• A Comparison of the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide, Psychopathy Checklist, and child and Adolescent Taxon Scale: Predictive Utility And Cross Cultural Generalizable

      Lister, Michael Bruce (2010-09-22)
      The Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) is a widely utilized measure for estimating the risk of violent reoffending among forensic populations. However, completing the VRAG can be a lengthy process as it requires entering scores from a second test, the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R), which must be administered separately and requires hours to complete. In order to reduce scoring time, the authors of the VRAG have developed a brief checklist, the Child and Adolescent Taxon Scale (CATS), which can be used in place of the PCL-R as a more efficient method of assessing psychopathy (Quinsey et al., 2004). Previous research has shown the CATS can identify antisocial individuals and yields similar VRAG risk estimates when substituted for the PCL-R (Glover et al., 2002; Quinsey et al., 1998). However, these investigations employed predominantly Caucasian samples, and evidence supporting the validity of the CATS with ethnically diverse populations is presently lacking. This dissertation research addressed these concerns by examining the predictive utility and cross-cultural generalizability of VRAG scores calculated using the CATS with a more racially diverse sample of forensic psychiatric patients. In addition, the utility of the CATS as a stand-alone measure of psychopathy was examined. The relationship between CATS, VRAG, and PCL-R scores was assessed, and the instruments were compared in terms of their ability to predict the length of time African American and Caucasian patients were treated in a maximum security hospital before being approved for a transfer to a less restrictive setting. As expected VRAG probability estimates for recidivism did not differ depending on whether the CATS or the PCL-R was used as the index of psychopathy. In addition, the CATS showed good concurrent validity with the PCL-R, and no significant race related scoring differences were observed. Finally, the CATS was the only risk assessment measure able to predict the length of time before participants were approved for transfer to a less restrictive setting. Findings are discussed in terms of the implications for clinical-forsensic practice.
    • Assessing Risk of Violence in Caucasian and African-American Male Forensic Patients

      Herriott, Brandy Lynn (2013-01-30)
      Violence risk assessment, or the ability to predict the likelihood of a criminal offender’s to commit a violent act in the future, is an essential role of psychologists in the criminal justice system. One of the most widely used violence risk assessment instruments is the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG). The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is the most widely used measure of psychopathy and is often used as part of violence risk assessment, including in the the VRAG. The PCL-R is lengthy and time-consuming process, which has led to the development of the Childhood and Adolescent Taxon Scale (CATS), which is a shorter, more time efficient measure of psychopathy that can also be used in the VRAG. This study is an extension of research done by Bolton (2006) that was designed to assess and compare the utility of the PCL-R and CATS, specifically when used within the VRAG. The current study hypothesized that VRAG scores calculated with the CATS as its index of psychopathy would be equivalent to scores obtained with the PCL-R, supporting the use of the more time efficient CATS in prediction of likelihood of violent recidivism. It was also hypothesized that VRAG scores would be equivalent in assessment of both African-American and Caucasian offenders, regardless of which psychopathy measure was used. Furthermore, Bolton’s research identified potential racial bias in the use of violence risk assessment scores when making decisions concerning patients’ level of security and restrictiveness. The current study also examined decisions concerning levels of security and restrictiveness, and related violent risk assessment scores. One hundred twenty male forensic inpatients from a Midwestern psychiatric hospital [Caucasian (N=65), African-American (N=55)] were selected at random for inclusion in this study. Contrary to the hypotheses, results found that the VRAG-P and VRAG-C scores were not equivalent. VRAG-P scores were significantly higher than VRAG-C scores for the overall sample and African-American patients. However, scores were not significantly different for Caucasian patients. There were no significant differences within any risk assessment instrument based on race. Finally, no significant differences were found in decisions related to level of security between Caucasian and African-American subjects. Findings are discussed and their implications for clinical practice.