The Psychology program at ISU encourages a spirit of active inquiry and critical thinking, life-long learning and development and social responsibility. The curriculum is based on the premise that any student of psychology, regardless of program goals, should be well-informed about basic principles of behavior. The undergraduate degree in psychology prepares students for graduate studies in psychology and related fields as well as employment in a variety of settings including health services, research, government and business.

Recent Submissions

  • Moderating Effects of Religious Orientation on the Relationship Between Sexual Self-Discrepancies and Guilt and Anxiety

    Jones, Ann E. (2015-01-07)
    The current study examined the moderating effect of religious orientation on the relationship between sexual self-discrepancies and guilt. There is some evidence of a positive correlation between sex-guilt and higher levels of religiosity. In this study it was proposed that sex-guilt in religious individuals is partially driven by discrepancies between actual sexual behaviors and how the individual thinks that they ought or ideally should behave. In order to test this idea a survey was administered to 151 undergraduate students to assess religious orientation, actual, ought, and ideal sexual behaviors, and sex guilt. Gender differences were found in reporting intrinsic religiosity, sexual behavior, and sexual attitudes. Men reported more favorable attitudes toward sexual behavior, also, men reported more sexual behaviors than women, no significant difference was found between women and men in the intrinsic religiosity scores, and women reported higher levels of sex anxiety and sex guilt than men. Moderate negative correlations were found between intrinsic religious orientation and penile-vaginal sex for women; and mutual manual stimulation, and attitudes towards sexual permissiveness for men. Intrinsic religious orientation moderated the following relationships: ideal total sexual behavior discrepancy and sex anxiety for men and women combined; ideal manual stimulation discrepancy and sex guilt for men and women combined; ideal total sexual behavior discrepancy and sex guilt in men; and ought masturbation discrepancy and sex guilt in women. That is, those who reported higher levels of intrinsic religious orientation also report higher levels of anxiety and guilt, associated with discrepancies related to sexual behavior. This study contributes to the awareness of how religiosity can affect sex guilt. Based on the results of this study, the bogus pipeline methodology had limited utility when examining the relationships between intrinsic religiosity, sex anxiety, and sex guilt.
  • The Effect of Intentionally Engaging Attention when Viewing Restorative Environments: Exploring Attention Restoration Theory

    Jaggard, Charles E. (2015-01-07)
    Although research exploring Attention Restoration Theory has been extensive, certain procedures for its study seem to be taken as implicit, but require investigation for a deeper understanding and application of both the theory and its underlying processes. This study aimed to answer the questions: “What is the result of engaging directed attention when viewing otherwise restorative environments?” and “Does this intentional engagement have any effect on already fatiguing non-restorative environments?” Participants were asked to complete a task designed to fatigue their directed attentional capacity and then view images of restorative or non-restorative environments, wherein they either were asked to direct their attention to these environments, or were allowed to view them freely. Those viewing restorative environments but asked to direct their attention had significantly lower and even inhibited recovery from Directed Attention Fatigue than participants viewing these environments freely. Additional analyses explored this effect between environments and on a number of subjective measures. Discussion focuses on the role of tasks in the restorative process and the seemingly inherent neutrality or facility of different environments in regards to restoration.
  • The effect of periodicity on temporal attention

    Key, Mickeal Nelay (2014-12-09)
    Currently, there is a gap in the literature in terms of the relationship between implicit learning and temporal attention. This study set out to discover whether implicit learning could influence the modulation of temporal attention. Employing the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) task, 42 volunteers from Indiana State University participated in the 45-minute experiment. The RSVP stream consisted of 11 uppercase letters, with a stimulus duration of 17ms and a presentation rate of 10Hz. Participants were asked to identify one blue target among 10 white distractors for 10 practice trials and 462 experimental trials. There were three independent variables. The first was Position were a target could appear in one of 5 positions in the RSVP stimulus stream. Three of these positions were considered “High-Frequency” and two of the positions were “Low-Frequency. The “Low-Frequency” positions occurred at a 1/3 of the frequency of the “High-Frequency positions”. The second variable was Jitter, were targets were manipulated so that they could appear 33 ms before, exactly at (0 ms), or 33 ms after the underlying 100 ms base periodicity. Periodicity was the third independent variable where participants were divided into two groups, Periodic or Non-Periodic. Those in the Periodic condition had distractors appear at regular 100ms intervals. Those in the Non-Periodic condition had distractors appear in an unpredictable pattern that averaged every 100 ms.. One outcome of the study was the replication of Position effects from a previous study, which supports the attentional awakening phenomenon for both conditions. A more significant outcome of the study was the provision of empirical support for the idea that periodicity is a iv factor that may influence implicit learning of temporal patterns. Results showed that target identification increased with the frequency of target occurrence at specific RSVP positions in the Periodic condition only. It seems periodicity aided participants in implicitly learning where targets were more likely to appear, thereby improving cognitive performance.
  • The Effect of Sex and Gender Role Orientation on Attitudes Towards Individuals with Dependent Personality Disorder

    Slowik, Amanda K. (2014-03-20)
    Research suggests that Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD) is associated with a feminine gender role and the female sex. However, little is known about how men who demonstrate DPD are perceived. Research also suggests that attitudes might be affected by the sex and gender role of the participant, with men and individuals who identify with traditional gender roles making harsher judgments of individuals who exhibit behaviors that are not consistent with traditional gender roles. As the categorical diagnosis of personality disorders has been widely criticized and may soon be replaced, the DSM-5 draft describes the symptoms of DPD using three dimensions (i.e., submissiveness, anxiousness, separation insecurity) in hopes of reducing co-morbidity among diagnoses. The purpose of the present study is to examine attitudes towards men and women with DPD, the moderating effects of participant sex and gender role attitudes, and possible differences between the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 draft conceptualizations of DPD. A sample of 240 undergraduates (99 M, 141 F) from Indiana State University completed the study online. The participants read one of four DPD vignettes (developed following the method adopted by Rienzi et al., 1994), that portrayed a man or woman with DPD as characterized by the DSM-IV-TR or the DSM-5 draft criteria. Participants rated the perceived dysfunction, distress, psychopathology, and impairment of the person in the vignette (using items adopted from Functowicz & Widiger, 1999). They also rated the descriptiveness of the three dimensions of DPD in the DSM-5 for the person in the vignette (using the DSM-5 draft rating scale, APA, 2010) and rated general attitudes towards the person using items from the Rubin (1974) Liking Scale. Finally, participants completed the Social Roles Questionnaire (SRQ; Baber & Tucker, 2006) to examine participants’ attitudes toward gender roles. One-way ANOVAs indicated that female participants were significantly less traditional, less sex-linked, and more gender transcendent than male participants. Multivariate results indicated a significant effect of the covariate (participant’s gender role attitudes), but there were no significant effects of participant sex, sex of the person in the vignette, DSM version, or any significant interactions. The univariate analyses indicated significant differences in all dependent variables except for level of psychopathology as a function of a participant’s gender role orientation. Participants who had less traditional gender role attitudes rated the individual in the vignette more negatively (i.e., more impairment and distress; higher in dependency and the three traits representing DPD in the DSM-5 draft; lower agreement with the statements from the Liking Scale). Additionally, a significant interaction was found for sex of the person in the vignette and participant sex for ratings of distress and one item from the Liking Scale. Specifically, female participants gave significantly higher ratings of personal distress when the vignette described a man than when it described a woman, whereas men assigned similar ratings to both versions of the DPD case. Similarly, compared to men, women indicated less agreement with the statement that most people would react favorably to the person, and the ratings were lower for the male version than the female version of the vignette, whereas men assigned similar ratings to male and female versions of the case. Finally, the person in the vignette was perceived as heterosexual by most of the participants, regardless of which vignette the participants received. Overall, the hypotheses were generally not supported. However, the study provided some support for the importance of attitudes toward gender roles in attitudes towards individuals with DPD, although it does not appear that men with DPD are viewed differently than women with the disorder. Methodological limitations, implications of the findings, and directions for future research are discussed.
  • THE Effects of Social Rank on Shame and Guilt

    Bohaska, Alexandra (2014-03-18)
    The differentiation of shame and guilt is not widely discussed. The reason why some people feel shame while others feel guilt is also not universally understood. Various theories have examined cultural influences and how individuals attribute the outcome of various situations. This paper discusses past theories of the reasons behind shame and guilt and conducts a study that examines how social rank, or lack thereof, could affect a person’s emotional response. It was predicted that when the participants, consisting of college undergraduates and residents of a private community, are primed towards feelings of superordination or equality, via vignettes, they would experience feelings of guilt, whereas those primed towards feelings of subordination would experience shame. Results indicated that there were no differences in feelings of shame and guilt, but the condition participants were placed into may have affected the intensity of these feelings. Furthermore, females were found to report higher levels of guilt than males across all conditions. Lastly, an order effect was found between which vignette appeared first to a participant, resulting in the analysis of only the first vignette a participant received. The results are discussed and it is indicated that the unequal distribution of age, gender and location, in addition to the dropout rate and low number of participants may have affected the lack of significant findings. Finally, it is recommended that a more thorough population and real-life situations be used in the future in order to yield more concrete results.
  • Use of the Combination of the Brief and Basc-2 in Assessment of ADHD

    Knoll, Andrea R. (2014-03-18)
    ADHD is one of the most frequently diagnosed childhood disorders in the United States today; however, diagnostic specificity remains challenging. Accepted models of ADHD routinely highlight the role of executive function (EF) deficits as a core feature of ADHD. However, performance based measures of EF do not consistently discriminate between ADHD and no-ADHD clinical groups. Research has supported use of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in discriminating between ADHD and no-ADHD and between subtypes. However, EF deficits can occur for various reasons. Broad range behavior rating scales help identify areas of behavioral concern that may aid clinicians in understanding EF deficits. The purpose of this study was to assess whether using the BRIEF in combination with the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2) would better discriminate ADHD from no-ADHD in a clinical population than either measure alone. Participants included 115 children referred to an ADHD evaluation clinic. Contrary to hypotheses, a combination of scales from the BRIEF and BASC-2 did not result in higher diagnostic classification as compared to each measure alone. The best classification rate was found when combining the BRIEF-Behavior Regulation-parent and BRIEF-Metacognitive Index-teacher. This finding is in congruence with best practice guidelines that recommend using multiple raters when assessing for ADHD.
  • Working Memory and Executive Functioning Impairment as Endophenotypes of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    Iati, Carina A. (2014-03-18)
    Evidence indicates that impairments in working memory and executive functioning exist in individuals who have decompensated into schizophrenia, as well as their genetic relatives. Few studies, however, have examined whether these impairments function as premorbid indicators of vulnerability to schizophrenia-related disorders in the absence of genetic relatedness for risk determination. According to Meehl’s (1962, 1990) model of schizotypy individuals vulnerable to schizophrenia-related disorders evidence subtle symptoms of vulnerability, referred to as endophenotypes, regardless of whether eventual decompensation occurs. The present study represents a cross-sectional portion of a larger longitudinal study, and investigates whether individuals who demonstrate an elevated risk for future development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders also demonstrate these impairments compared to a normal-risk group in a sample of college students. Risk status was determined by participants’ Wisconsin Schizotypy Scale (WSS) scores. Working memory subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–IV (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-IV (WMS-IV) were compared across individuals determined to be at high risk (psychometric schizotypes; PS) and a matched comparison (MC) sample. Executive functioning, as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), was also compared across these groups. It was hypothesized that schizotypes would exhibit impairment in both of these abilities. Additionally, it was hypothesized that a linear relationship would exist between level of deviancy demonstrated on the WSS and the level of impairment demonstrated on executive functioning and working memory tasks. Results failed to support the hypothesis that aggregate working memory or executive functioning deficits were significantly related to schizotypy. However, performance on the WMS-IV Visual Working Memory Index (VWMI) and the Spatial Addition subtest of this measure indicated impaired performance by PS participants compared to the MC group. Similarly, this investigation failed to find support for a linear relationship between level of impairment and deviance on PerAb and MagId WSS subscales. However, scores on the SocAnh scale did demonstrate an inverse relationship with performance on the VWMI. Further analyses which grouped the PS participants by symptom presentation, revealed that individuals exhibiting a negative symptom presentation, as indicated by deviant scores on the SocAnh scale, demonstrated impairment in visual working memory in comparison to both the MC group and their Per-Mag counterparts who exhibited more positive symptoms. This result is in agreement previous investigations that have specified visual working memory impairment as being related to negative symptom presentation (Cameron, 2002; Park et al., 2003). These results may be influenced by characteristics of the present sample, as the majority of individuals who reported symptoms did so on negative symptom dimensions, with only 6 individuals reporting positive symptomology. Negative symptom dimensions have been proposed to be related to working memory impairment (Gooding & Tallent, 2002), whereas positive symptoms have been proposed to be related to impairment in executive functioning (Donohoe et al., 2006; Lenzenweger & Korfine, 1994). The relative lack of individuals with positive symptom presentation in the current sample likely led to the lack of any notable results with regard to executive functioning. Results of this investigation aid our understanding of the course of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and join the broad body of literature investigating candidate endophenotypes. Future directions for related research include continued investigation into the differences between verbal and visual working memory as related to schizophrenia spectrum disorders, investigation of the present candidate endophenotypes alongside other proposed markers of liability, and longitudinal investigation to determine whether individuals possessing candidate endophenotypes exhibit a greater number of schizophrenia spectrum symptoms.
  • Bias in a Just World? Sexual Prejudice, Gender Self-Esteem, and Intimate Partner Violence

    Mahoy, Crystal D. (2014-03-18)
    Each year, approximately 835,000 men and 1.3 million women are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV; American Bar Association, n.d). Although the prevalence of same-sex intimate partner violence (IPV) is approximately the same as IPV in heterosexual couples (Alexander, 2002), fewer studies have examined perceptions of IPV in same-sex couples or of IPV perpetrated against heterosexual men compared to heterosexual women. In the current study, Just World Theory (Lerner & Miller, 1978) is used as a framework for understanding factors associated with perceptions of heterosexual and same-sex IPV, including sexual prejudice and gender self-esteem. Perceptions of IPV were examined in a sample of 251 male and female undergraduate students from Indiana State University. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four vignette conditions in which the gender of the perpetrator and victim were manipulated, resulting in two heterosexual and two same-sex conditions. Participants then completed several self-report measures, including the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (assesses self-esteem related to gender) and the Modern Homonegativity Scale (assesses sexual prejudice). Participants also completed a measure of social desirability and a measure assessing attributions of blame in the IPV scenario. Results indicated that men and women did not differ significantly in their blame of perpetrators and victims as a function of target character gender or sexual orientation. Additionally, gender self-esteem was not related to blame of victims and sexual prejudice was related to victim responsibility for women but not for men. Sexual prejudice and gender self-esteem were not significantly correlated for men or women. Results emphasize the importance of professionals’awareness of their biases and potential sexual prejudice when working with victims and perpetrators of IPV, particularly gay men and lesbians. Results also highlight the difficulty that heterosexual and gay men and lesbians likely have in obtaining support following IPV victimization. Although results do not appear to provide support for the Just World Theory construct of position identification, it is possible that other factors such as sexual prejudice outweighed the need for women to protect their potential position as a victim.
  • The Effects of Mindfulness Meditation and Resonant Frequency Breath Training on Emotion Regulation and Physiological Responses

    Neary, Timothy James (2014-03-18)
    Efficient, integrative methods to foster greater emotion regulation that are applicable to diverse populations are needed. Mindfulness meditation and resonant frequency breath training are independently positively correlated with changes in emotion regulation. The acquisition of effective emotion regulation strategies may be amplified by the interaction of mindfulness meditation practice and resonant frequency breath training. A sample of 82 undergraduate novice meditators were randomized in a four group design utilizing a control, mindfulness only, resonance only, and combined mindfulness and resonance breath training conditions delivered in a three-week intervention. Self-report measures assessed the use of emotion regulation strategies (ERQ), changes in rates of positive and negative affectivity (PANAS), acquisition of mindfulness skills (FFMQ), and sub-clinical symptoms of distress (DASS-21). Changes to low frequency heart rate variability, breath rate, heart rate, and temperature were evaluated. Results support the effect of resonance breath training on decreasing low frequency and increasing high frequency heart rate variability. The mindfulness training did not yield any effects. The effect of brief resonant breath training on heart rate variability suggests that this may be a viable intervention for re-regulation of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system functioning.
  • Self-Expansion and Breakups: Effects on Possessions

    Sandrick, Caroline (2014-03-18)
    The current study strives to understand the influence of breakups on the expanded self and its representation through possessions. The self-expansion theory (Aron & Aron, 1986) states that involving oneself in a romantic relationship alters one’s sense of self by taking on the partner’s characteristics and qualities and integrating them into the self. The study examined the reported self-expansion in the relationship and the couple representativeness of a possession to see if this affected the outcome of the possessions (kept vs. discarded). Participants were asked to report their three favorite possessions and five possessions they would keep (or kept) and five possessions they would discard (or discarded). As hypothesized, people in self-expanding relationships kept (or would keep) possessions that were more representative of their relationships; this was not found for items that were discarded (or would be discarded). People in a prior self-expanding relationship had more relationship representative items as their favorite possessions; this was not seen for those currently in a self-expanding relationship. There was no significant relationship between self-expansion in a prior relationship and emotional distress or self-concept clarity for those who were dumped by their partner. This study provides some support for the idea that people keep possessions from self-expanding relationships to receive support for the expanded self.
  • An experimental study of achievement by problem readers

    Wills, Mildred (2013-11-15)
    Not Available
  • The Effect of Sex and Gender Role Orientation on Attitudes towards Individuals with Dependent Personality Disorder

    Slowik, Amanda K. (2013-09-06)
    Research suggests that Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD) is associated with a feminine gender role and the female sex. However, little is known about how men who demonstrate DPD are perceived. Research also suggests that attitudes might be affected by the sex and gender role of the participant, with men and individuals who identify with traditional gender roles making harsher judgments of individuals who exhibit behaviors that are not consistent with traditional gender roles. As the categorical diagnosis of personality disorders has been widely criticized and may soon be replaced, the DSM-5 draft describes the symptoms of DPD using three dimensions (i.e., submissiveness, anxiousness, separation insecurity) in hopes of reducing co-morbidity among diagnoses. The purpose of the present study is to examine attitudes towards men and women with DPD, the moderating effects of participant sex and gender role attitudes, and possible differences between the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 draft conceptualizations of DPD. A sample of 240 undergraduates (99 M, 141 F) from Indiana State University completed the study online. The participants read one of four DPD vignettes (developed following the method adopted by Rienzi et al., 1994), that portrayed a man or woman with DPD as characterized by the DSM-IV-TR or the DSM-5 draft criteria. Participants rated the perceived dysfunction, distress, psychopathology, and impairment of the person in the vignette (using items adopted from Functowicz & Widiger, 1999). They also rated the descriptiveness of the three dimensions of DPD in the DSM-5 for the person in the vignette (using the DSM-5 draft rating scale, APA, 2010) and rated general attitudes towards the person using items from the Rubin (1974) Liking Scale. Finally, participants completed the Social Roles Questionnaire (SRQ; Baber & Tucker, 2006) to examine participants’ attitudes toward gender roles. One-way ANOVAs indicated that female participants were significantly less traditional, less sex-linked, and more gender transcendent than male participants. Multivariate results indicated a significant effect of the covariate (participant’s gender role attitudes), but there were no significant effects of participant sex, sex of the person in the vignette, DSM version, or any significant interactions. The univariate analyses indicated significant differences in all dependent variables except for level of psychopathology as a function of a participant’s gender role orientation. Participants who had less traditional gender role attitudes rated the individual in the vignette more negatively (i.e., more impairment and distress; higher in dependency and the three traits representing DPD in the DSM-5 draft; lower agreement with the statements from the Liking Scale). Additionally, a significant interaction was found for sex of the person in the vignette and participant sex for ratings of distress and one item from the Liking Scale. Specifically, female participants gave significantly higher ratings of personal distress when the vignette described a man than when it described a woman, whereas men assigned similar ratings to both versions of the DPD case. Similarly, compared to men, women indicated less agreement with the statement that most people would react favorably to the person, and the ratings were lower for the male version than the female version of the vignette, whereas men assigned similar ratings to male and female versions of the case. Finally, the person in the vignette was perceived as heterosexual by most of the participants, regardless of which vignette the participants received. Overall, the hypotheses were generally not supported. However, the study provided some support for the importance of attitudes toward gender roles in attitudes towards individuals with DPD, although it does not appear that men with DPD are viewed differently than women with the disorder. Methodological limitations, implications of the findings, and directions for future research are discussed.
  • The Correspondence of Attachment Dimensions to Prayer Styles Among Undergraduate Students

    Lamkin, Nathaniel Aaron (2013-09-05)
    Despite the fact that prayer is a daily practice for many Americans, and is considered by some the heart and soul of spirituality, relatively little research has been conducted to understand the individual differences of people’s prayer styles. A previous study found that people who have higher levels of avoidance attachment are less likely to engage in prayers that are designed to facilitate a closer relationship with God (e.g., Meditative and Colloquial). It also found that people who have higher levels of anxious attachment are more likely to engage in help seeking types of prayers (e.g., Petitionary). Since the study, two additional prayer models have been developed making it beneficial to reexamine this relationship. One-hundred and ninety nine undergraduate students in psychology courses at Indiana State University received the three prayer style measures (Prayer Questionnaire, Inward Outward Upward Prayer Model, and Multidimensional Prayer Inventory), the Relationship Scale Questionnaire (RSQ), and other related variables (e.g., demographics, student stress scale, and early religious involvement). A hierarchal regression analysis found that none of the four prayer styles that were believed to facilitate a relationship with God showed a negative relationship with avoidance attachment. Two of the three help seeking prayer styles positively correlated with anxious attachment, with the magnitude of the relationship being small. Both prayer styles that significantly correlated dealt with asking for material things, with non-significant prayer style dealing with more impersonal issues. Overall, the results showed only adequate support that attachment and prayer style relate in a meaningful way. Age and race appear to be moderating variables for many of the prayer styles. Implications of the results will be discussed.
  • K-12 System Reforms Across Studies: The Significance of Change,Meta-Analysis, and Logistics Regression

    Almutairi, Mashal (2013-08-28)
    The main purpose of this research was to survey the literature about the U.S. education system and synthesize the important conclusions that could be identified as the main features of the education system in general as they relate to student achievement. The criteria were set and the meta-analysis procedures were carefully followed. This process identified a collection of studies that were categorized into three main groups which were named components to indicate the purpose of the research: (a) calendar, (b) teaching method, and (c) extracurricular activity participation. After calculating the effect size of each of these components, they were entered into a binary regression equation to examine the effect of each component on the overall significance which represented the importance of the factor on the education system. As LOGIT (binary regression) measured the odds ratio of such factor importance on the education system, the concern of joint probability changing all groups on the overall significance emerged. Although these components were found to be important on the education system, their joint effect, changing them together, was also important. However, it was found that these three groups had one thing in common, which was time exposure of students on learning within each factor. In other words, it seemed that the importance of these groups was expressed in the latent factor that was time exposure to learning for students. Therefore, increasing the time exposure of learning for students was the main requirement to envision a new alternative system which incorporates many of the existing system ingredients, such as buildings and staff. The research concluded with a vision for a new suggested system based on the findings and the view that could be used as general guidelines for the future K-12 education system.

View more