• Examining State Development in West Africa, through Senegal and Nigeria

      Housley, Kasandra L. (2011-03-16)
      This paper studies the relationship between the state and armed conflict in West Africa with an emphasis placed on the value, influence, and role of social institutions on the long-term stability of the West African state. The countries of the Republic of Senegal and Nigeria represent the primary focus of the paper. Comparisons are made of the history of each country/state and experience with socio-political conflict in an effort to explain the penultimate place of social as opposed to legalistic or political influences responsible for the long term survival of the independent state in West Africa. The central question explored in this study is: is the survival of the state in West Africa due to the strength of socio-institutional influence as related to culture or ethnicity, or does primacy of power rest with legalistic influences that are the by-products of the legal establishment such as a state Constitution, the political party system, or established electoral procedures? Chapter 1 explores this issue in-depth with an examination of literature from a variety of major sources as they relate to the central question posed in this study (see above). Chapters 2 and 3 delve further in the specifics with detailed cases of Senegal and Nigeria. Chapter 4 attempts to compare and contrast the complexities and similarities found in the Senegal and Nigeria cases. Chapter 5 summarizes the findings of the study. This study demonstrates the importance of social institutions in West African state formation and reaches the conclusion that in the case of the nations of West Africa at least, successful state formation ultimately rests on strong social institutions that function to fortify political cohesion while facilitating long-term stability and cohesion.
    • Persistent Revolutions in Colombia and Peru: A Comparative Analysis

      Huson, Brandon (2011-06-17)
      This thesis performs a comparative analysis of rural-based revolutionary movements in Latin America. The movements that are compared are the FARC, originating in Colombia, and the Shining Path, which emerged from the highlands of Peru. The comparison is meant to serve as a test for what variables are predictive of revolutionary success. Since these movements differ in their success in establishing permanent political, social and military movements in their countries over time, their dichotomous outcome can be used to point toward variables that warrant further consideration. Comparison of revolutionary movement makes sense in this case due to the similarities between the FARC and Shining Path, including geography, income distribution, historical political development and international context. However, the politics of these two countries contribute greatly to how these states adapt to their international environment and historical political development, providing a compelling point for analysis and explanation for the different scale of revolutionary success achieved.
    • Characteristics of Difficult Patients in Prisons Compared to Difficult Patients in Primary Care Settings

      Kistler, Emily (2011-07-19)
      Research has found that patients perceived as being difficult by their physicians share a number of characteristics. These "difficult" characteristics include Axis I disorders, personality disorders, somatization, complex health problems, and aggression. Current research has focused on defining "difficult patients" in community populations, while other populations have gone overlooked. One population that has prevalence rates of the "difficult" characteristics identified in community samples is offenders. As a group, offenders tend to have high rates of mental illness, chronic health problems, and behavioral issues such as aggression. While difficult patients in prison may resemble difficult patients in the community, research has not examined patient characteristics among offenders. It may be that offenders present with additional "difficult" characteristics, such as malingering, due to the uniqueness of the prison environment. This study examined nurses perceptions to difficult patients in prison and in primary care settings. It was hypothesized that difficult offender patients would be perceived as having more psychopathology, malingering more frequently, seeking medication more frequently, making more frequent requests to see the doctor, and that there would be a higher rate of difficult patients in correctional settings as compared to difficult patients in primary care settings. Results show that correctional nurses perceived difficult patients exaggerating their medical symptoms more, being less truthful about their symptoms, being more drug-seeking, and being less reasonable in their requests for medication than difficult patients in the community. There were no significant results in ratings of mental health, manipulative behavior, or requests to see the physician. Additionally, correctional nurses indicated that there are a higher percentage of difficult patients in their setting as compared to community nurses. Results from this study will help generate techniques or suggestions that may alleviate some of the problems nurses experience while treating offenders as well as improving the overall quality of the interaction between offenders and health professionals. This may, in turn, improve offender patient medication compliance, reduce the number of unnecessary doctor appointments, and reduce health-care provider burn-out. Other possible implications include improving the overall health of offender patients and reducing the amount of unnecessary spending to treat patients (e.g.improving patient compliance).
    • Disclosure Involving a Third-Party: Reciprocity and Liking Outcomes

      Cotterell, Keith (2011-09-19)
      This investigation examines the function of third-party disclosures on reciprocal self-disclosures and liking. Sixty-eight college students engaged in a social interaction with one or two computers. In the experiment, one computer would “disclose” information either about itself or about another computer (third-party). Each disclosure was followed by a question to the participant. Questions were asked either by the discloser or by third-party to assess reciprocation of disclosures. Afterwards, participants rated liking for the two computers-as-social-actors. Participants showed a tendency to disclose more (i.e., give longer responses) to an actor who disclosed to them, regardless of whether the disclosure was about the self- or about a third-party (though intimacy of the disclosures was not different). Participants did not disclose more to the third-party whom they heard disclosures about. Liking was unaffected by the disclosures. These results suggest that positive social benefits may be gained by disclosing about another in the place of oneself. Having another individual disclose about oneself, did not elicit of the same social benefits. Implications are discussed about the nature of disclosures and relationship formation.
    • Self-Expansion and Couple Possessions: The Representation of The Self and Other in Valued Possessions

      Paniccia, Lindsey (2011-09-20)
      The current study seeks to understand the influence of romantic relationships on identity symbolism, specifically the use of personal possessions as a means of achieving social validation. According to self expansion theory (Aron & Aron, 1986), engaging in a romantic relationship alters one’s sense of self; romantic partners take on the qualities and characteristics of a partner and integrate them into the self. To understand the process of identity symbolism due to one’s newly expanded sense of self, this study investigated the link between the amount of reported self-expansion and couple representativeness as well as the function of one’s possessions (other-direct identity claim, self-directed identity claim, feeling regulator, and utility). Participants were asked to read a vignette in which they were told their home had been destroyed by a tornado and were then asked to list three possessions which they wished to find among the rubble. Results indicated that reported self-expansion is associated with the tendency to choose couple representative possessions as indicators of the self. As hypothesized, couple representativeness was significantly correlated with tendency to use possession as other-directed identity claims (as evidenced in both reported function and placement) and feeling regulators. Additionally, reported couple representativeness was significantly correlated with the tendency to use possessions as self-directed identity claims and for utility. This study provides support for the relationship between self-expansion and the tendency to communicate one’s expanded self to others by means of material possessions as well as the emotional significance tied to such possessions.
    • Racial Identity and Religiousness: Role of Religion and Racial Identity on Substance Use In African American College Students

      Mailey, Chaz D (2011-09-20)
      The present study sought to explore the relationships between Black racial identity, religiosity, and substance use in African American college students. Religiosity has commonly been identified as a protective factor against substance use for many ethnic groups, and historically religion has played a significant role in the lives of African Americans. Surprisingly, some research suggests that while important, religiosity may not be as strong of a protective factor against abuse or excessive consumption of substances for African Americans as it is for other ethnicities (Amey, Albrect, & Miller, 1996). It has been suggested that for African Americans, a strong ethnic identity can help moderate drinking (Klonoff & Landrine, 1999; Pugh & Bry, 2007). One hundred and eighty-four African American students recruited from three Midwestern predominantly White universities, one Midwestern predominantly Black university and one Historically Black Southern university completed an online questionnaire consisting of the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS); the Religious Involvement subscale from the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religion and Spirituality (BMMRS), measures of alcohol and marijuana use, and the Young Adult Alcohol Problems Screening Test (YAAPST). As hypothesized, racial identity and religiousness/spirituality were related with substance use in African American college students. The secondary hypothesis that black racial identity would be a better predictor of substance use than would religiousness/spirituality was not supported. For African American students in the current sample, religiosity was a better predictor of substance use than was Black racial identity. However, several differential relationships were observed between males and females. Overall, the study contributes support to the literature regarding how Black racial identity and religiosity influence substance use in African Americans. Limitations, significant findings, and possible directions for future research are presented.
    • An Examination of the Influence of Religion on the Forgiveness Process

      Johnson, Gregory J. (2011-09-20)
      This study sought to examine the religion-forgiveness hypothesis in the context of the forgiveness process in an attempt to better understand the basis of the relationship. Data was collected from 140 participants in an online survey that contained measures of religious behaviors, religious beliefs, religious fundamentalism, empathy, emotional intelligence, forgiveness, and social desirability. A hypothesized model specified that religious variables of religious belief, behavioral religiosity, religious fundamentalism would be predictive of forgiveness when mediated by emotional intelligence and fully mediated by empathy. Using structural equation modeling, it was found that religiosity was predictive of greater levels forgiveness when mediated by empathy; however, religious fundamentalism was found predict lower empathy and lower levels of forgiveness. Examination of alternative models indicated that religiosity did not predict forgiveness unless mediated by empathy and although social desirability was predictive of empathy, its influence on the religiosity-empathy relationship was minimal. Implications and limitations are discussed.
    • Family functioning and temperament as predictors of preschoolers coping with daily stressors.

      Jones, Pamela.D (2012-04-12)
      Understanding how preschool children cope is a first step toward identifying adaptive ways of coping which reduce stress and ultimately can decrease the risk of dysfunctional behavior. However, the literature on preschooler's coping is minimal, in part due to the lack of assessment tools. This research examined preschoolers coping with daily stress in an attempt to assess what coping styles would be used across different situations.I hypothesized that family environment and temperament would affect the coping style used and that temperament would moderate the effects of the family environment.A secondary question concerned the efficiency of the coping. In order to accomplish this, a scale was developed to assess coping across four situational domains.Using mothers as the primary reporter,the preschooler's temperament,family functioning and coping behaviors were assessed and the relationships were examined.I investigated the ability of family control and cohesiveness,child temperament and an interaction of cohesiveness and temperament to predict coping styles. This model was very good at predicting coping in situations where a child was trying to master a task; adequate for predicting coping in emotional situations; and has limited predictive ability in parent-child or peer situations. There was some support for the moderating effects of temperament. Temperament was a robust predictor of coping style, whereas family cohesion was not.Other findings suggest that children who have emotional temperaments used emotional types of coping.Children in families with more interfamily cohesion, or whose parents have higher levels of education, used more cognitive behavioral-problem solving.Ratings of coping efficacy resulted in cognitive-behavioral problem solving being most effective in Mastery situations,moderate emotional coping being most effective in Parent-child domain and highly emotional coping was rated as most effective in Emotional situations.
    • Moderating role of self-monitoring in the presentation of self through display of possessions.

      Burchard, Piotr.T (2012-04-12)
      The literature concerning the nature and presentation of the self is briefly reviewed, and the role of self-monitoring as a moderator in the presentation of self through display of possessions is discussed. It is hypothesized that high self-monitors differ from low self-monitors in the extent to which their private and public living spaces reveal their personality.Photographs of living rooms and bedrooms of 40 homeowners of different living status were collected to serve as stimuli and measure of the homeowner's personality and self-monitoring were taken.The photographs were presented to unacquainted observers who rated the homeowner's personality on the same scale.The correlations and discrepancy scores between the self-reported personality scores and observer's ratings were calculated for high and low self-monitoring homeowners for each living status category.The results, although partially consistent with findings of previous research,failed to provide clear support for the proposed and factors that could have influenced the obtained pattern of results are discussed.Lastly, limitations of the present study are acknowledged, and directions for further research are proposed.
    • Oliver Cromwell:change and continuity

      Ellis, Kari.L (2012-04-12)
      This study looks at the life of Oliver Cromwell,Lord Protector of England in an effort to clarify the diverse and conflicting interpretations resulting from a lack of agreement between those who are biased for and against the Lord Protector.The purpose of the study of this conflicting information is not to settle whether Cromwell was a good figure or bad, but to define more clearly his time.Cromwell, clarified creates a broader understanding of the seventeenth century Englishman.An introduction develops a brief summarization of Pre-Reformation Europe,the forces which brought changes,Reformation Europe and the Post-Reformation era in which Cromwell lived.The non-Cromwellian periods were included to develop a broader picture for the reader of the atmosphere into which Cromwell emerged.The study concentrates on six key points of conflict within the lifetime of Cromwell and discussion of those conflicts through use of periods or roles within his life.Cromwell's changeable nature does not lend itself to a static,one dimensional interpretation, but rather to one that attempts to incorporate the normal fluctuations of human nature and the continuity of change.This study concludes with no-earth shattering developments,but with the assertion that Cromwell's seeming inconsistencies are indicative of a man who illustrates not the static,stiffness which brings frequently disastrous results,but rather his openness to change.He is a prime example of how the only constant in life is change.Finally,the conclusion is a call to other students of history for recognition of the need for further action in defining not only Cromwell, but his time and a thorough investigation and study of the seventeenth century through interpretive works.
    • An extension of McGuire's inoculation theory to controversial topics.

      Roberts, Michele.S (2012-04-16)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the extension of McGuire's inoculation theory to controversial topics.It was assumed that the employment of controversial topics would reverse the conditions described as obtaining with the employment of cultural truisms.McGuire's first study on the inoculation theory was used as a paradigm,and three hypotheses were investigated:Hypothesis One: A supportive treatment will be superior to a refutational treatment in conferring resistance to persuasion.Hypothesis Two: An active participation in developing defenses will increase the amount of immunity conferred.Hypothesis Three:There is an interactive effect between the type of defense(supportive versus refutational) and the amount of participation(active versus passive): the demands of an active defense will be less detrimental in a supportive defence than in a refutational defense.To test these hypotheses,pretesting was conducted to identify a topic which produced a mean range closest to 7.5 on a 15-interval attitude scale.On the basis of this pretest,130 S's were chosen from 2 local high schools who rated from 1 to 3 the identified topic.Seven days following the pretest,S's were told that they were participating in an investigation of the relationship between reading and writing skills,and were assigned to 1 to 4 treatment conditions.S's in passive treatment conditions were required to read a prepared essay on the controversial topic and underline the main sentence;S's in active treatment conditions were required to follow a prepared outline and construct an essay on the controversial topic.S's in refutational treatment conditions were exposed to refutations of possible arguments counter to the controversial topic.An attitude measure completed this first session.Two days later,all S's were required to read and underline the main sentences in an essay attacking the controversial topic.A final attitude measure completed the study.A two-way analysis of variance was used to test the relative effects of active and passive participation in supportive and refutational treatments.This comparison of attack protest to pretest scores failed to provide support for any of the three hypotheses tested.Failure to demonstrate the predicted effects was probably due to the noted weaknesses in the experimental design.It was suggested that future research was necessary to determine whether differences between belief maintenance in cultural truisms and controversial topics were obscured by faulty experimental design,or simply do not exist.
    • Cross racial preferences in viewing sexually explicit material:a comparison bewteen African-American and Caucasian males.

      Horton, Boyd Randal (2012-04-16)
      The present study investigated that extent to which the race of actors in an erotic video affected sexual arousal in African-American and Caucasian heterosexual males.It was hypothesized that the two racial groups would be significantly more sexually aroused while watching their respective homoethnic erotic video.The htpothesis was grounded in the modeling effects of Bandura's Social Leaning Theory(1977),the Matching Hypothesis(1982)and worldview differences between African-Americans and Caucasians(Baldwin and Bell,1985.Thirty-four African-American and Caucasian males were shown homoethnic and non-homethnic erotic videos while penile circumference,systolic and diastolic blood pressures,and self-report ratings of sexual arousal were measured.In addition,sexual attitude measures and an xultural identity questionnaire were given to the participants to assess whether sexual attitudes and cultural identity questionnaire were given to the participants to assess whether sexual attitudes and cultural identity were related to sexual responitivity.The hypothesis was not supported.The results of this study showed that the race of actors in an erotic video did not affect differentially the sexual responding of the African-American and Caucasian men.However,systolic blood pressure tended to be a more sensitive indicator of general arousal in African-American men.While this study failed to support the hypothesis,the results did provide data relevant to the study of male sexuality in the laboratory setting.This area of research is still new and deserves more attention.
    • Effect of item clarity and probability of item endorsement on response latencies on personality test items.

      Kinney, James.R (2012-04-16)
      In this study,regression analysis was used to examine the affects of item clarity and probability of endorsement on response latencies of 60 undergraduates responding on personality test items from the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire(16 Personality Factor test) (Cattell,Eber & Tatsuoka,1970,5th Edition).Response latencies to personality test items,though frequently studied,have yet to be operationally utilized in the interpretation of personality tests.Forty-four items from the 16 Personality Factor test were selected.Each item from the original test was rated for clarity and matched with an emotionally neutral statement with an equivalent number of words.The standard test items and reconstituted items were also matched for linguistic complexity.For example:Standard test item:"i consider myself a very socially bold,outgoing person."Reconstituted test item:"Books and magazines can be found in a library."Original test items were administered to 60 undergraduates in standard,pencil-and-paper format and computer format.In the computer format each standard test item was followed by a linguistically matched,emotionally neutral reconstituted item and all response latencies were recorded.The data were analysed with response latency being the dependent variable and item clarity and endorsement probability as independent variables.It was found that item clarity and endorsement probability did not relate to response latency on standard test items,neutral questions matched to standard test items or adjusted test items.This finding was attributed to the likelihood that subject responses to items reflect a binary decision-making process which requires relatively simple and consistent responses.16 Personality Factor test item response latencies adjusted by subtracting latencies of linguistically neutral items were also not affected by item clarity or probability of endorsement.Consistent with the finding of both Van Merrienboer et al.(1989) and Rattan(1992),it is suggested that the amount of time required for the successful completion of a task depends,in part,on the task's psychological complexity and specific nature.It is also suggested,consistent with Sternberg(1989),that the amount of time required for various tasks does not operate as a consistent function(of intelligence),but rather as a function of the interaction between the task and the individual's psychological and intellectual make up.
    • Personality assessments and their uses in Washington State registered health and human service organizations.

      McKeague, Marianne Ille (2012-04-16)
      The problem of this study was to identify the uses of personality assessments and their resulting consequences on employment at organizations registered with the Northwest Region of the U.S Department of Health and Human Services.This investigation reported on the application of psychometric testing within the organizational context.Specific to this study was personality or behavioral assessments administered when recruting,evaluating or evaluating or retaining workers,the potential implications of behavioral/personality assessments on workers within the organization,and the organizational value perceived by testers utilizing these forms of personality assessments.The investigation examined the current personality measuring practices of organizations by analyzing their responses to a survey questionnaire.The intent of the questionnaire was to determine if responses represented a trend toward a standardization of personality assessment use for purposes of employment development,recruitment,and retention.Response data revealed that use of personality/behavioral tests isn't prevalent at State registered health and human service organizations.Data collected exhibited limited familiarity of personality/behavioral tests isn't prevalent as State registered health and human service organizations.Data collected exhibited limited familiarity/behavioral assessments and a trend against a standardization of personality assessment use in health and human service organizations.Recommendations for future studies are specific to the fundamental hiring and screening processes administered at health and human service organizations,and the instruments utilized for screening individuals desiring to work with vulnerable or disadvantaged populations.Additionally,a duplicate study applying equivalent methodology to a dissimilar demographic re:law firms,retail outlets,or technology companies has the capacity to render information vital for broad analysis of consistency,contextual application,and diversity of workplace personality/behavioral testing.
    • Self-concept,academic achievement,and sex as correlates of human figure drawings.

      Grubb, Deborah (2012-04-16)
      The purpose of the study was to determine whether or not there is a relationship between children's human figure drawings(HFDs),self-concept measured by the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale(CSCS),academic achievement and sex.The HFDs were analysed using the Koppitz(1984)scoring system for emotional indicators(EIs),a global rating of "pathological" or "not pathological",critical items drawn from past research,and the Goodenough-Harris(1963) scoring system.The subjects were 120 middle school students matched for sex and drawn for high or low achievement levels on the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills(CTBS).The results indicated that each of the HFD scoring methods was related to self-concept on the Piers-Harris CSCS.However,when achievement,sex,Koppitz EIs,critical features,global score,and the Goodenough-Harris score were all included in a stepwise multiple regression analysis,achievement was by far the best single predictor of self-concept.The results indicated that three of the four HFD scoring methods used in the study were significantly related to achievement level on the CTBS.These were Koppitz EIs,one critical feature,and the Goodenough-Harris HFD score.There were no sex differences on the global HFD score or the Piers-Harris CSCS.The intent of the study was to determine if HFDs could be validated as a measure of self-concept and to determine their relationship to academic achievement and sex.The present research indicates that both global score and individual HFD features are related to self-concept for adolescents.It also indicates that there are significant sex and achievement level differences in HFD performance.It appears that the prudent use of HFDs is an adjunct to other forms of evaluation.
    • Characteristics associated with resilience in battered women.

      Chang, Mei-I (2012-04-17)
      Higgins(1994)offered resilience as an alternative conceptual approach to the traditional focus on psychological growth despite an abusive relationship.The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between staff ratings ofresilience,individual psychological resources,and situational abuse factors.A sample of 105 battered women,served by San Deigo domestic violence agencies,was administered a battery of five questionnaires assessing constructive thinking,social support appraisal,optimism,psychological distress,and abuse experiences.Agency staff members recruited participants and provided clinical ratings of resilience.Correlational and multiple regression analyses indicated that six psychological concepts were not predictive of staff ratings.Staff members rated women who utilized fewer community resources as more resilient.There were significant inter-correlations among four of the six psychological variables,suggesting that there may be different dimensions of resilience.The intrapsychic aspects of resilience may consist of greater constructive thinking,positive appraisal of social support,greater optimism,and less psychological distress.
    • Assessment of emotionally disturbed adolescents using the Porschach:An analysis of the EA/es relationship.

      Mulder, Jordan.L (2012-04-17)
      There is a long history of debate regarding the validity of the Rorschach Inkblot test.Much of the previous research has involved adult subjects within clinical settings.This study investigates the validity of the Rorschash with adolescents classified as being emotionally disturbed according to the educational definition.School personnel and,particularly,school psychologists have the difficult task of identifying individuals who are emotionally disturbed(ED).It appears that a valid measure of covert processes may be helpful in making these determinations.Due to the vast number of scores and codes generated from the Rorschach using Exner's(1978)Comprehensive Scoring System,this study is limited to analysis of the Experience Actual(EA),experience stimulus(es)and codes that comprise them.Forty-nine adolescents classified as ED were used for the experimental sample.Sample data were compared to normative data published in Exnor's workbook(Exner,1990).The findings show ED adolescents have lower EA and es scores than non-ED individuals.Nearly two-thirds of the ED sample had EA scores that were lower than their es scores.Results support that interpretation of the EA and es provides information regarding emotional functioning.Analysis of the codes that comprise the EA and es,perhaps,raised more questions than found answers.However,there was evidence that achromatic and shading responses are associated with emotional disturbance.
    • Learning styles of Myers-Briggs Type Indicators

      Cohen, Juanita Jane (2012-04-17)
      This research study illustrated that personlaity type influences learning type.The study compared the personalities expressed in Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI)to Felder and Silverman's(1998)Index of Learning Styles(ILS).Phase one was a combined MBTI and ILS assessment that was administered to 105 participants.To further define learning style,phase two was a follw-up questionnaire administered to 37 participants and was based on Goley's(1982)Learning Pattern(LP)assessment.The research did indicate a correlation between specific dichotomies of MBTI,ILS and LP.The Extravert and Introvert dichotomy in MTBI appeared to correlate with the Active and Reflective dichotomy in ILS.Furthermore,a relationship emerged for MBTI Sensing and the ILS Sensory dichotomy,although no connection appeared in MBTI and the ILS Intuitive dichotomies.Moreover,participants who preferred MBTI Sensing dichotomy generally preferred Sequential learning.Participants with Intuitive personality in MBTI appeared to be either Sequential or Global learners.Finally,it was interesting to note that 68% of the participants scored as Visual as opposed to Verbal learners.The findings indicated personality does affect leaning styles.Curriculum designers and corporate trainers should consider personality in their training.Although the number of participants was small,the findings were significant enough to indicate that further research could improve training effectiveness and should be conducted.
    • Indiana laws affecting health care providers in psychology:abuse of children and endangered species.

      Repetz, Nancy K. (2012-04-17)
      This project discusses Indiana law addressing child abuse and abuse of endangered adults as it relates to the practice of psychology.Intended as a resource for psychologists,this paper reviews important issues in the areas of child abuse and abuse of endangered adults,offers understandable explanations of the laws and procedures utilized in the application of these laws in Indiana,discusses ethical concerns related to confidentiality and offers suppositions for public policy and advocacy by the profession.In addition,selected text of the Indiana Code is presented for future references.
    • The validity of selected draw-a-person test classifying criteria among homosexual and non homosexual males.

      Ornsteiner, Joel Von (2012-04-18)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the validity of Machover's(1949)interpretation that attention to both the hips and buttocks drawn by males subjects in their first male Draw-A-Person Test(DAP) or the drawing of a female figure first are significant indicators of male homosexuality.The hypothesis was that the frequency of these homosexual indicators among non-instituted homosexuals indicators among non-instituted homosexuals would be significantly higher(P = < .05) than the male heterosexual group.One hundred homosexual and 100 heterosexual males were selected from groups of volunteers from two universities,one bookstore and a community center in the New York area.The subjects were administered a DAP test in booklet format and a questionnaire.The drawings were classified for homosexual indicators blindly and independently by three judges who were trained in the use of the Machover interpretation of the DAP. Chi square analyses were calculated for the frequency of hips and buttocks and for the drawing of a female figure first and no significant differences between the self identified homosexual and heterosexual male groups in the expected direction were found.It was concluded that the lack of any significant difference between the scores of the homosexual and heterosexual males in this study casts considerable doubt on the validity of the male homosexual interpretations explored.Speculations were made concerning the widely discrepant results from past studies and this investigation.The majority of the past research had been conducted within institutional settings and there have been cultural changes over the last fifty years in both psychology and society's tolerance for the male homosexual.Unlike any previous DAP study,one-hundred urban homosexual and one-hundred heterosexual males were randomly selected.This researcher cautions that the DAP test should be interpreted with other available information,and results based on its independent use are viewed with much skepticism.Implications for future research were discussed.