• Bias in a Just World? Sexual Prejudice, Gender Self-Esteem, and Intimate Partner Violence

      Mahoy, Crystal D. (2014-03-18)
      Each year, approximately 835,000 men and 1.3 million women are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV; American Bar Association, n.d). Although the prevalence of same-sex intimate partner violence (IPV) is approximately the same as IPV in heterosexual couples (Alexander, 2002), fewer studies have examined perceptions of IPV in same-sex couples or of IPV perpetrated against heterosexual men compared to heterosexual women. In the current study, Just World Theory (Lerner & Miller, 1978) is used as a framework for understanding factors associated with perceptions of heterosexual and same-sex IPV, including sexual prejudice and gender self-esteem. Perceptions of IPV were examined in a sample of 251 male and female undergraduate students from Indiana State University. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four vignette conditions in which the gender of the perpetrator and victim were manipulated, resulting in two heterosexual and two same-sex conditions. Participants then completed several self-report measures, including the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (assesses self-esteem related to gender) and the Modern Homonegativity Scale (assesses sexual prejudice). Participants also completed a measure of social desirability and a measure assessing attributions of blame in the IPV scenario. Results indicated that men and women did not differ significantly in their blame of perpetrators and victims as a function of target character gender or sexual orientation. Additionally, gender self-esteem was not related to blame of victims and sexual prejudice was related to victim responsibility for women but not for men. Sexual prejudice and gender self-esteem were not significantly correlated for men or women. Results emphasize the importance of professionals’awareness of their biases and potential sexual prejudice when working with victims and perpetrators of IPV, particularly gay men and lesbians. Results also highlight the difficulty that heterosexual and gay men and lesbians likely have in obtaining support following IPV victimization. Although results do not appear to provide support for the Just World Theory construct of position identification, it is possible that other factors such as sexual prejudice outweighed the need for women to protect their potential position as a victim.
    • Characteristics associated with resilience in battered women.

      Chang, Mei-I (2012-04-17)
      Higgins(1994)offered resilience as an alternative conceptual approach to the traditional focus on psychological growth despite an abusive relationship.The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between staff ratings ofresilience,individual psychological resources,and situational abuse factors.A sample of 105 battered women,served by San Deigo domestic violence agencies,was administered a battery of five questionnaires assessing constructive thinking,social support appraisal,optimism,psychological distress,and abuse experiences.Agency staff members recruited participants and provided clinical ratings of resilience.Correlational and multiple regression analyses indicated that six psychological concepts were not predictive of staff ratings.Staff members rated women who utilized fewer community resources as more resilient.There were significant inter-correlations among four of the six psychological variables,suggesting that there may be different dimensions of resilience.The intrapsychic aspects of resilience may consist of greater constructive thinking,positive appraisal of social support,greater optimism,and less psychological distress.
    • Characteristics of Difficult Patients in Prisons Compared to Difficult Patients in Primary Care Settings

      Kistler, Emily (2011-07-19)
      Research has found that patients perceived as being difficult by their physicians share a number of characteristics. These "difficult" characteristics include Axis I disorders, personality disorders, somatization, complex health problems, and aggression. Current research has focused on defining "difficult patients" in community populations, while other populations have gone overlooked. One population that has prevalence rates of the "difficult" characteristics identified in community samples is offenders. As a group, offenders tend to have high rates of mental illness, chronic health problems, and behavioral issues such as aggression. While difficult patients in prison may resemble difficult patients in the community, research has not examined patient characteristics among offenders. It may be that offenders present with additional "difficult" characteristics, such as malingering, due to the uniqueness of the prison environment. This study examined nurses perceptions to difficult patients in prison and in primary care settings. It was hypothesized that difficult offender patients would be perceived as having more psychopathology, malingering more frequently, seeking medication more frequently, making more frequent requests to see the doctor, and that there would be a higher rate of difficult patients in correctional settings as compared to difficult patients in primary care settings. Results show that correctional nurses perceived difficult patients exaggerating their medical symptoms more, being less truthful about their symptoms, being more drug-seeking, and being less reasonable in their requests for medication than difficult patients in the community. There were no significant results in ratings of mental health, manipulative behavior, or requests to see the physician. Additionally, correctional nurses indicated that there are a higher percentage of difficult patients in their setting as compared to community nurses. Results from this study will help generate techniques or suggestions that may alleviate some of the problems nurses experience while treating offenders as well as improving the overall quality of the interaction between offenders and health professionals. This may, in turn, improve offender patient medication compliance, reduce the number of unnecessary doctor appointments, and reduce health-care provider burn-out. Other possible implications include improving the overall health of offender patients and reducing the amount of unnecessary spending to treat patients (e.g.improving patient compliance).
    • Cross racial preferences in viewing sexually explicit material:a comparison bewteen African-American and Caucasian males.

      Horton, Boyd Randal (2012-04-16)
      The present study investigated that extent to which the race of actors in an erotic video affected sexual arousal in African-American and Caucasian heterosexual males.It was hypothesized that the two racial groups would be significantly more sexually aroused while watching their respective homoethnic erotic video.The htpothesis was grounded in the modeling effects of Bandura's Social Leaning Theory(1977),the Matching Hypothesis(1982)and worldview differences between African-Americans and Caucasians(Baldwin and Bell,1985.Thirty-four African-American and Caucasian males were shown homoethnic and non-homethnic erotic videos while penile circumference,systolic and diastolic blood pressures,and self-report ratings of sexual arousal were measured.In addition,sexual attitude measures and an xultural identity questionnaire were given to the participants to assess whether sexual attitudes and cultural identity questionnaire were given to the participants to assess whether sexual attitudes and cultural identity were related to sexual responitivity.The hypothesis was not supported.The results of this study showed that the race of actors in an erotic video did not affect differentially the sexual responding of the African-American and Caucasian men.However,systolic blood pressure tended to be a more sensitive indicator of general arousal in African-American men.While this study failed to support the hypothesis,the results did provide data relevant to the study of male sexuality in the laboratory setting.This area of research is still new and deserves more attention.
    • Desirable personality traits of teachers

      Reed, Loren T. (2012-08-16)
      Not Available.
    • Diagnosis of Depersonalization Disorder

      DeHoff, Margaret R. (2010-09-22)
      Depersonalization Disorder (DPD) is considered both under-researched and underdiagnosed. A variety of reasons have been proposed for the under-diagnosis of DPD, including the high frequency of depersonalization as a symptom and comorbidity of DPD with other disorders. Under-diagnosis of DPD has also been attributed to inadequate diagnostic criteria in the DSM-IV-TR, as it lists only four criteria and only one specifically addresses the phenomenon of depersonalization. Several groups of researchers have proposed more comprehensive and in-depth conceptualizations of DPD. Further, common biases in clinical decision-making, such as an over-reliance on cognitive heuristics and the use of prototypes, can contribute to inaccurate diagnosis and under-diagnosis. A national sample of licensed psychologists was randomly selected and recruited from the membership of the American Psychological Association. The study was conducted on-line and participants were asked to read one of two DPD cases, assign a diagnosis, and rate the representativeness of a series of diagnoses for the case. They were also asked to rate the presence of a list of symptoms, including the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria for DPD, and the symptoms and dimensions of DPD and depersonalization from the literature. Half of the participants were asked to assign a diagnosis and then rate symptoms (simulated prototype approach) while the others rated the symptoms before assigning a diagnosis (simulated DSM-IV approach). The study found that clinicians under-diagnosed DPD and that the DSM-IV depersonalization criterion had high sensitivity but not adequate specificity. Results indicated that a simulated DSM-IV approach improved accuracy of diagnosing DPD. Finally, results indicated that the symptoms of DPD and depersonalization proposed by researchers had better predictive value for DPD representativeness ratings than the current DSM-IV criteria, but not for a diagnosis of DPD. The results of this study have implications for the diagnostic criteria for DPD, clinical decisionmaking strategies, clinical training, and future research on DPD.
    • Disclosure Involving a Third-Party: Reciprocity and Liking Outcomes

      Cotterell, Keith (2011-09-19)
      This investigation examines the function of third-party disclosures on reciprocal self-disclosures and liking. Sixty-eight college students engaged in a social interaction with one or two computers. In the experiment, one computer would “disclose” information either about itself or about another computer (third-party). Each disclosure was followed by a question to the participant. Questions were asked either by the discloser or by third-party to assess reciprocation of disclosures. Afterwards, participants rated liking for the two computers-as-social-actors. Participants showed a tendency to disclose more (i.e., give longer responses) to an actor who disclosed to them, regardless of whether the disclosure was about the self- or about a third-party (though intimacy of the disclosures was not different). Participants did not disclose more to the third-party whom they heard disclosures about. Liking was unaffected by the disclosures. These results suggest that positive social benefits may be gained by disclosing about another in the place of oneself. Having another individual disclose about oneself, did not elicit of the same social benefits. Implications are discussed about the nature of disclosures and relationship formation.
    • Disorders of Extreme Stress, Not Otherwise Specified, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Borderline Personality Disorder: A Vignette Study Exploring Clinicians' Diagnostic Perceptions

      Knowles, Awen (2010-05-11)
      Research suggests that some individuals who suffer invasive, early childhood trauma develop significant character pathology, and may meet the criteria for both Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Trauma researchers have proposed a new diagnostic category for these individuals, called Disorders of Extreme Stress, Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS), also known as Complex PTSD. The present study compared clinicians’ symptom ratings for two case vignettes to determine if DESNOS was a better description of the cases than PTSD, BPD, or comorbid PTSD/BPD. Additionally, potential sex bias in diagnosis was examined by manipulating the sex of the client in the vignette, and examining effects of participant sex. A national sample of 123 licensed psychologists completed the study online. The participants read both vignettes, rated the symptoms in each case, and assigned a diagnosis. The hypothesis that DESNOS would receive higher mean symptom ratings than PTSD, BPD, or comorbid PTSD/BPD was not supported. PTSD and BPD each received higher mean symptom ratings than DESNOS in Vignette A, but in Vignette B there were no significant differences in the symptom ratings. The hypothesis that sex of the client in the vignette would influence the diagnosis of BPD was not supported in Vignette A, but was supported in Vignette B, in which all BPD diagnoses were assigned to the female case. The hypothesis that female participants would endorse higher PTSD diagnostic ratings than would male participants was not supported. However, female participants assigned higher PTSD symptom ratings, and endorsed more of the symptoms of PTSD for Vignette A than did male participants, suggesting that the women attended more to the trauma history in the case. Overall, the study provided limited support for the construct of DESNOS. Limitations of the methodology, implications of the findings, and directions for future research are discussed.
    • Domain specific identity commitment and alcohol use and problems.

      Glanville, Alison (2012-04-18)
      Identity formation is an important developmental task of the college days.Previous research has demonstrated that identity commitment,as defined by James Marcia,is related to decreased substance use and problems.That is,individuals who are identity achieved or foreclosed use substances less frequently and experience fewer substance-related problems than do individuals who are classified in the statues of identity diffused or moratorium.However,Marcia discussed identity as developing in two domains,the occupational and the ideological(religious beliefs and political ideology).To date,no studies have examined in which domain commitment is associated witha decrease in substance use and problems.Using a sample of 283 college students,the present study sought to examine the relationship between identity development in these domains and alcohol use and problems.It was hypothesized that identity commitment in the ideological domain,rather than the occupational domain,would account for the relationship between overall identity commitment and substance use and problems and that this relationship would be mediated by anxiety.Overall,the hypotheses were not supported by the data.Identity commitment was not a significant predictor of alcohol use and problems and identity crisis was a better predictor than commitment.Religious identity appeared to the best predictor of alcohol use and problems of the three identity domains.Of the separate identity status,identity achievement had the highest predictive value for alcohol use.Finally,there was no evidence in the data to support the hypothesis that any relationships between identity and alcohol variables were mediated by anxiety.Limitations of the current study include differences in sample and measures as compared to other studies,as well as a number of variables that were not measured here. Implications and applications for working with adolescents and for substance abuse treatment are discussed along with recommendations for future studies.
    • Early recollection and hypnosis.

      Coram, Gregory J (2012-04-23)
      This study compared the contents of Early Recollections(ERs)obtained from Ss in a hypnotic state with the ERs obtained from the same Ss ina normal waking state.This comparison was done in an attempt to dsicover differences in the content of the ER's collected under two conditions that might be significant for a more complte understanding of personality.Forty individuals,20 scoring at or above the 60 percentile on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility,Form A and 20 scoring at or below the 19 percentile,were randomly selected for the study.The 40 Ss were administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale,Form C.Subjects scoring _+ 1 of their group score were selected for continuation in the investigation.Ss failing to reach criterion were replaced by randomly selected Ss matched for sex and susceptiblity.Ss participated in two different sessions approximately two weeks apart.Two ER's were initially elicited from half of the Ss in anormal waking state;another set of ERs was solicited by using a standard induction technique.For the other half of Ss this order was counterbalanced.The counterbalance technique was utlilized to control for any carryover effects.The stattistical design for this study was a 2(sex) X2 (Levels of Susceptibility) X2(Order) X2 (Condition-with or without hypnosis) factorial design, with the last factor repeated for all subjects.After collection of ERs,scoring of protocols began.To this end the Manaster-Perryman Scoring Manual was employed.This manual contains 42 variables divided among seven categories.ERs were independently scored by 2 judges after a study of the manual.A reliability test was conducted to determine the degree of agreement between scores.Three scores were generated for each variable:a score on each varibale for each ER and a total score(T-score) overall two ERs on each variable.ER-T scores were analysed by the analysis of variance procedure to determine differences,if any,across conditions.There were no carry-over effects(the content of the ER reported earlier did not have any influence/effect on the content of the ER reported later,whether the content reported earlier was elicited while the Ss were in hyponosis or in the ordinary waking state).Carry-over effects were analysed not only for individual items but also for clusters.The content of the ERs of hypnotic Ss showed not only a significant increase in "themes" but also an increase in "details" when compared to non-hypnotized subjects.In their ERs,Ss in hyponosis mentioned "mother" offered themes conatining "misdeeds","hostility",,"mastery", and "mutality";reported "visual" and "motor" detail;and revealed "active" content significantly more often than did Ss in the "ordinary" waking state.Irrespective of state, ie hypnosis or non-hypnosis,amles offered more themes related to "death" than did females;on the other hand females verbalized more themes of "hostility" than did males.In hypnosis low suspectible males and females offered more "school-relevant" settings than did low suspectible males,whereas low suspectible females produced more "school-relevant" settings than did high suspectible females.High susceptible Ss reported more themes related to "hostility" during hypnosis,whereas low susceptible Ss did not differe in reporting "hostility" across states.Further,high susceptible males revealed more themes of "mutuality" irrespective of state than did low susceptible males;however,high susceptible females,irrespective of state,revealed significantly fewer themes of "mutality"than low susceptible females.The implications of these findings for a more comprehensive understanding of personality are discussed from Adlerian and non-Adlerian perspectives.
    • Effect of item clarity and probability of item endorsement on response latencies on personality test items.

      Kinney, James.R (2012-04-16)
      In this study,regression analysis was used to examine the affects of item clarity and probability of endorsement on response latencies of 60 undergraduates responding on personality test items from the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire(16 Personality Factor test) (Cattell,Eber & Tatsuoka,1970,5th Edition).Response latencies to personality test items,though frequently studied,have yet to be operationally utilized in the interpretation of personality tests.Forty-four items from the 16 Personality Factor test were selected.Each item from the original test was rated for clarity and matched with an emotionally neutral statement with an equivalent number of words.The standard test items and reconstituted items were also matched for linguistic complexity.For example:Standard test item:"i consider myself a very socially bold,outgoing person."Reconstituted test item:"Books and magazines can be found in a library."Original test items were administered to 60 undergraduates in standard,pencil-and-paper format and computer format.In the computer format each standard test item was followed by a linguistically matched,emotionally neutral reconstituted item and all response latencies were recorded.The data were analysed with response latency being the dependent variable and item clarity and endorsement probability as independent variables.It was found that item clarity and endorsement probability did not relate to response latency on standard test items,neutral questions matched to standard test items or adjusted test items.This finding was attributed to the likelihood that subject responses to items reflect a binary decision-making process which requires relatively simple and consistent responses.16 Personality Factor test item response latencies adjusted by subtracting latencies of linguistically neutral items were also not affected by item clarity or probability of endorsement.Consistent with the finding of both Van Merrienboer et al.(1989) and Rattan(1992),it is suggested that the amount of time required for the successful completion of a task depends,in part,on the task's psychological complexity and specific nature.It is also suggested,consistent with Sternberg(1989),that the amount of time required for various tasks does not operate as a consistent function(of intelligence),but rather as a function of the interaction between the task and the individual's psychological and intellectual make up.
    • Effects of selctive lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis on working memory in rats.

      Noble, Michelle Marie (2012-04-23)
      The nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) of the rat brain is analogous to the nucleus basalis of Meynert found in humans. Alzheimer's disease patients have working memory impairments, which may be attributable to damage to the basal nucleus of Meynert. Excitotoxins such as quisqualic and ibotenic acid have been previously used to make lesions of the NBM in research animals. NBM lesions made with ibotenic or quisqualic acid are known to impair working memory. However, in addition to damaging the cholinergic neurons of the NBM, the lesions made by these excitotoxins also destroy cells of other nearby structures, and it is unclear whether the impairments found are due to damage to the NBM or to surrounding non-cholinergic structures. With the recent advent ofthe highly selective immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin, it may be possible to determine if lesions involving only the cortically projecting NBM cholinergic neurons impair working memory. The current experiment tests the hypothesis that selective lesions of cholinergic neurons of the NBM impair working memory. To test this hypothesis, a delayed non-matching-to-position-task was used as a test for working memory. Results of this experiment provide novel evidence of the involvement of the cholinergic neurons of the NBM in working memory and will contribute to our understanding of the cognitive impairments seen in Alzheimer's disease.
    • Ethnicity and Therapeutic Alliance.

      Huertas, Victor M (2012-05-08)
      The therapeutic alliance,defined as a relationship between the therapist and patient in which they work together in a realistic collaboration based on mutual respect,liking,trust and commitment to the work of the psychotherapeutic treatment,is thought to be an important component of successful therapeutic interventions and may also serve to reduce premature terminations.The concept of therapeutic alliance,however,has not been addressed directly in the ethnic minority literature.Literature pertaining to the psychotherapeutic treatment of ethnic minorities was reviewed with an emphasis on therapeutic alliance.Factors that may influence the development of an adequate therapeutic alliance with ethnic minority patients are identified and discussed.In addition, recommendations for integrating into clinical psychology training programs the process of building therapeutic alliances with ethnic minority are made.
    • Family factors of resilient and non-resilient children

      Williams, Roger Duane (2012-05-10)
      The focus of this study was to determine if resilient and non-resilient children could be differentially described by a sub-set of the following varibales:parental attitude toward education,sibling order,siblings who dropped out of school,family composition,parental divorce or separation,familial drug or alcohol abuse,and physical or sexual abuse.The sample of fourth,seventh,and tenth garde at-risk children was selected from data provided by Phi Delta Kappa.Of this sample,102 were determined to be resiient and 258 were determined to be non-resilient.The null hypothesis was tested by a stepwise discriminant analysis.Tests of significance were computed,ascertaining the most parsimonious subset of discriminating variables.Tests of classification accuracy and total variance explained in the dependent variables were conducted.The criterion groups were significantly differentiated by four of the seven predictor varibales.The families of resilient children were found to have a positive parental attitude toward school,higher incidences of divorce or separation within the past year,more problems with alcohol or drug use,and to be headed by a single parent.The variable contributing the most to the separation of the resilient and non-resilient groups was parental attitude toward education.Those variables that did not contribute to group diferences were sibling order,physical or sexual abuse,and sibling drop outs.Conclusions drawn from the findings of the study suggested the modearting effects of parental attitude toward schooling.In particular,the protective effect of positive attitudes toward assistance providers and taking assertive action to resolve difficulties was indicated.Proactive efforts that involve the families of at-risk children was determined to be important of training psychologists in family-oriented theories and intervention techniques was proposed.
    • Family functioning and temperament as predictors of preschoolers coping with daily stressors.

      Jones, Pamela.D (2012-04-12)
      Understanding how preschool children cope is a first step toward identifying adaptive ways of coping which reduce stress and ultimately can decrease the risk of dysfunctional behavior. However, the literature on preschooler's coping is minimal, in part due to the lack of assessment tools. This research examined preschoolers coping with daily stress in an attempt to assess what coping styles would be used across different situations.I hypothesized that family environment and temperament would affect the coping style used and that temperament would moderate the effects of the family environment.A secondary question concerned the efficiency of the coping. In order to accomplish this, a scale was developed to assess coping across four situational domains.Using mothers as the primary reporter,the preschooler's temperament,family functioning and coping behaviors were assessed and the relationships were examined.I investigated the ability of family control and cohesiveness,child temperament and an interaction of cohesiveness and temperament to predict coping styles. This model was very good at predicting coping in situations where a child was trying to master a task; adequate for predicting coping in emotional situations; and has limited predictive ability in parent-child or peer situations. There was some support for the moderating effects of temperament. Temperament was a robust predictor of coping style, whereas family cohesion was not.Other findings suggest that children who have emotional temperaments used emotional types of coping.Children in families with more interfamily cohesion, or whose parents have higher levels of education, used more cognitive behavioral-problem solving.Ratings of coping efficacy resulted in cognitive-behavioral problem solving being most effective in Mastery situations,moderate emotional coping being most effective in Parent-child domain and highly emotional coping was rated as most effective in Emotional situations.
    • Friendships,romantic relationsips,and the importance of self-expansion.

      Kashiwabara, Mami (2012-04-23)
      Self-expansion theory (Aron & Aron, 1986) posits that individuals enter and maintain relationships in order to expand their sense of self and suggests that expanding the sense of self is a basic human motivation. In this study, I examined whether the perceived opportunities for self-expansion within a relationship predicted feelings of closeness and passion for a partner, and unlike many previous studies, I explored the importance of self-expansion in friendships as well as romantic relationships. I also explored individual differences in the importance of self-expansion opportunities in predicting closeness and passion. The results suggest that opportunities for self-expansion may motivate involvement in both friendships and romantic relationships, although the experience may be different in the two categories of relationship. The results also suggest that there may be individual differences in the importance of self-expansion, but these patterns were not as expected. I discuss the implications of these results for self-expansion theory and understanding close relationships.
    • Impact of Leadership Program on Personality Characteristics of At-Risk Youth

      Bade, Aashia M. (2010-07-20)
      The use of leadership programs as interventions for at-risk youths has recently gained attention in popular media and psychology literature. This type of intervention presupposes that changes in personality style as well as developmental assets can be cultivated through leadership programming. Although current literature supports the benefits of mentoring and increased community involvement for at risk youths, there is limited research available about personality changes that may occur as a result of participation in leadership programs. The present study focuses on the C5 program, a five-year leadership program for at-risk youths from inner-city areas. A cross-sectional design sampling from participants in each of the five years of the program was used to assess potential personality changes that may occur while participating in the program. In the summer of 2008, participants from each class at the two sites (total N = 316) completed the Adolescent Personal Style Inventory (APSI) and the Developmental Assets Profile (DAP). The APSI is based on the five-factor model of personality style. The DAP questionnaire is based on a developmental assets model of protective factors for youth. It was hypothesized that increased length of participation in the program will lead to significant growth in Emotional Stability, Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Extraversion relative to normative data. In addition, it was also predicted that developmental assets of personal, family, social, school and community contextual domains will significantly increase proportionate to length of participation in the program. Results of the present study revealed that although the mean scores of C5 participants are significantly higher than the normative sample in nine of ten variables, there was no significant growth relative to age/gender based norms for the C5 participants in either the APSI traits or the DAP contexts. This pattern of consistently higher scores in the C5 participants suggests there may be a selection bias in the C5 population.
    • Indiana laws affecting health care providers in psychology:abuse of children and endangered species.

      Repetz, Nancy K. (2012-04-17)
      This project discusses Indiana law addressing child abuse and abuse of endangered adults as it relates to the practice of psychology.Intended as a resource for psychologists,this paper reviews important issues in the areas of child abuse and abuse of endangered adults,offers understandable explanations of the laws and procedures utilized in the application of these laws in Indiana,discusses ethical concerns related to confidentiality and offers suppositions for public policy and advocacy by the profession.In addition,selected text of the Indiana Code is presented for future references.