Browsing Psychology by Subject "Parenting."
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Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder and Sleep Disturbances: Consideration of Familial InfluencesThe present study examined the extent to which parenting influences problems with sleep in children referred for an evaluation of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Data was collected from parents and/or legal guardians of sixty-three 4- to 12-year old children referred for assessment at an ADHD Evaluation Clinic located at a Midwestern university. Previous literature linking sleep problems to ADHD has typically derived from community and pediatric sleep clinic samples and has largely overlooked children with sub-clinical sleep impairments and/or those whose sleep problems stem from alternate etiologies. More than 60% of parents/caregivers in the current study reported significant child sleep difficulties. As hypothesized, parenting (as related to the implementation of daily routines) added to the explained variance in sleep problems above and beyond the variance explained by an ADHD diagnosis. However, neither parent use of routines nor parenting stress were significant individual predictors of child sleep problems. Parent report of child internalizing symptomology, but not externalizing symptomology, was significantly correlated with reported problems with sleep. The present results suggest that children who display behaviors associated with anxiety and depression may be particularly likely to exhibit sleep difficulties and that evaluation of sleep difficulties should include consideration of parenting practices (i.e., lack of consistent sleep routines). Given the high percentage of sleep problems reported, current results also suggest that screening for sleep disturbances should be a routine part of child assessment.
Parental compliance to clinical recommendations in an ADHD clinic.Psychological assessments are a cornerstone of clinical practice in psychology,but if results and recommendations are not used to guide treatment interventions, their value is greatly diminished. Currently, there is very little research that examines adherence to treatment recommendations given to parents or caregivers following psychological evaluations of their children. The present study expands on previous research (MacNaughton & Rodrigue, 2001) examining perceived barriers to parental compliance with psychological assessment recommendations by considering the impact of severity of child behavior problems and parenting stress on compliance. Eighty caregiver/child dyads were recruited through an ADHD evaluation clinic and caregivers completed a telephone interview approximately 4 to 6 weeks after receiving recommendations for their children's care. It was predicted that parents/caregivers reporting greater levels of stress would report lower levels of compliance; parents/caregivers reporting greater levels of compliance would report greater improvement in children's behavior; parents/caregivers would report compliance to less than 70% of the recommendations (MacNaughton & Rodrigue, 2001) and the recommendation to which parents/caregivers most commonly adhered would be that of consulting with a non-psychological professional (i.e., physician). Results revealed that caregivers reporting greater levels of parenting stress were more likely to report following recommendations, that greater levels of compliance were associated with greater levels of improvement, that caregivers reported adherence to 81.5% of recommendations, and that caregivers were equally likely to engage in active self-help recommendations (i.e., parent education on ADHD) and those for professional nonpsychological services (i.e. consulting with a physician for medication) and least likely to follow through on recommendations for psychological services (child. or family counseling). The most commonly reported barriers to following recommendations were 1) that caregivers had not had time to comply and 2) that teachers were uncooperative with implementing school-based recommendations.
Parenting a Child with Behavior Problems: Dimensions of Religiousness that Influence Parental Stress and Sense of CompetenceParenting a child with behavior problems has been associated with an increase in parental stress and a decrease in parental sense of competence. While parental religiosity has generally been associated with greater child and parent functioning, it has been suggested that when parenting a child with behavior problems, some aspects of parental religiousness (e.g., negative religious coping, biblical conservatism) might decrease functioning. One hundred and thirty-nine parents of children between the ages of three and twelve completed a questionnaire in order to examine the influence of religious variables (sanctification of parenting, negative religious coping, positive religious coping, biblical conservatism) on the relationship between child behavior problems and parental stress and sense of competence. Sanctification of parenting was found to moderate the relationship between child behavior problems and parental stress, such that parents high in sanctification showed little change in parenting stress as severity of behavior problems increased. Similarly, positive religious coping was found to play a protective role in the relationship between behavior problems and parental sense of competence. Overall, positive religious coping was related to increased stress in parents of children with few behavior problems while not decreasing stress for parents of children with more difficult behavior. Parents of children with greater perceived behavior problems reported significantly higher sanctification of parenting and parenting stress, as well as lesser use of positive religious coping and lower sense of competence. Negative religious coping and biblical conservatism did not moderate the relationship between child behavior problems and parental stress, nor sense of competence. This study provides further clarification of the dimensions of religiousness that are relevant to the parenting experience. It also provides evidence to suggest that parental religiousness can have either a positive or negative influence on parental functioning, depending on parenting circumstances and personal perceptions of God and religion.