• Impact of Leadership Program on Personality Characteristics of At-Risk Youth

      Bade, Aashia M. (2010-07-20)
      The use of leadership programs as interventions for at-risk youths has recently gained attention in popular media and psychology literature. This type of intervention presupposes that changes in personality style as well as developmental assets can be cultivated through leadership programming. Although current literature supports the benefits of mentoring and increased community involvement for at risk youths, there is limited research available about personality changes that may occur as a result of participation in leadership programs. The present study focuses on the C5 program, a five-year leadership program for at-risk youths from inner-city areas. A cross-sectional design sampling from participants in each of the five years of the program was used to assess potential personality changes that may occur while participating in the program. In the summer of 2008, participants from each class at the two sites (total N = 316) completed the Adolescent Personal Style Inventory (APSI) and the Developmental Assets Profile (DAP). The APSI is based on the five-factor model of personality style. The DAP questionnaire is based on a developmental assets model of protective factors for youth. It was hypothesized that increased length of participation in the program will lead to significant growth in Emotional Stability, Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Extraversion relative to normative data. In addition, it was also predicted that developmental assets of personal, family, social, school and community contextual domains will significantly increase proportionate to length of participation in the program. Results of the present study revealed that although the mean scores of C5 participants are significantly higher than the normative sample in nine of ten variables, there was no significant growth relative to age/gender based norms for the C5 participants in either the APSI traits or the DAP contexts. This pattern of consistently higher scores in the C5 participants suggests there may be a selection bias in the C5 population.
    • Indiana laws affecting health care providers in psychology:abuse of children and endangered species.

      Repetz, Nancy K. (2012-04-17)
      This project discusses Indiana law addressing child abuse and abuse of endangered adults as it relates to the practice of psychology.Intended as a resource for psychologists,this paper reviews important issues in the areas of child abuse and abuse of endangered adults,offers understandable explanations of the laws and procedures utilized in the application of these laws in Indiana,discusses ethical concerns related to confidentiality and offers suppositions for public policy and advocacy by the profession.In addition,selected text of the Indiana Code is presented for future references.
    • Individual personality studies

      Ewing, Gertrude N. (2012-06-22)
      Not Available.
    • Investigation of instructional reading strategies,professional development and training,and reading assessments used at the secondary level to improve student reading skills.

      Brown III, Neal (2012-04-23)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate instructional reading strategies,professional development and training, and reading assessments used to improve student reading skills in secondary high schools. The study focused on urban high schools in Northeast Indiana with diverse populations. Classroom teachers at the secondary level described their experiences in teaching reading.These "lived through" classroom experiences were examined to gain a better understanding of how instructional reading strategies, professional development and training, and reading assessments could be used at the secondary level to improve student reading skills. This study expanded on the works ofBarry (1997), High School Reading Program Revisited; Barry (2002), Reading Strategies Teachers Say They Use; Said, Sisson, Worley, & Zipperer (2002), Literacy Education and Reading Programs in the Secondary Schools: Status, Problems, and Solutions; and Schneider and Spor (1999), Content Reading Strategies: What Teachers Know, Use, and Want to Learn. This research examined the responses and the information pertaining to 13 interview questions through teacher interviews, classroom observations, and a review of the curriculum. These sources presented emerging themes and patterns.The results of this investigation revealed that perhaps the biggest obstacle to improving student reading skills in the focus schools was the attitude of classroom teachers. Presently, secondary teachers do not accept the teaching of reading skills as ttheir responsibility. Once administrators convince secondary classroom teachers to accept their responsibility for teaching reading, administrators have a challenge of providing appropriate professional development and training in instructional reading strategies and reading assessments. The current study focused on an investigation of instructional reading strategies,professional development and training, and reading assessments used at the secondary level to improve student reading skills. Due to the complexity of the reading process, a more in-depth research study needs to be conducted on each of the components of this research study. Evidence of failure, clearly points out that learning to read the English language is not as easy as some may lead one to believe. Therefore, the following recommendations are suggested on topics of instructional reading strategies, professional development and training, and reading assessment used at the secondary level to improve student reading skills: (a) instructional reading strategies used at the secondary level to improve student reading skills, (b) professional development and training used at the secondary level to improve student reading skills, (c) reading assessment used at the secondary level to improve student reading skills, (d) and focus on the principal's role at the secondary level to improve student reading skills.
    • K-12 System Reforms Across Studies: The Significance of Change,Meta-Analysis, and Logistics Regression

      Almutairi, Mashal (2013-08-28)
      The main purpose of this research was to survey the literature about the U.S. education system and synthesize the important conclusions that could be identified as the main features of the education system in general as they relate to student achievement. The criteria were set and the meta-analysis procedures were carefully followed. This process identified a collection of studies that were categorized into three main groups which were named components to indicate the purpose of the research: (a) calendar, (b) teaching method, and (c) extracurricular activity participation. After calculating the effect size of each of these components, they were entered into a binary regression equation to examine the effect of each component on the overall significance which represented the importance of the factor on the education system. As LOGIT (binary regression) measured the odds ratio of such factor importance on the education system, the concern of joint probability changing all groups on the overall significance emerged. Although these components were found to be important on the education system, their joint effect, changing them together, was also important. However, it was found that these three groups had one thing in common, which was time exposure of students on learning within each factor. In other words, it seemed that the importance of these groups was expressed in the latent factor that was time exposure to learning for students. Therefore, increasing the time exposure of learning for students was the main requirement to envision a new alternative system which incorporates many of the existing system ingredients, such as buildings and staff. The research concluded with a vision for a new suggested system based on the findings and the view that could be used as general guidelines for the future K-12 education system.
    • Learning styles of Myers-Briggs Type Indicators

      Cohen, Juanita Jane (2012-04-17)
      This research study illustrated that personlaity type influences learning type.The study compared the personalities expressed in Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI)to Felder and Silverman's(1998)Index of Learning Styles(ILS).Phase one was a combined MBTI and ILS assessment that was administered to 105 participants.To further define learning style,phase two was a follw-up questionnaire administered to 37 participants and was based on Goley's(1982)Learning Pattern(LP)assessment.The research did indicate a correlation between specific dichotomies of MBTI,ILS and LP.The Extravert and Introvert dichotomy in MTBI appeared to correlate with the Active and Reflective dichotomy in ILS.Furthermore,a relationship emerged for MBTI Sensing and the ILS Sensory dichotomy,although no connection appeared in MBTI and the ILS Intuitive dichotomies.Moreover,participants who preferred MBTI Sensing dichotomy generally preferred Sequential learning.Participants with Intuitive personality in MBTI appeared to be either Sequential or Global learners.Finally,it was interesting to note that 68% of the participants scored as Visual as opposed to Verbal learners.The findings indicated personality does affect leaning styles.Curriculum designers and corporate trainers should consider personality in their training.Although the number of participants was small,the findings were significant enough to indicate that further research could improve training effectiveness and should be conducted.
    • Life stress, adjustment, and religious support in African Americans.

      Maddux, Jemour A (2012-04-25)
      The paper sought to extend the work on religious coping in African Americans by exploring the religious moderators of the relationship between stress and adjustment between cultures. Specifically, the goal of the present investigation was to identify whether the buffering effects of religious moderators (i.e., religious coping and religious support) on the relationship between stress and adjustment varied by race. Many studies on African Americans supports that social and individualistic coping styles are respectively predictors of positive and negative adjustment. Results partially supported that religious support in African Americans was a better predictor of adjustment than religious coping. Overall, this was true for alcoholrelated variables, but not for well-being variables. Results provided much stronger support for the predicted moderating effect of religious support on the relationship between stress and adjustment in African Americans. Religious coping failed to moderate this relationship, and no significant buffering effects were found for religious coping or religious support in Whites. This is one of the study's strongest findings. Overall, results were consistent with Agnew's (1992) general strain theory. Alternative explanations for why hypothesis were, or were not supported are offered.
    • Moderating Effects of Religious Orientation on the Relationship Between Sexual Self-Discrepancies and Guilt and Anxiety

      Jones, Ann E. (2015-01-07)
      The current study examined the moderating effect of religious orientation on the relationship between sexual self-discrepancies and guilt. There is some evidence of a positive correlation between sex-guilt and higher levels of religiosity. In this study it was proposed that sex-guilt in religious individuals is partially driven by discrepancies between actual sexual behaviors and how the individual thinks that they ought or ideally should behave. In order to test this idea a survey was administered to 151 undergraduate students to assess religious orientation, actual, ought, and ideal sexual behaviors, and sex guilt. Gender differences were found in reporting intrinsic religiosity, sexual behavior, and sexual attitudes. Men reported more favorable attitudes toward sexual behavior, also, men reported more sexual behaviors than women, no significant difference was found between women and men in the intrinsic religiosity scores, and women reported higher levels of sex anxiety and sex guilt than men. Moderate negative correlations were found between intrinsic religious orientation and penile-vaginal sex for women; and mutual manual stimulation, and attitudes towards sexual permissiveness for men. Intrinsic religious orientation moderated the following relationships: ideal total sexual behavior discrepancy and sex anxiety for men and women combined; ideal manual stimulation discrepancy and sex guilt for men and women combined; ideal total sexual behavior discrepancy and sex guilt in men; and ought masturbation discrepancy and sex guilt in women. That is, those who reported higher levels of intrinsic religious orientation also report higher levels of anxiety and guilt, associated with discrepancies related to sexual behavior. This study contributes to the awareness of how religiosity can affect sex guilt. Based on the results of this study, the bogus pipeline methodology had limited utility when examining the relationships between intrinsic religiosity, sex anxiety, and sex guilt.
    • Moderating role of self-monitoring in the presentation of self through display of possessions.

      Burchard, Piotr.T (2012-04-12)
      The literature concerning the nature and presentation of the self is briefly reviewed, and the role of self-monitoring as a moderator in the presentation of self through display of possessions is discussed. It is hypothesized that high self-monitors differ from low self-monitors in the extent to which their private and public living spaces reveal their personality.Photographs of living rooms and bedrooms of 40 homeowners of different living status were collected to serve as stimuli and measure of the homeowner's personality and self-monitoring were taken.The photographs were presented to unacquainted observers who rated the homeowner's personality on the same scale.The correlations and discrepancy scores between the self-reported personality scores and observer's ratings were calculated for high and low self-monitoring homeowners for each living status category.The results, although partially consistent with findings of previous research,failed to provide clear support for the proposed and factors that could have influenced the obtained pattern of results are discussed.Lastly, limitations of the present study are acknowledged, and directions for further research are proposed.
    • Oliver Cromwell:change and continuity

      Ellis, Kari.L (2012-04-12)
      This study looks at the life of Oliver Cromwell,Lord Protector of England in an effort to clarify the diverse and conflicting interpretations resulting from a lack of agreement between those who are biased for and against the Lord Protector.The purpose of the study of this conflicting information is not to settle whether Cromwell was a good figure or bad, but to define more clearly his time.Cromwell, clarified creates a broader understanding of the seventeenth century Englishman.An introduction develops a brief summarization of Pre-Reformation Europe,the forces which brought changes,Reformation Europe and the Post-Reformation era in which Cromwell lived.The non-Cromwellian periods were included to develop a broader picture for the reader of the atmosphere into which Cromwell emerged.The study concentrates on six key points of conflict within the lifetime of Cromwell and discussion of those conflicts through use of periods or roles within his life.Cromwell's changeable nature does not lend itself to a static,one dimensional interpretation, but rather to one that attempts to incorporate the normal fluctuations of human nature and the continuity of change.This study concludes with no-earth shattering developments,but with the assertion that Cromwell's seeming inconsistencies are indicative of a man who illustrates not the static,stiffness which brings frequently disastrous results,but rather his openness to change.He is a prime example of how the only constant in life is change.Finally,the conclusion is a call to other students of history for recognition of the need for further action in defining not only Cromwell, but his time and a thorough investigation and study of the seventeenth century through interpretive works.
    • Optimal Experience in Relationships, Activities, and Beyond: Connecting Flow with Self-Expansion

      Dean, Brandy M. (2010-05-11)
      Flow is a state of optimal experience characterized by complete immersion in an enjoyable activity and has been associated with positive experience in activities. Self-expansion is a state of increase in the diversity and complexity of the self and has been linked with positive experience in relationships. Despite phenomenological similarities, the connection between these two states has not been examined. The current study used a correlational design to explore the degrees of overlap between these states by comparing them in general, situation-specific, and predictive contexts. It was expected that flow and self-expansion would occur at similar frequencies, be produced by similar situations, be positively correlated within given activities and relationships, similarly predict attraction to other within a given relationship, and be similarly predicted by a personality trait. Results indicated that these experiences do tend to cooccur. Among students reporting both experiences, the frequencies of the experiences were positively related, although flow experiences were reported as more frequent. Flow and selfexpansion experiences were produced by similar sources across activities and relationships, and students tended to specify the same type of activity or relationship as the source of both experiences. As expected, flow and self-expansion were positively related within a given activity and within a given relationship. Both flow and self-expansion experienced in a relationship were positively related to attraction to the other, although the relationship between self-expansion and attraction was stronger than the relationship between flow and attraction. Neither flow nor self expansion experienced in an activity was related to trait happiness, and there was no significant difference between these correlations. These results are reviewed in the context of previous research, and implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed. Finally, considerations for future research comparing these two theories, as well as other varieties of positive experience, are discussed.
    • Parental compliance to clinical recommendations in an ADHD clinic.

      Thibodeau, Alice Samantha (2012-04-26)
      Psychological assessments are a cornerstone of clinical practice in psychology,but if results and recommendations are not used to guide treatment interventions, their value is greatly diminished. Currently, there is very little research that examines adherence to treatment recommendations given to parents or caregivers following psychological evaluations of their children. The present study expands on previous research (MacNaughton & Rodrigue, 2001) examining perceived barriers to parental compliance with psychological assessment recommendations by considering the impact of severity of child behavior problems and parenting stress on compliance. Eighty caregiver/child dyads were recruited through an ADHD evaluation clinic and caregivers completed a telephone interview approximately 4 to 6 weeks after receiving recommendations for their children's care. It was predicted that parents/caregivers reporting greater levels of stress would report lower levels of compliance; parents/caregivers reporting greater levels of compliance would report greater improvement in children's behavior; parents/caregivers would report compliance to less than 70% of the recommendations (MacNaughton & Rodrigue, 2001) and the recommendation to which parents/caregivers most commonly adhered would be that of consulting with a non-psychological professional (i.e., physician). Results revealed that caregivers reporting greater levels of parenting stress were more likely to report following recommendations, that greater levels of compliance were associated with greater levels of improvement, that caregivers reported adherence to 81.5% of recommendations, and that caregivers were equally likely to engage in active self-help recommendations (i.e., parent education on ADHD) and those for professional nonpsychological services (i.e. consulting with a physician for medication) and least likely to follow through on recommendations for psychological services (child. or family counseling). The most commonly reported barriers to following recommendations were 1) that caregivers had not had time to comply and 2) that teachers were uncooperative with implementing school-based recommendations.
    • Parenting a Child with Behavior Problems: Dimensions of Religiousness that Influence Parental Stress and Sense of Competence

      Weyand, Chelsea (2010-09-22)
      Parenting a child with behavior problems has been associated with an increase in parental stress and a decrease in parental sense of competence. While parental religiosity has generally been associated with greater child and parent functioning, it has been suggested that when parenting a child with behavior problems, some aspects of parental religiousness (e.g., negative religious coping, biblical conservatism) might decrease functioning. One hundred and thirty-nine parents of children between the ages of three and twelve completed a questionnaire in order to examine the influence of religious variables (sanctification of parenting, negative religious coping, positive religious coping, biblical conservatism) on the relationship between child behavior problems and parental stress and sense of competence. Sanctification of parenting was found to moderate the relationship between child behavior problems and parental stress, such that parents high in sanctification showed little change in parenting stress as severity of behavior problems increased. Similarly, positive religious coping was found to play a protective role in the relationship between behavior problems and parental sense of competence. Overall, positive religious coping was related to increased stress in parents of children with few behavior problems while not decreasing stress for parents of children with more difficult behavior. Parents of children with greater perceived behavior problems reported significantly higher sanctification of parenting and parenting stress, as well as lesser use of positive religious coping and lower sense of competence. Negative religious coping and biblical conservatism did not moderate the relationship between child behavior problems and parental stress, nor sense of competence. This study provides further clarification of the dimensions of religiousness that are relevant to the parenting experience. It also provides evidence to suggest that parental religiousness can have either a positive or negative influence on parental functioning, depending on parenting circumstances and personal perceptions of God and religion.
    • Perception of Control: Accuracy among Optimists and Pessimists on Noncontingency and Contingengy Tasks

      Baum, Spencer (2011-03-15)
      The learned helplessness theory asserts that depressed individuals unrealistically believe that they have little to no control over aversive outcomes in their lives. Paradoxically, research on judgment of control has demonstrated that depressed individuals are not necessarily pessimistic, but rather more realistic than non-depressed individuals. Most of the research on depressive realism has investigated individual’s perceived control in situations in which they have no actual control. Few studies have investigated perception of control in situations where control is possible. Considering that many circumstances in life are controllable, it is important to examine how different personality variables contribute to accurate judgments of control in controllable situations. In addition, many studies have found a negative correlation between optimism and depression and the positive correlation between depression and pessimism, yet the research on control lacks information on optimistic and pessimistic individuals’ perception of control. Using a computerized judgment of control task, the current study examined perception of control in both no-control and control situations among participants classified as either optimistic or pessimistic and as dysphoric or non-dysphoric. Measures of optimism and pessimism used in this study were the Attributional Style Questionnaire and the Life Orientation Test-Revised and the Beck Depression Inventory-II was used to assess depressogenic symptoms. Participants were 88 undergraduate students. It was hypothesized that optimistic participants would exhibit illusory control in both contingent and non-contingent situations, while the pessimistic participants would provide accurate judgments of control in the no-control situation and underestimate control in the iv control situations. Additionally, it was hypothesized that dysphoric participants would provide accurate control judgments in the no-control situation and underestimate control in the control conditions. The results provided mixed support for the study’s hypotheses. Participants with optimistic explanatory styles provided accurate control judgments in the high contingency task and overestimated control in noncontingent and low contingent tasks. Participants with pessimistic explanatory styles underestimated control in the high contingency task and overestimated in noncontingent and low contingent tasks. Contrary to the depressive realism hypothesis, dysphoric participants did not provide accurate judgments of control regardless of the contingency situation. Dysphoric participants underestimated control in the high contingency situation and overestimated control in noncontingent and low contingent tasks.
    • Personality assessments and their uses in Washington State registered health and human service organizations.

      McKeague, Marianne Ille (2012-04-16)
      The problem of this study was to identify the uses of personality assessments and their resulting consequences on employment at organizations registered with the Northwest Region of the U.S Department of Health and Human Services.This investigation reported on the application of psychometric testing within the organizational context.Specific to this study was personality or behavioral assessments administered when recruting,evaluating or evaluating or retaining workers,the potential implications of behavioral/personality assessments on workers within the organization,and the organizational value perceived by testers utilizing these forms of personality assessments.The investigation examined the current personality measuring practices of organizations by analyzing their responses to a survey questionnaire.The intent of the questionnaire was to determine if responses represented a trend toward a standardization of personality assessment use for purposes of employment development,recruitment,and retention.Response data revealed that use of personality/behavioral tests isn't prevalent at State registered health and human service organizations.Data collected exhibited limited familiarity of personality/behavioral tests isn't prevalent as State registered health and human service organizations.Data collected exhibited limited familiarity/behavioral assessments and a trend against a standardization of personality assessment use in health and human service organizations.Recommendations for future studies are specific to the fundamental hiring and screening processes administered at health and human service organizations,and the instruments utilized for screening individuals desiring to work with vulnerable or disadvantaged populations.Additionally,a duplicate study applying equivalent methodology to a dissimilar demographic re:law firms,retail outlets,or technology companies has the capacity to render information vital for broad analysis of consistency,contextual application,and diversity of workplace personality/behavioral testing.
    • Prediction of oral communication apprehension in community college students.

      Bond, Byron D (2012-04-25)
      This study attempted to dtermine which information routinely collected during the admission process could be significant predictors of high levels of oral communication apprehension in community college students.The independent variables of 1)scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test, 2) scores on the Assessment and Placement Test for Community Colleges prepared by the College Board, 3)student rank in high school graduating class, 5)age of the student, 6)sex of the student, and 7)the student's race were examined as potential predictors of overall communication apprehension and of oral communication apprehension in each of four contexts including group communication,meeting communication,dyadic communication,and public speaking.Students enrolled in three introductory speech courses at Vincennes University-Junior College responded to the twenty-four item Personal Report of Communication Apprehension.After eliminating those cases in which demographic information was missing,a workable sample of N = 135 remained for Statistical Package for the Social Sciences.This technique allowed relative analysis of the ability of each independent variable to predict the criterion in question.Statistical analysis resulted in rejection of all null hypotheses posited in the study.Scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test were found to be the strongest,most consistent predictors of all contexts of oral communication apprehension.Scores on the Assessment and Placement Tests for Community Colleges contributed little to the prediction of oral communication apprehension scores.Although the student's rank in high school graduating class was often influential in predicting apprehension scores,the size of the graduating class was an insignificant predictor.The student's age,sex,and race tended to be inconsistent predictors of oral communication apprehension scores.The author recommended that the scope of oral communication apprehension should be expanded giving special attention to community college students.It was also suggested that future multiples regression analyses should be limited to fewer independent variables to allow a more focused investigation.Also,the influence of race/ethnic origin upon scores in the five oral communication apprehension contexts were found to merit attention in future investigations.
    • Professional Psychology Training Programs: Program Interventions and Prediction of Doctoral Student Stress and Life Satisfaction

      Montgomery, Crista (2010-05-11)
      A growing literature on professional training and practice of psychology advocates that psychologists must be educated on risks and effects of impairment and the importance of self-care. Despite the general recognition of the importance of these issues, they have not been incorporated into training standards such as the American Psychological Association (APA) Guidelines and Principles of Accreditation (2007). In order to assess the approaches that programs currently adopt to address impairment and self-care, this study extended and updated previous research. A large sample of students (n = 591) enrolled in APA accredited doctoral training programs in professional psychology completed surveys regarding their training in self-care and impairment. Trainee well-being was also measured using satisfaction and stress (both professional and personal) scales. How interventions vary by program type was examined. Results showed that psychology trainee reports of professional and personal well-being were consistent with those of similar populations, such as other doctoral students (Pavot & Diener, 1993) and medical students (Firth, 1986). The respondents’ relationship status was not significantly associated with ratings of professional well-being, but partnered individuals scored higher on personal well-being measures. Also, professional satisfaction was higher in younger students and second year students endorsed significantly higher professional stress than first years. The most common interventions students reported receiving were focused primarily on enhancing relational skills and providing of interpersonal support. Programs differed somewhat in the type of interventions they employ to address student well-being. The majority of students reported a desire for their program to increase the amount of interventions offered. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are explored.
    • Psychometric properties of a weeping propensity scale.

      Olson, Phyllis M (2012-04-23)
      The Weeping Propensity Scale is a 24-item questionnaire using a nine point Likert-type scale to query the intensity of a subject's weeping response to a variety of potentially crying-inducing situations. Results indicated that the measure has substantial reliability, both internal consistency (Cronbach alpha= .95) and test-retest reliability (r = .90). The study examined the stability of the factor structure of a revision of the Weeping Propensity Scale (WPS) and examined expected relationships with gender, instrumentality/expressiveness measured by the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence, Helmreich, & Stapp, 1974),empathy measured by the Questionnaire Measure of Emotional Empathy (Mehrabian & Epstein, 1972), and the domain scales of the NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Attitudes toward weeping were also assessed through a short questionnaire constructed for this study. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the revised version of the WPS was an adequate model. In a series of simultaneous multiple regressions, weeping propensity was most effectively predicted by gender, empathy, neuroticism, extraversion (for men but not for women), and attitudes toward weeping. Implications of the results are discussed.