• Social Class Experiences of Working-Class Students: Transitioning out of College

      Huber, Carey Treager
      Issues surrounding social class are often overlooked and rarely discussed in higher education; however, they affect students and institutions in critical ways. Although research has demonstrated that social class is a predictor of access to college, retention, academic performance, overall undergraduate and graduate experience, and college completion, little is known about the effect of social class on students‟ transition out of college and into the workplace. This transition is critical to explore because research suggests that the way in which students approach their first years of work have an impact on future job success and satisfaction. A phenomenological method of inquiry was used to gain a more thorough understanding of the class-based experiences of college graduates who originated from working-class homes as they transitioned from college to the world of work and pursued their chosen professions. Interviews were conducted with 13 recent graduates of Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology (RHIT) who were first generation college students, received a federal Pell grant while attending college, and did not return to their hometown of origin after graduation. Findings indicated that participants were conscious of social class although they lacked language to define it. Participants illustrated three distinct transitions that they experienced related to college: transition into college, transition to life after college, and transition to work. Generally participants indicated that the transition into college was more challenging than the transition to work, as they were more aware of their social class and experienced more social class contrast. In general they experienced very few school-to-work transition issues. In terms of the transition to life after college, participants experienced a variety of challenges and obstacles related to physical relocation to a new city, financial management, and loss of a social network. After college, participants generally experienced changing relationships with family and childhood friends due to social class contrast. Finally, several elements of their undergraduate experiences were identified as aiding their transitions out of college including the curriculum, internship experiences, independent living, and supportive relationships with faculty and staff. The study adds to the general understanding of social class issues in higher education, provides direction for universities, and offers specific insight for RHIT into the experiences of their graduates. Based on the findings, recommendations for policy and practice additions and modifications are outlined for RHIT. Opportunities for future research are suggested.
    • Spirituality and Binge Drinking Among College Students

      One area of great interest to student affairs administrators is the spirituality of college students. Due to recent publications that have opened up communication for more discussion on student spirituality and because of thorough research by the Higher Education Research Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles, student spirituality is gaining attention. Also of great interest to college administrators is the importance of reducing high risk drinking behaviors among their students. This study examined the relationship between student spirituality and binge drinking among college students at a large, Midwestern university. Results from this research found that there was a significant and negative correlation between spirituality and binge drinking. Understanding this relationship will help universities tackle binge drinking patterns in an innovative way.
    • Stay the Course: Superintendent Longevity in Indiana School Districts

      Shand, Celia Herrell
      The purpose of this study was to determine what characteristics contribute to superintendent longevity in a school district for 10 years or more. A qualitative multiple case study was conducted using a sample from 11% of Indiana school superintendents who remained in their districts for 10 years or more. This random sample included superintendents from various districts. Superintendents interviewed responded to a series of five questions that explored the characteristics of community politics, size of the district, superintendent leadership characteristics, community demographics, and support systems. During the qualitative multiple case study, more questions arose as a result of the interview process and were documented. As a result of this study, it was determined that community politics, district size, certain characteristics of leadership styles, changing demographics, and sufficient support systems were integral parts of a superintendency that had these superintendents remaining in a district in Indiana for 10 years or more. The mutually, well-developed relationships created in the different characteristics between the superintendents, their boards, schools and community created a symbiotic relationship necessary for superintendent longevity in their respective districts.
    • Student Plagiarism and The Use of a Plagiarism Detection Tool by Community College Faculty

      Thurmond, Bradley H.
      This study sought to better inform community college administrators and faculty regarding possible factors that contribute to higher levels of student plagiarism and to suggest appropriate preventative or responsive interventions. The specific purpose of the study was to investigate a set of faculty related factors that may be associated with particular levels of plagiarism. The specific research questions were as follows: 1. Are there particular instructor related factors that are associated with the level of suggestive plagiarism that occurs in the community college classroom? 2. Is there a difference in suggestive plagiarism based upon the campus on which the faculty member teaches? 3. How do faculty who use TII think about plagiarism and their role in educating students on how to properly cite works and avoid it? The quantitative portion of this mix-methods study found no statistical significance between the dependent variable of suggestive plagiarism and the independent variables of class level, instructor age, instructor gender, instructor employment status (full-time or part-time), years since hire, academic division and campus. The qualitative portion of the study interviewed nine faculty users of TII and revealed several convergent and divergent themes. The convergent themes were plagiarism due to ignorance vs. intentionality, lack of student objections to the use of TII, lack of faculty difficulty using TII, impact on teaching strategies, and replacement of TII with an alternative tool. The two divergent themes were faculty experience with training in the use of TII and the extent to which faculty sought to teach their students about plagiarism. The study offers implications for practice and policy as well as limitations and opportunities for future research.
    • Students' College Preparation Level Based on Quality Factors of the High School Attended

      Richmond, Lori M.
      The present qualitative study examined the views and perspectives of five Executive Directors of Admissions of Midwestern colleges and universities to seek data on high school students‟ college preparation level based on the quality factors of the high school they attended. Interviews were conducted using multiple open-ended questions on various aspects of high school characteristics that had potential to impact college admissions and college success. Themes emerged that encompassed high school size, high school offerings, and factors of high school attended. All high schools were not viewed as providing neither equal opportunity nor adequate educational opportunities for all students sufficient enough for them to be admitted to a four-year college or university and/or to successfully graduate from college. Emerged themes of significance included larger high schools being more effective than smaller high schools; Advanced Placement courses being more effective than dual-credit classes; and the rigor of high school curriculum being unequal amongst schools. Each of these themes is identified in detail with examples, experiential stories, and views by the participants. School leaders can use this data as a piece in their continual search to further student success in high schools and beyond.
    • Study of the Lasting Effects of Attending a Leadershape Program

      Stoker, Daniel J.
      This exploratory study investigated the long-term learning resulting from participation in a LeaderShape program. The research examined LeaderShape graduates‘ current practices and definitions of leadership to see if they remain consistent with the program‘s learning goals. Graduates with five or more years since attendance were studied to provide a separation of time for the social experience to dissipate and to allow for possible application of the material beyond a collegiate setting. An electronic survey was distributed to 1,399 LeaderShape graduates who attended a national session between 1986 and 2004, resulting in 207 (14.8%) responses. Quantitative questions were analyzed utilizing SPSS and four open-text questions were thematically coded and analyzed. The quantitative questions resulted in strong responses, with 17 of the 21 scaled questions with over 90% positive results. The data show that LeaderShape continues to be a meaningful experience for the respondents and they continue to identify abilities and behaviors consistent with the LeaderShape outcomes. The qualitative results demonstrated strong social connections facilitated by the environment and atmosphere, personal effects regarding values and leadership style, and continuing memory of specific curricular components most often due to emotional or personal affect. Based upon the data, LeaderShape could be characterized as an emotionally charged, positive growth experience that develops a lasting effect on program graduates by developing strong connections, enhancing personal values, and developing a commitment for leaders to influence positive change. The research demonstrates that program graduates identify, apply, and retain curricular components that enhance their personal development years after attendance with an adequate amount of time for discussion, reflection, and social interaction at the experience.
    • Summer learning loss: The influence of summer school programs on student achievement in language usage, Math, and Reading

      Bakle, Bradley R.
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze the effects of summer school remediation on elementary student achievement, while controlling for the effects of gender, socio-economic status (SES), and ethnicity, by comparing the differences between pre-test and post-test scores on the Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) for matched pairs (based on pre-test scores) of summer school participants and non-summer school participants for each of five years. The independent variables included summer school participation, gender, SES, and ethnicity.The dependent variables included the student post-test NWEA MAP scores in each of three subject areas (language usage, reading, and math) for each grade level (2–5), in each year of the study. The covariates included the student pre-test NWEA MAP scores in each of the same subject areas and grade levels for each year of the study.Study participants were convenience samples of summer school students and their non-summer school counterparts in grades 2–5 from multiple elementary school sites within a single school district in northeast Indiana. As summer school programming remained the same for each year of the study, scores from each of the five years were combined for analysis according to subject and grade level to lend an overall perspective. For language usage, data was collected for 850 matched pairs of students. For math, there were 828 matched pairs. The study also included 853 matched pairs of students for reading.Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) at the .05 probability level (p=.05) was used to determine if there was a statistically significant difference between student post-test scores for summer school participants and their non-summer school counterparts, while controlling for gender, SES, and ethnicity. In order to isolate the effects of summer school for each grade level (2–5), there were 4 separate analyses, one for each elementary grade level, and 3 sub-analyses within each grade level – reading, language usage and math–leading to a total of 12 sets of ANCOVA analyses.The results of ANCOVA analysis showed a significant interaction effect between summer school participation and SES for both language usage and math in grade 2. However, there were no significant interaction effects or main effects of the independent variables on post-test reading scores for second graders.For third grade, ANCOVA analysis showed a significant interaction effect between summer school participation and SES for language usage. Participation in summer school was shown to have a significant main effect on post-test reading scores with summer school students scoring significantly lower than their non-summer school counterparts.In grade four, ANCOVA analysis revealed a significant interaction effect between summer school participation and gender for language usage. SES showed a significant main effect on post-test math scores, with paid lunch students performing significantly better than their free/reduced lunch peers for both summer school and non-summer school student groups. Participation in summer school was shown to have a significant main effect on post-test reading scores in fourth grade, with summer school students scoring significantly lower than their non-summer school counterparts.For grade five language usage students, each of the main effects of gender, ethnicity, and SES were statistically significant. Ethnicity was shown to have a significant main effect on post-test math scores with White students scoring significantly higher than students of all other ethnicities, regardless of participation in summer school. There were no significant interaction effects or main effects of the independent variables on post-test reading scores for fifth graders.These results indicate a need of review, revision, and refinement at all grade levels (2–5) and in all subjects (language usage, math, and reading) of the summer remediation programming within the study in order to effectively serve the needs of its students. Further, the study serves as a model and a call to action for educational administrators who are ready to engage in an objective analysis of summer school program effectiveness and are willing to embrace whatever shifts in operational or instructional paradigms may be needed for improvement.
    • Superintendent perceptions of the success and failure of school construction referendums from 2008-2010 in the state of Indiana

      Lambert, Walter Albert
      The purpose of this study was to analyze the perceptions of superintendents who have conducted both successful and unsuccessful school construction referendums in the state of Indiana from 2008 - 2010. This research will serve as a guide for superintendents who will undergo a school construction referendum , especially in Indiana . This study will guide superintendents to conduct the s chool construction referendum in a proscribed manner to increase the chances of having a successful outcome. The study used qualitative information from four superintendents who were successful with their school construction referendums and from four super intendents who were not successful with their school construction referendums. Common themes were found with this information and compiled to channel best practices for conducting a school construction referendum. The literature points to numerous items th at should be done in order to increase the chance of being successful with the referendum. The findings of this study suggest that superintendents need to have a clear communication plan, a strong community committee, and a long range facility plan in orde r to be successful. The findings of this study continue to suggest that election strategies must be followed in order to be successful and an in depth knowledge of the community is needed to determine supporters and opposition to the referendum
    • Teacher Evaluations: Do Classroom Observations and Evaluator Training Really Matter?

      Pies, Sarah J. (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute,Indiana State University, 2017-12)
      The purpose of this study was to determine if the minimum number of observations stated in a district’s teacher evaluation plan, observation characteristics described in a district’s evaluation plan, and the characteristic of those evaluating teachers had an impact on whether a school would receive a bonus or penalty point for Indiana’s A-F accountability model. This study analyzed both math and English/language arts bonus and penalty points for all schools whose district has been implementing the new mandated teacher evaluation plan since the 2012-2013 school year. This included 3,997 schools within 215 districts in Indiana. Overall, when predicting whether a school will receive a bonus or penalty point, the findings for math were stronger than the findings for English/language arts. When considering whether a school will receive a bonus point for math, the minimum number of observations stated in the district’s evaluation plan was a significant predictor of a bonus point by itself but has a negative relationship associated with a reduction of the probability of getting a bonus point for math. Observation characteristics also had predictors in each model, both centered on the number of required observations in the plan (the actual number or just their presence in the plan). In the models using only the number of observations as a variable, the predictors were associated with an increased likelihood in a penalty and a decreased likelihood in a bonus. For the models with evaluator characteristics data, significant factors found a negative relationship with the likelihood of a school receiving a bonus point for math. When considering whether a school will receive a bonus point for English/language arts, evaluator characteristics did not serve as significant predictors nor does v the minimum number of observations stated in the district’s evaluation plan. One significant relationship was determined in that a district stating in its evaluation plan that both pre- and post-conferences are required, including goal setting, had a positive impact on the likelihood of getting a bonus point for English/language arts versus getting no bonus or penalty.
    • The Black Body as a Counterspace: The Experiences of African American Students at a Predominantly White Institution

      Jones-Malone, Dionne LaShell
      This qualitative study examines the use of counterspaces by eight upperclassman African American students at a predominantly White institution. This study sought to identify how counterspaces were used by African American students and how those counterspaces foster a sense of belonging for students. Field observations and semi-structured, in-depth interviews were utilized as the qualitative techniques for data collection. Based upon the analysis of data, four major themes emerged: (a) the participants‘ impressions of student involvement; (b) the participants‘ encounters with microaggressions; (c) the utilization of individuals as academic and social counterspaces; and (d) the participants‘ comfort with ―being yourself.‖ The findings of the study resulted in implications and recommendations for higher education. In addition, the findings generated recommendations for future research and practice.
    • The Coffee House Classroom: The Difference Between Student and Faculty Perceptions of Classroom Spatial Design in a Community College Environment

      Kent, Katherine
      With the ever increasing need for employees who are capable of problem solving, working in team-based projects, and engaging in professional discourse, it is questionable whether these activities are, or can be, supported and promoted in the typical community college classroom environment containing traditional rows of desks and computers with a professor front and center. These traditional classroom arrangements discourage participatory activities and engagements with peers and faculty due to the very nature of the inflexible and impersonal alignment of side-by-side, row seating. This study investigated the impact of the physical furnishings and the spatial arrangement of a classroom environment on its occupants‘ perceptions and behaviors. Traditional computer classroom settings were compared to a created coffee house style classroom containing a circular seating layout, a variety of seating options, and a mobile instructor‘s station to determine if the difference in furnishings and spatial configuration would produce differing perceptions of a similar academic experience. An examination of the elements of environmental psychology and design provided a background for this study and a foundation for determining the significance and influence of the physical setting in relationship to occupant behavior. This study utilized a quantitative survey instrument supplemented with a qualitative faculty interview and a classroom observation design to investigate the students‘ and faculty‘s perception of English Composition courses held in two different iv classroom settings. Three ENG111 classes were held solely in a traditional computer classroom, three ENG111 classes spent one-half of the class sessions in a traditional computer classroom, for labs, and one-half of the sessions in the coffee house style classroom for discussion and critique. The findings of this study suggests that those students in the classes held in the combination of settings incorporating both the traditional computer classroom and the coffee house classroom had a significantly higher incidence of satisfaction in two items of a seven-item instrument in the areas of Personalization, ×2(2, N = 60) = 3.31, p = 0.025, and Task, ×2(2, N = 60) = 3.01, p = 0.037, than those students who had classes meeting only in the traditional computer classroom. There was only a slightly significant student perception difference in the area of Cohesiveness, ×2(2, N = 60) = 2.36, p = 0.058, in favor of the courses held solely in the traditional computer classrooms. The faculty member teaching all six ENG111 courses reported a high degree of satisfaction with the coffee house classroom environment arrangement and results.
    • The Effects of Using PBWorks in a Hybrid Collaborative Class Environment on Students' Academic Achievement

      Ibrahim, Abdullah
      E-learning plays an important role in higher education, especially with the appearance of web 2.0. The study investigated the effects of using PBWorks, as a free web 2.0 wiki, on students’ academic achievement, and students’ attitudes toward collaborative learning. The study was designed as an experimental study. There was comparison between two groups. These groups were the PBWorks hybrid class environment, and face-to-face class environment. Both classes used collaborative learning. The participants in this study were 51 female students in Educational Communication Aids. Both classes had the same instructor and they studied the same material. This study was conducted in the college of education in Kuwait University. The results of the study showed that there was not a significant difference in the post academic achievement test. However, the PBWorks group made more progress than the face-to-face group when we consider the pre-test. On the other hand, the result of the students’ attitudes toward collaborative learning showed there was a significant difference in the post-test in all six variables, which were monitoring working procedures, participation, monitoring group progress, helping each other, giving feedback, and the need to be monitored, and the face-to-face group had higher attitudes toward collaborative learning than the PBWorks group. Finally, one of the most important advantages of this study was that both groups had a positive increase in the academic achievement test and questionnaire that assessed attitudes toward collaborative learning.
    • The Experience of Baccalaureate Degree Seeking Nursing Students Undergoing The Process of Clinical Evaluation Appraisal

      McCutchan, Judith A.
      This phenomenological qualitative study examines the experiences of nine baccalaureate nursing students undergoing the clinical evaluation process at two institutions. The clinical performance appraisal (CPA), an identified challenge for faculty and students alike, is a tool utilized for assessing nursing students‟ behaviors in the clinical setting. The national need for registered nurses that is projected to increase 22.2% by the year 2018 is cause for alarm. The importance for nursing faculty to understand and implement the clinical evaluation process is an important part of meeting this need while facilitating student learning. The lived experiences of nine student nurses were collected by way of semi-structured, digitally recorded, and in-depth interviews. Based upon the analysis of data, four major themes emerged: (a) the impact of an absent instructor; (b) all instructors are different; (c) input into the evaluation process; and (d) the evaluation process is a formality. Implications and recommendations for higher education are presented. To complete the study, recommendations for research and conclusions are made.
    • The experiences of African-born women faculty and administrators at colleges and universities in the United States

      Afoaku, Oyibo
      ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to document the experiences of African-born women faculty and administrators at colleges and universities in the United States. The study explored the factors that motivated African-born women to immigrate to and extend their stay in the United States beyond completion of their education; factors they perceive as constraint on their quest for self-empowerment and identity as foreign students, college instructors, and/or administrators, and parents; and factors that have enabled them to adapt to their host culture and achieve their educational and professional goals even though they had to contend with multiple challenges associated with living in America as Black women. Eight women who are currently or previously serving as faculty or administrators were interviewed for this study. Participants were originally from Benin, Cameroun, Congo, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, and Tanzania. Six of them were faculty and three were administrators. Ten themes emerged from the study: family-centered cultural orientation, multicultural perspectives, dealing with transition and culture shock, preservation of cultural heritage, American higher education culture, American higher education structure, American higher education curriculum, American higher education policy, limited leadership opportunity for African-born women, and alumni loyalty. The participants expressed reservations about the status quo and want to see significant improvement in diversity policy and practices on their respective campuses that will yield substantive outcomes for all stake holders, including foreign students, foreign-born faculty and administrators. The study concluded by recommending inclusive dialogue and communication, comprehensive policy process; broad leadership structure, and wide-ranging mentoring programs as steps that can enhance the experiences of African born faculty and administrators at colleges and universities in the United States.
    • The Experiences of Working-Class College Students Who Became University Presidents

      Springer, Mary E.
      Working-class students enter college lacking necessary capital to predict their academic and personal success making college success less likely than for middle class students (Bufton, 2003; Mack, 2006; Paulsen & St. John, 2002; Rose, 1997; Wegner, 1973). This same social class origin helps to define experiences, provides context for understanding these experiences, and ultimately can be a strong motivation to succeed. With the help of personal and professional mentors, strong working-class family values, and an innate drive to succeed, the university presidents in this study have survived in a culture in which they did not have the necessary capital to naturally be academically, personally, and professionally successful. With a strong proportion of today’s first-time college students enrolling directly from high school, almost 55% nationally, and almost 40% nationally coming from working-class backgrounds, the university presidents in this study have provided a strong insight into the experiences and culture of working-class college students and those who become university presidents (U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2008).
    • The impact of compensation models on professional development and collaboration

      Reckard, Kathryn Margaret
      The purpose of this study was to determine whether professional developmen t a nd collaboration practices are a ffected by performance pay in schools. The study investigated the differences in perceptions of principals, veteran teachers, and beginning teachers. S ix questions and statements were posed relating to both professional development and collaboration . Based on the findings, no significant difference in perception of professional development and collaboration exists between educators currently utilizing a compensation model and those not utilizing a compensation model. Second, where a compensation model was implemented, principals were predicted to have higher levels of agreement regarding their views on professional development. Additionally, beginnin g teachers were predicted to have higher levels of agreement regarding their views on professional development than veteran teachers. Third, where a compensation model was not implemented, principals were predicted to have higher levels of agreement regar ding their views on professional development . Also , beginning teachers were predicted to have higher levels of agreement regarding professional development than veteran teachers. Fourth , where a compensation model was implemented, principals were predict ed to have higher levels of agreement regarding their views on collaboration veteran and beginning teachers. B eginning teachers also were predicted to have higher levels of agreement regarding collaboration than veteran teachers. Last, where a compensati on model w as not implemented, building type, position, or years of experience do not serve as predictors of collaboration
    • The Impact of First-, Second-, and Third-Grade Teachers on Third-Grade Student ISTEP+ Scores

      Bartley, Jane A.
      This study used existing third-grade ISTEP+ data from a cohort of Evansville Vanderburgh School Corporation students to evaluate various non-experimental methods for estimating teacher effects on student test scores. The study considered the impact that first-, second-, and third-grade teachers had on student performance as measured by the Indiana standardized test in third grade by looking for recognizable patterns of success based on teacher assignment in a cohort of 350 students. By making the assumption of randomness in assigning students to teachers and controlling for student transience, demographics, and teacher movement, the variances of mean ISTEP+ scores were examined to determine and quantify differences based on teacher links. Descriptive statistics summarized possible patterns of success based on teacher links for the cohort as a whole and each school individually by grade level. Differences among teachers by grade level were examined by using an ANOVA model. Regression analysis was used to probe patterns of achievement based on teacher combinations as well as the predictability of ISTEP+ scores based on first-, second-, or third-grade teachers.
    • The Impact of High School Schedule Type on Instructional Effectiveness and Student Achievement in Mathematics

      Hackney, Joel
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the impact of high school schedule type on instructional effectiveness and student achievement in mathematics. An analysis was prepared to determine the schedule types currently used in math classes, whether significant differences exist between schedule types on the percent of students meeting or exceeding on the 2011 PSAE math test, how teachers rate the effectiveness of a schedule they currently use versus how others that use a different schedule rate the same schedule for various student outcomes in mathematics, and whether significant differences exist in the effectiveness ratings between schedule types on various student outcomes in mathematics. The research design involved a population of 350 lead math teachers or math department chairs currently teaching at a 9–12 high school in Illinois. Teachers’ beliefs on the effectiveness of the different schedule types on various student outcomes were collected using a 23-item survey. Statistical analysis of the data included descriptive analysis for selected items, means, and standard deviations. A one-way ANOVA was used to test whether significant differences existed between schedule types on the percentage of students meeting or exceeding standards on the 2011 PSAE math test, and a comparison of the mean ratings for each schedule type was used to determine how teachers rated the effectiveness of a schedule type they currently use versus how others who use a different schedule type rated the same schedule. Repeated measures one-way ANOVAs were used to determine whether significant differences existed in the effectiveness ratings between schedule types on various student outcomes in mathematics. Significance was identified at the .05 level.In all, 91 lead math teachers or math department chairs of high schools in Illinois responded to the survey instrument, which questioned the perceived level of effectiveness of the traditional schedule, AB block schedule, 4 x 4 block schedule, and trimester schedule for 11 different student outcomes in mathematics. As a result of the analysis, there were no significant differences found in the percent of students meeting or exceeding standards on the 2011 PSAE between schools on a block schedule versus those on a traditional schedule. The analysis showed that teachers currently on a traditional schedule rated the traditional schedule higher than those currently teaching on a block schedule. Teachers currently teaching on a block schedule rated the block schedule more favorably than teachers currently teaching on a traditional schedule. However, teachers currently teaching on a block schedule rated the traditional schedule as the most effective overall for most of the student outcomes. When analyzing the responses of all of the respondents, the traditional schedule was perceived to be more effective than all other schedule types for eight of the 11 student outcomes while the AB block schedule was rated most effective for only one outcome.
    • The impact of racial identity on self-esteem and academic achievement among African American adolescent female students

      Griddine, Ke'Shana Y.
      Utilizing a critical race theory perspective, I investigated how racial identity relates to self- esteem and academic achievement. The sample consisted of 100 African American female adolescents (age 13-17) who lived mostly in the Western regions of the United States. The Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity-Teen and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were administered to assess racial identity profiles and levels of self-esteem. Grade point averages were collected via self-report as a means of capturing academic achievement. The data were analyzed using cluster analysis with a follow-up MANOVA. The cluster analysis using the combination of hierarchical and non- hierarchical methods resulted in a viable three-cluster solution.The first cluster represented girls who held high humanist and low public regard beliefs (n =29). The second cluster group represented girls who scored higher on the centrality subscale and the nationalist sub-dimension (n = 31). The third cluster consisted of girls who have high levels of public regard and low nationalist beliefs (n = 29). The MANOVA revealed no significant relationship between the participants’ racial identity clusters and grade point average and their levels of self-esteem. The results of this study provide further understanding and evidence of multidimensionality in racial identity among female African American teenage students.
    • The Impact of Remedial Education on Nursing Student Success

      Peters, Laurie F.
      The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of remedial education on nursing student success. This quantitative, retrospective study utilized Alexander Astin’s (1993) Input-Environment-Outcomes (I-E-O) model to explore the relationship between demographic variables (inputs) and the number and type of remedial courses taken (environmental variables) on final cumulative grade point average (GPA) and first-time pass rates on the NCLEX-RN state licensure examination (outcomes). The study examined 1,678 associate degree nursing (ADN) graduates between 2004 and 2007 in a state-wide community college system. The analysis identified MAT 050/Basic Algebra as the only remedial course to have the statistical power to be included in the model as a predictor of final cumulative GPA. However, the model only accounted for .4% of the variance indicating there are other factors influencing students’ GPA besides the MAT 050 course. Results suggest that female students are less likely to need remediation in ENG 032/Reading Strategies for College II and more likely to need remediation in MAT 050/Basic Algebra. Ethnicity and age were found to be weak predictors of final cumulative GPA and pass/fail performance on the NCLEX-RN examination. Number and type of remedial courses showed no statistically significant, predictive relationships with pass/fail rates on the NCLEX-RN examination. Understanding the impact of remedial education on nursing student success can ultimately influence the number of nurses available to meet the needs of an aging population.