career and technical education directors in the state of Indiana responded to the survey instrument, which asked them to rank the importance of practice and agreement to the priority of practice for 50 different practices that research has shown to be practices often associated with the position of director. Those 50 practices were configured into 11 categories. As a result of the analysis, significant findings were present in the correlations between 48 of the 50 practices as well as all 11 of the categories. Significance was also found in two sub-hypotheses for importance for the areas of type of district and type of facility. In addition, significance was found in six sub-hypotheses for priority for the areas of gender, age, years of experience in career and technical education administration, type of district, number of programs, and type of facility.
    • Raising African American Student Graduation Rates: A Best Practices Study of Predominantly White Liberal Arts Colleges

      Pool, Robert W.
      This qualitative study sought to explore best practices at small, private liberal arts institutions that experienced large increases in African American graduation rates. Particular focus was on institutions that enrolled less than 17% minority students whose overall enrollment fell within the middle 50% of all SAT scores and the middle 50% of institutional full time equivalent (FTE) spending. Two colleges were selected for study via one-on-one interviews of key personnel, focus groups of students, and institutional document analyses. Themes from the data which participants felt contributed to the unusually large African American graduation rate increases are discussed.
    • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ATHLETIC IDENTITY AND CAREER DECISION-MAKING SELF-EFFICACY AMONG KOREAN COLLEGIATE STUDENT ATHLETES

      Moon, Jong Joo (Cunningham Memorial Library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University., 2017-12)
      This study explored barriers that Korean collegiate student athletes confront with regard to pursuing careers outside of professional athletics. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to identify the barriers to Korean student athletes’ career development, as well as to examine the relationships among the psychological constructs of athlete identity and career decision making self-efficacy. A total of 321 Korean student athletes participated in the study, including 263 men (81.9%) and 59 women (18.1%). Participants completed demographic information along with a parental influence questionnaire, the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale, Career Decision Making Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form, and two open-ended questions. Stepwise regression analyses were employed to examine the research questions of interest. The results showed that gender (p < .001), self-appraisal (p < .001), planning (p < .001), and goal selection (p < .001) were significant positive predictors of social identity. Gender (p < .001), type of sport (p < .05), self-appraisal (p < .01), planning (p < .001), and goal selection (p < .001) were significant positive predictors of exclusivity. Finally, gender (p < .001), planning (p < .05), and goal selection (p < .001) were significant positive predictors of negative affectivity. The study also explored Korean collegiate athletes’ needs and barriers as they impact their future careers. Korean collegiate athletes felt they needed to improve their personal capability and ability, be more committed and hardworking, have qualifications and certifications, improve their athletic skills and English skills, and obtain more financial support to pursue their future careers. Injury or slump by injury, low salaries or lack of financial support iv from their families, military service, surroundings, and English skills were also perceived barriers to their future careers. The combined findings suggest that more in-depth qualitative inquiry is needed. A deeper understanding of the Korean student experience and how national priorities for athletes interface would further extend this literature which is in its infancy in the Korean context. Nevertheless, this study represents the first of its kind to attempt a comprehensive investigation of the Korean student athlete and the intersection of athletic identity and career decision-making self-efficacy.
    • Relationship between First Year Success Programs and Second-Year Persistence

      Rupley, Elissa
      Much research has been conducted on the success and retention of first-year students. Little research has been done on second-year students and their experiences. This study was completed to understand the experience of second year students.The purpose of this research study was to explore the attitudes, perceptions, and experiences of current second-year students who participated in the Academic Opportunity Program at Indiana State University to determine if the skills gained during the program transfer to the second-year. Focus groups were conducted to collect data. The results revealed that while the Academic Opportunity Program at Indiana State University is a great opportunity for many students there are changes that could benefit many of the students. Results indicated that motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation, is a key factor in student success and retention.
    • Relationships Between Supervisory Behaviors and School Climate as Perceived by Secondary School Teachers in the State of Kuwait

      Alhajeri, Salem
      This study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of secondary school teachers of their principals‟ supervisory behaviors and of their schools‟ climate. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between supervisory behaviors and school climate in Kuwaiti secondary schools. Data was collected using two surveys. Bulach, Boothe, and Michael‟s (1999) survey was used to assess supervisory behaviors of principals as perceived by teacher. The School Climate Survey, which was developed by Gruenert (2008), was used to assess school climate. The participants of the study consisted of 575 male and female secondary school teachers from six school districts. The participants were selected randomly. The study results revealed that there were significant differences in perceived supervisory behaviors based on gender and district. Female teachers‟ perceived their female principals‟ ability in supervisory behaviors to be higher than male teachers viewed their principals. Also, there were significant differences in school climate based on gender and district. Male teachers‟ perceptions were more positive toward school climate than female teachers‟ perceptions.‟ Significant correlation was found between supervisory behaviors and school climate. Implications for findings and recommendations for future research are discussed.
    • Reporting Problems in Human Subjects Research: a Comparative Study

      Underwood, Dawn F.
      The purpose of this study was to discover whether differences exist among institutional review boards (IRBs) in categorizing and reporting problems in social science research to the Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP). IRBs were grouped by institutional size and type. The study also employed an experimental design to look for differences among those who reviewed a decision chart from OHRP (experimental group) and those who did not review the decision chart (control group). From a population of 474 IRB contacts at public, four-year institutions of higher education, 187 survey responses were received. Factorial ANOVA and independent measures t-tests were conducted to look for differences in responses among groups of IRBs. Statistically significant differences were found in how IRBs of different types categorized the incident presented in the survey. IRBs that review more biomedical protocols were less likely than social/behavioral IRBs to categorize an incident as an adverse event but more likely to categorize the incident as an unanticipated problem. Analysis revealed no significant differences among groups in the decision to report the incident to OHRP. The differences between IRB types suggest that IRB experience and institutional context affect IRB decisions. Recommendations are made for revising OHRP reporting guidance, IRB training, and board management.
    • Retention As a State Policy Mandate: IRead In Indiana

      Stubbs, Velinda F.
      The interpretation of Indiana Public Law 109 and subsequent policy adopted by the Indiana Department of Education resulted in the Indiana State Board of Education mandating circumstances implemented during the 2011-2012 school year regarding grade level retention of Grade 3 students. IREAD-3, a standardized, gateway assessment, was administered to all Grade 3 students to determine eligibility to be promoted to Grade 4. Three quantitative studies analyzed the results from the initial year of assessment data for 1,712 students from one school district in Indiana to determine if there were factors that are predictive of performance on IREAD-3 and to better understand if there were effects on Grade 3 ISTEP+ performance based on the implementation of IREAD-3. Variables including chronological age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), gender, type of school the student attended (Title I versus non-Title I), and attendance were analyzed to determine if they were predictive of performance on IREAD-3. A logistic regression model identified three variables (low-SES, non-White, and poor attendance) that significantly increased the odds of not passing IREAD-3. The second study examined kindergarten, first grade, and second grade performance on DIBELS and TRC to determine if these assessments predicted passing IREAD-3. Based on the logistic regression model, below grade performance on both DIBELS and TRC (independently) significantly increased the odds of not passing IREAD-3. The statistically significant odds of not passing IREAD-3 were noted as early as the beginning of the kindergarten year but were noted to be more significant in later years, the middle and end of Grade 1 and beginning and middle of Grade 2. The final study examined whether there was a difference in ISTEP+ performance for Grade 3 students who also took the IREAD-3 assessment as compared to performance of Grade 3 students during the previous three years of ISTEP+ administration when those students did not take IREAD-3—2009, 2010, 2011. The results suggested that although there was a statistically significant difference in scores over the four years, the effect size was insignificant. Practically, the difference appears to represent an upward trend of scores and the statistically significant differences were not necessarily associated with implementation of IREAD-3 in 2012.
    • School Factors Related to Reading Achievement in Rural Schools with and without High Poverty

      Miller, Seth W.
      This quantitative study identified how rural schools differ on five school-level factors related to student achievement according to their performance on Grade 3 reading. Through use of a MANOVA test, it was shown that principals of high-poverty rural schools that made AYP in Grade 3 reading reported significantly higher levels of guaranteed and viable curriculum than principals of high-poverty rural schools that did not make AYP. There were no significant differences in the presence of the school-level factors in rural schools without high poverty based on the principal reports. Additionally, the study identified which school-level factors predict student achievement in rural schools with and without high poverty. Through use of a multiple regression test, it was determined that the school-level factors did not serve as significant predictors of Grade 3 reading performance in the high poverty rural schools. One factor, guaranteed and viable curriculum, was shown to predict for student achievement in rural schools without high poverty. In conducting this study, additional research questions were addressed. Through linear regression, it was demonstrated that poverty accounted for much more of the variance in reading scores in non-rural schools (58%, N = 1,761) than in rural schools (19%, N = 427). Through multivariate multiple regression testing, it was found that there was not a significant ability for either Grade 3 reading performance or poverty to predict for the school-level factors in rural schools. Finally, through multiple regression testing, it was determined that three predictors (poverty, guaranteed and viable curriculum, and safe and orderly environment) were able to significantly predict reading scores for rural schools. The results of the study provide rural school leaders a better understanding of the overall strengths and weaknesses of a particular school and the potential benefits of school improvement initiatives geared around school-level factors. This knowledge will prove useful to the overall research base on rural school effectiveness. More specifically, this knowledge will help guide the decisions of school leaders concerned with improving student achievement in rural school districts with high poverty.
    • School Size and Student Achievement

      Riggen, Vicki
      This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English language learners status, special education rate, mobility rate, dropout rate, class size, instructional expenditure per pupil, attendance rate, and/or school enrollment exhibited interaction effects that can be used to predict student achievement as measured by reading and mathematics performance on the PSAE. This study provides quantitative data that will aid educational leaders in school decision-making that can enhance student achievement. Findings of this study revealed a relationship does not exist between school size and student performance in reading. Of nine student and building characteristics investigated, eight had a significant ability to predict student performance on PSAE reading. Socioeconomic status was found to have the most significant effect, with student attendance having the second greatest effect. English language learner status had the third greatest impact. Findings of this study revealed a relationship does exist between school size and student performance in math. Large schools in the state of Illinois outperformed both small and medium schools in math. Of nine student and building characteristics investigated, seven had a significant ability to predict student performance on PSAE math. Socioeconomic status was found to have the most significant effect, with student attendance having the second greatest effect. Instructional expenditure per pupil had the third greatest impact. This study gives educational leaders in small, medium, and large schools access to very specific information regarding the student and building characteristics that can best predict student performance in their schools.
    • School violence and its effects on academic achievement among eighth graders.

      Myers, Kevin A
      The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of school violence on academic performance among eigth grade students.The rational for this investigation was a result of the preoccupation for safety in our educational institutions.Additionally,it investigated the relationship between three specific school violence behaviors and student background characteristics.The three behaviors are negative personal behavior,school violence victimization,and school violence perception.Background varibales included in the analysis are gender,race/ethnicity,socio-economic status,family income and school type(public,Catholic,private other religious and private non-religious).The data used to explore the effect of school violence on academic achievement was taken from the the National Crime Victimization Survey:School Crime Supplement(NCVS:SVS;U.S Departments of Education and Justice,1998).Descriptive analysis was used to describe student's background characteristics and school factors.Findings indicated that negative personal behavior had a significant relationship on student's academic performance.Also,students experiencing victimization and student's perceptions of violence in their schools had a significant relationship on student's academic performance.Also,students experiencing victimization and student's perceptions of violence in their schools had a significant relationship on academic performance.Findings also indicated that students from public and private non-religious schools show similar patterns of associations between levels of school violence and school violence behaviors.
    • Social Class Experiences of Working-Class Students: Transitioning out of College

      Huber, Carey Treager
      Issues surrounding social class are often overlooked and rarely discussed in higher education; however, they affect students and institutions in critical ways. Although research has demonstrated that social class is a predictor of access to college, retention, academic performance, overall undergraduate and graduate experience, and college completion, little is known about the effect of social class on students‟ transition out of college and into the workplace. This transition is critical to explore because research suggests that the way in which students approach their first years of work have an impact on future job success and satisfaction. A phenomenological method of inquiry was used to gain a more thorough understanding of the class-based experiences of college graduates who originated from working-class homes as they transitioned from college to the world of work and pursued their chosen professions. Interviews were conducted with 13 recent graduates of Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology (RHIT) who were first generation college students, received a federal Pell grant while attending college, and did not return to their hometown of origin after graduation. Findings indicated that participants were conscious of social class although they lacked language to define it. Participants illustrated three distinct transitions that they experienced related to college: transition into college, transition to life after college, and transition to work. Generally participants indicated that the transition into college was more challenging than the transition to work, as they were more aware of their social class and experienced more social class contrast. In general they experienced very few school-to-work transition issues. In terms of the transition to life after college, participants experienced a variety of challenges and obstacles related to physical relocation to a new city, financial management, and loss of a social network. After college, participants generally experienced changing relationships with family and childhood friends due to social class contrast. Finally, several elements of their undergraduate experiences were identified as aiding their transitions out of college including the curriculum, internship experiences, independent living, and supportive relationships with faculty and staff. The study adds to the general understanding of social class issues in higher education, provides direction for universities, and offers specific insight for RHIT into the experiences of their graduates. Based on the findings, recommendations for policy and practice additions and modifications are outlined for RHIT. Opportunities for future research are suggested.
    • Spirituality and Binge Drinking Among College Students

      Kutnow,James
      One area of great interest to student affairs administrators is the spirituality of college students. Due to recent publications that have opened up communication for more discussion on student spirituality and because of thorough research by the Higher Education Research Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles, student spirituality is gaining attention. Also of great interest to college administrators is the importance of reducing high risk drinking behaviors among their students. This study examined the relationship between student spirituality and binge drinking among college students at a large, Midwestern university. Results from this research found that there was a significant and negative correlation between spirituality and binge drinking. Understanding this relationship will help universities tackle binge drinking patterns in an innovative way.
    • Stay the Course: Superintendent Longevity in Indiana School Districts

      Shand, Celia Herrell
      The purpose of this study was to determine what characteristics contribute to superintendent longevity in a school district for 10 years or more. A qualitative multiple case study was conducted using a sample from 11% of Indiana school superintendents who remained in their districts for 10 years or more. This random sample included superintendents from various districts. Superintendents interviewed responded to a series of five questions that explored the characteristics of community politics, size of the district, superintendent leadership characteristics, community demographics, and support systems. During the qualitative multiple case study, more questions arose as a result of the interview process and were documented. As a result of this study, it was determined that community politics, district size, certain characteristics of leadership styles, changing demographics, and sufficient support systems were integral parts of a superintendency that had these superintendents remaining in a district in Indiana for 10 years or more. The mutually, well-developed relationships created in the different characteristics between the superintendents, their boards, schools and community created a symbiotic relationship necessary for superintendent longevity in their respective districts.
    • Student Plagiarism and The Use of a Plagiarism Detection Tool by Community College Faculty

      Thurmond, Bradley H.
      This study sought to better inform community college administrators and faculty regarding possible factors that contribute to higher levels of student plagiarism and to suggest appropriate preventative or responsive interventions. The specific purpose of the study was to investigate a set of faculty related factors that may be associated with particular levels of plagiarism. The specific research questions were as follows: 1. Are there particular instructor related factors that are associated with the level of suggestive plagiarism that occurs in the community college classroom? 2. Is there a difference in suggestive plagiarism based upon the campus on which the faculty member teaches? 3. How do faculty who use TII think about plagiarism and their role in educating students on how to properly cite works and avoid it? The quantitative portion of this mix-methods study found no statistical significance between the dependent variable of suggestive plagiarism and the independent variables of class level, instructor age, instructor gender, instructor employment status (full-time or part-time), years since hire, academic division and campus. The qualitative portion of the study interviewed nine faculty users of TII and revealed several convergent and divergent themes. The convergent themes were plagiarism due to ignorance vs. intentionality, lack of student objections to the use of TII, lack of faculty difficulty using TII, impact on teaching strategies, and replacement of TII with an alternative tool. The two divergent themes were faculty experience with training in the use of TII and the extent to which faculty sought to teach their students about plagiarism. The study offers implications for practice and policy as well as limitations and opportunities for future research.
    • Students' College Preparation Level Based on Quality Factors of the High School Attended

      Richmond, Lori M.
      The present qualitative study examined the views and perspectives of five Executive Directors of Admissions of Midwestern colleges and universities to seek data on high school students‟ college preparation level based on the quality factors of the high school they attended. Interviews were conducted using multiple open-ended questions on various aspects of high school characteristics that had potential to impact college admissions and college success. Themes emerged that encompassed high school size, high school offerings, and factors of high school attended. All high schools were not viewed as providing neither equal opportunity nor adequate educational opportunities for all students sufficient enough for them to be admitted to a four-year college or university and/or to successfully graduate from college. Emerged themes of significance included larger high schools being more effective than smaller high schools; Advanced Placement courses being more effective than dual-credit classes; and the rigor of high school curriculum being unequal amongst schools. Each of these themes is identified in detail with examples, experiential stories, and views by the participants. School leaders can use this data as a piece in their continual search to further student success in high schools and beyond.
    • Study of the Lasting Effects of Attending a Leadershape Program

      Stoker, Daniel J.
      This exploratory study investigated the long-term learning resulting from participation in a LeaderShape program. The research examined LeaderShape graduates‘ current practices and definitions of leadership to see if they remain consistent with the program‘s learning goals. Graduates with five or more years since attendance were studied to provide a separation of time for the social experience to dissipate and to allow for possible application of the material beyond a collegiate setting. An electronic survey was distributed to 1,399 LeaderShape graduates who attended a national session between 1986 and 2004, resulting in 207 (14.8%) responses. Quantitative questions were analyzed utilizing SPSS and four open-text questions were thematically coded and analyzed. The quantitative questions resulted in strong responses, with 17 of the 21 scaled questions with over 90% positive results. The data show that LeaderShape continues to be a meaningful experience for the respondents and they continue to identify abilities and behaviors consistent with the LeaderShape outcomes. The qualitative results demonstrated strong social connections facilitated by the environment and atmosphere, personal effects regarding values and leadership style, and continuing memory of specific curricular components most often due to emotional or personal affect. Based upon the data, LeaderShape could be characterized as an emotionally charged, positive growth experience that develops a lasting effect on program graduates by developing strong connections, enhancing personal values, and developing a commitment for leaders to influence positive change. The research demonstrates that program graduates identify, apply, and retain curricular components that enhance their personal development years after attendance with an adequate amount of time for discussion, reflection, and social interaction at the experience.
    • Summer learning loss: The influence of summer school programs on student achievement in language usage, Math, and Reading

      Bakle, Bradley R.
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze the effects of summer school remediation on elementary student achievement, while controlling for the effects of gender, socio-economic status (SES), and ethnicity, by comparing the differences between pre-test and post-test scores on the Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) for matched pairs (based on pre-test scores) of summer school participants and non-summer school participants for each of five years. The independent variables included summer school participation, gender, SES, and ethnicity.The dependent variables included the student post-test NWEA MAP scores in each of three subject areas (language usage, reading, and math) for each grade level (2–5), in each year of the study. The covariates included the student pre-test NWEA MAP scores in each of the same subject areas and grade levels for each year of the study.Study participants were convenience samples of summer school students and their non-summer school counterparts in grades 2–5 from multiple elementary school sites within a single school district in northeast Indiana. As summer school programming remained the same for each year of the study, scores from each of the five years were combined for analysis according to subject and grade level to lend an overall perspective. For language usage, data was collected for 850 matched pairs of students. For math, there were 828 matched pairs. The study also included 853 matched pairs of students for reading.Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) at the .05 probability level (p=.05) was used to determine if there was a statistically significant difference between student post-test scores for summer school participants and their non-summer school counterparts, while controlling for gender, SES, and ethnicity. In order to isolate the effects of summer school for each grade level (2–5), there were 4 separate analyses, one for each elementary grade level, and 3 sub-analyses within each grade level – reading, language usage and math–leading to a total of 12 sets of ANCOVA analyses.The results of ANCOVA analysis showed a significant interaction effect between summer school participation and SES for both language usage and math in grade 2. However, there were no significant interaction effects or main effects of the independent variables on post-test reading scores for second graders.For third grade, ANCOVA analysis showed a significant interaction effect between summer school participation and SES for language usage. Participation in summer school was shown to have a significant main effect on post-test reading scores with summer school students scoring significantly lower than their non-summer school counterparts.In grade four, ANCOVA analysis revealed a significant interaction effect between summer school participation and gender for language usage. SES showed a significant main effect on post-test math scores, with paid lunch students performing significantly better than their free/reduced lunch peers for both summer school and non-summer school student groups. Participation in summer school was shown to have a significant main effect on post-test reading scores in fourth grade, with summer school students scoring significantly lower than their non-summer school counterparts.For grade five language usage students, each of the main effects of gender, ethnicity, and SES were statistically significant. Ethnicity was shown to have a significant main effect on post-test math scores with White students scoring significantly higher than students of all other ethnicities, regardless of participation in summer school. There were no significant interaction effects or main effects of the independent variables on post-test reading scores for fifth graders.These results indicate a need of review, revision, and refinement at all grade levels (2–5) and in all subjects (language usage, math, and reading) of the summer remediation programming within the study in order to effectively serve the needs of its students. Further, the study serves as a model and a call to action for educational administrators who are ready to engage in an objective analysis of summer school program effectiveness and are willing to embrace whatever shifts in operational or instructional paradigms may be needed for improvement.