• The relationship between friendship transition and conflict.

      Jaroscak, Danielle R (2012-04-23)
      The transition from acquaintanceship to friendship was examined in this study.In particular,the study focused on the development of friendship and how situations that may invite conflict affect that process.Participants were assigned to one of three relationship conditions(exchange,pre-friendship,communal) and read about a negative(conflict) and positive(non-conflict)scenario involving the assigned relationship partner.Each participant reported how he or she would feel in the imagined situations.The results of this study showed differences between the pre-friendship conditions and exchange and communal conditions.There is a pre-friendship condition felt as comfortable with the other's behavior as friends,and attributed their negative behavior to unstable,situational conditions,as is done for friends but reported that the behavior of pre-friends was more important to their relationship.This research suggests that pre-relationship is a distinct type of relationship in which a person thinks of their partners as a friends,but do not feel like friends,and attend to interactions in order to assess the status of the relationship.These findings expand our understanding of the process of friendship formation,but raise questions about the adequacy of traditional models of social relationships.
    • The school and personality development

      Fletcher, Kenneth J. (2013-03-21)
      Not Available.
    • The validity of selected draw-a-person test classifying criteria among homosexual and non homosexual males.

      Ornsteiner, Joel Von (2012-04-18)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the validity of Machover's(1949)interpretation that attention to both the hips and buttocks drawn by males subjects in their first male Draw-A-Person Test(DAP) or the drawing of a female figure first are significant indicators of male homosexuality.The hypothesis was that the frequency of these homosexual indicators among non-instituted homosexuals indicators among non-instituted homosexuals would be significantly higher(P = < .05) than the male heterosexual group.One hundred homosexual and 100 heterosexual males were selected from groups of volunteers from two universities,one bookstore and a community center in the New York area.The subjects were administered a DAP test in booklet format and a questionnaire.The drawings were classified for homosexual indicators blindly and independently by three judges who were trained in the use of the Machover interpretation of the DAP. Chi square analyses were calculated for the frequency of hips and buttocks and for the drawing of a female figure first and no significant differences between the self identified homosexual and heterosexual male groups in the expected direction were found.It was concluded that the lack of any significant difference between the scores of the homosexual and heterosexual males in this study casts considerable doubt on the validity of the male homosexual interpretations explored.Speculations were made concerning the widely discrepant results from past studies and this investigation.The majority of the past research had been conducted within institutional settings and there have been cultural changes over the last fifty years in both psychology and society's tolerance for the male homosexual.Unlike any previous DAP study,one-hundred urban homosexual and one-hundred heterosexual males were randomly selected.This researcher cautions that the DAP test should be interpreted with other available information,and results based on its independent use are viewed with much skepticism.Implications for future research were discussed.
    • Traitorous Texting: Addressing the Methodological Issue of Arousal in Romantic Jealousy Research

      Rasley, Rachel (2013-01-30)
      Many psychological studies have focused on jealousy in romantic relationships, often from the evolutionary view that men should be more distressed by sexual infidelity and women by emotional infidelity. One criticism of this research is that in studies using physiological methods, arousal is reported as indicating distress, when the arousal is actually ambiguous. The present study investigates the influence of arousal on reported jealousy by manipulating arousal itself. Two groups of participants were overwhelmed with non-sexual arousal (exercise) before completing infidelity manipulations; the other group completed the manipulations without exercising. All participants read cell phone text messages suggesting either emotional or sexual unfaithfulness, and were asked to imagine that their partners sent the messages to another person. The central predictions were as follows: first, that men and women in the no-arousal group would demonstrate the evolution-predicted sex difference; and second, that the sex difference would be either diminished or augmented under a condition of arousal, suggesting a misattribution effect or response facilitation effect, respectively. None of the hypotheses were statistically supported. However, trends among male participants appear to endorse a misattribution effect of arousal, implying that elevated arousal among men in response to sexual infidelity scenarios may not necessarily reflect elevated distress. In future studies of jealousy, researchers should consider arousal to be a possible confound.
    • Undergraduate Students’ Gender Self-Esteem and Attitudes Towards Transmen, Transwomen, Gay Men, and Lesbian Women

      Glotfelter, Michael Ann (2012-10-22)
      Research on individuals who do not conform to traditional sexual norms has increased over the past two decades, but there still remains little research on attitudes towards transpeople (i.e., individuals who violate gender norms). The goal of the current research is to contribute to knowledge regarding attitudes towards transpeople who continue to be subjected to prejudice, violence, and discrimination based on non-conformity. The current research explores and compares gender differences in attitudes towards lesbian women, gay men, transwomen (i.e., male-to-female transsexuals or men who deviate greatly from male gender norms and a male gender identity), and transmen (i.e., female-to-male transsexuals or women who deviate greatly from female gender norms and a female gender identity). Social Identity Theory (SIT), as it relates to gender self-esteem, is used as a theoretical framework to help explain prejudice towards lesbian women, gay men, and transpeople. The possible relationship between gender self-esteem and prejudice is also examined. The sample consisted of 402 heterosexual undergraduates with 195 (48.5%) women and 207 (51.5%) men. Participants completed the Genderism and Transphobia Scale, the Transphobia Scale, the Modern Homonegativity Scale, a gender specific Collective Self-Esteem Scale, and the Social Desirability Scale-17. Consistent with other research, heterosexual men reported significantly higher levels of prejudice toward lesbian women, gay men and transpeople compared to women. Men reported significantly more negative attitudes toward gay men compared to lesbian women, and reported more possible violence toward and discomfort around transwomen than transmen. In contrast to men, heterosexual women reported similar levels of sexual prejudice toward gay men and lesbian women and more discomfort around a transman than a transwoman. Both men and women reported more teasing of transwomen compared to transmen. Men with high gender self-esteem reported more sexual prejudice toward gay men and lesbian. These results were not found for heterosexual women who reported high gender self-esteem.. This research will contribute to knowledge and awareness of what factors affect and predict negative attitudes, prejudice, and violence against sexual and gender minorities. This current research suggests some similarities as well as differences in the prediction of sexual prejudice and transprejudice. Additionally, the results suggest that SIT can be a useful framework to begin to understand both sexual prejudice and transprejudice. Furthermore, although there are some similarities in the predictors of sexual prejudice and transprejudice for heterosexual women and men, the differences are important enough to suggest some divergence in how social identities interact with gender to influence prejudicial attitudes. Finally, greater awareness regarding sexual prejudice and transprejudice can lead to more effective interventions to decrease prejudice and violence.
    • Use of the Combination of the Brief and Basc-2 in Assessment of ADHD

      Knoll, Andrea R. (2014-03-18)
      ADHD is one of the most frequently diagnosed childhood disorders in the United States today; however, diagnostic specificity remains challenging. Accepted models of ADHD routinely highlight the role of executive function (EF) deficits as a core feature of ADHD. However, performance based measures of EF do not consistently discriminate between ADHD and no-ADHD clinical groups. Research has supported use of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in discriminating between ADHD and no-ADHD and between subtypes. However, EF deficits can occur for various reasons. Broad range behavior rating scales help identify areas of behavioral concern that may aid clinicians in understanding EF deficits. The purpose of this study was to assess whether using the BRIEF in combination with the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2) would better discriminate ADHD from no-ADHD in a clinical population than either measure alone. Participants included 115 children referred to an ADHD evaluation clinic. Contrary to hypotheses, a combination of scales from the BRIEF and BASC-2 did not result in higher diagnostic classification as compared to each measure alone. The best classification rate was found when combining the BRIEF-Behavior Regulation-parent and BRIEF-Metacognitive Index-teacher. This finding is in congruence with best practice guidelines that recommend using multiple raters when assessing for ADHD.
    • Voluntary control of penile tumescence while receiving both cognitive and physical stimulation.

      Carpenter, Todd M (2012-04-19)
      Voluntary control of erectile responses represents a serious threat to the validity of phallometry( or penile plethysmography).Cognitive methods,such as not attending to the sexual stimuli or distraction through the use of fantasy,may be used effectively to distort phallometric measures.The primary purpose of this study was to explore the degree of control men have over their sexual arousal while receiving both cognitive and vibrotactile stimulation.More specifically,this study examined the ability of males to suppress penile tumescence to preferred sexual stimuli as well as their ability to enhance tumuscence to nonpreferred and neutral stimuli.Participants were randomly assigned to view one of three 4-minute video clips(heterosexual scene,homosexual scene,or neutral scene) while also receiving low-level penile vibrotactile stimulation. A 3 X 2 X 2 mixed model MANOVA was used to analyse the data.The results indicated that while receiving low-level vibrotactile stimulation,participants were able to "enhance" sexual arousal when instructed to do so regardless of video type but had much greater difficulty "suppressing" sexual arousal to the preferred video.Furthermore, under "enhance" instructions,mean and peak tumescence measures were not significantly difficult when comparing men who viewed a heterosexual VS homosexual video.The findings of this study are somewhat inconsistent with those of previous research and raise important issues clinically,theoretically and legally regarding the use of penile plethysmography.
    • Working Memory and Executive Functioning Impairment as Endophenotypes of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

      Iati, Carina A. (2012-10-19)
      Evidence indicates that impairments in working memory and executive functioning exist in individuals who have decompensated into schizophrenia, as well as their genetic relatives. Few studies, however, have examined whether these impairments function as premorbid indicators of vulnerability to schizophrenia-related disorders in the absence of genetic relatedness for risk determination. According to Meehl’s (1962, 1990) model of schizotypy individuals vulnerable to schizophrenia-related disorders evidence subtle symptoms of vulnerability, referred to as endophenotypes, regardless of whether eventual decompensation occurs. The present study represents a cross-sectional portion of a larger longitudinal study, and investigates whether individuals who demonstrate an elevated risk for future development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders also demonstrate these impairments compared to a normal-risk group in a sample of college students. Risk status was determined by participants’ Wisconsin Schizotypy Scale (WSS) scores. Working memory subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–IV (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-IV (WMS-IV) were compared across individuals determined to be at high risk (psychometric schizotypes; PS) and a matched comparison (MC) sample. Executive functioning, as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), was also compared across these groups. It was hypothesized that schizotypes would exhibit impairment in both of these abilities. Additionally, it was hypothesized that a linear relationship would exist between level of deviancy demonstrated on the WSS and the level of impairment demonstrated on executive functioning and working memory tasks. Results failed to support the hypothesis that aggregate working memory or executive functioning deficits were significantly related to schizotypy. However, performance on the WMS-IV Visual Working Memory Index (VWMI) and the Spatial Addition subtest of this measure indicated impaired performance by PS participants compared to the MC group. Similarly, this investigation failed to find support for a linear relationship between level of impairment and deviance on PerAb and MagId WSS subscales. However, scores on the SocAnh scale did demonstrate an inverse relationship with performance on the VWMI. Further analyses which grouped the PS participants by symptom presentation, revealed that individuals exhibiting a negative symptom presentation, as indicated by deviant scores on the SocAnh scale, demonstrated impairment in visual working memory in comparison to both the MC group and their Per-Mag counterparts who exhibited more positive symptoms. This result is in agreement previous investigations that have specified visual working memory impairment as being related to negative symptom presentation (Cameron, 2002; Park et al., 2003). These results may be influenced by characteristics of the present sample, as the majority of individuals who reported symptoms did so on negative symptom dimensions, with only 6 individuals reporting positive symptomology. Negative symptom dimensions have been proposed to be related to working memory impairment (Gooding & Tallent, 2002), whereas positive symptoms have been proposed to be related to impairment in executive functioning (Donohoe et al., 2006; Lenzenweger & Korfine, 1994). The relative lack of individuals with positive symptom presentation in the current sample likely led to the lack of any notable results with regard to executive functioning. Results of this investigation aid our understanding of the course of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and join the broad body of literature investigating candidate endophenotypes. Future directions for related research include continued investigation into the differences between verbal and visual working memory as related to schizophrenia spectrum disorders, investigation of the present candidate endophenotypes alongside other proposed markers of liability, and longitudinal investigation to determine whether individuals possessing candidate endophenotypes exhibit a greater number of schizophrenia spectrum symptoms.
    • Working Memory and Executive Functioning Impairment as Endophenotypes of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

      Iati, Carina A. (2014-03-18)
      Evidence indicates that impairments in working memory and executive functioning exist in individuals who have decompensated into schizophrenia, as well as their genetic relatives. Few studies, however, have examined whether these impairments function as premorbid indicators of vulnerability to schizophrenia-related disorders in the absence of genetic relatedness for risk determination. According to Meehl’s (1962, 1990) model of schizotypy individuals vulnerable to schizophrenia-related disorders evidence subtle symptoms of vulnerability, referred to as endophenotypes, regardless of whether eventual decompensation occurs. The present study represents a cross-sectional portion of a larger longitudinal study, and investigates whether individuals who demonstrate an elevated risk for future development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders also demonstrate these impairments compared to a normal-risk group in a sample of college students. Risk status was determined by participants’ Wisconsin Schizotypy Scale (WSS) scores. Working memory subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–IV (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-IV (WMS-IV) were compared across individuals determined to be at high risk (psychometric schizotypes; PS) and a matched comparison (MC) sample. Executive functioning, as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), was also compared across these groups. It was hypothesized that schizotypes would exhibit impairment in both of these abilities. Additionally, it was hypothesized that a linear relationship would exist between level of deviancy demonstrated on the WSS and the level of impairment demonstrated on executive functioning and working memory tasks. Results failed to support the hypothesis that aggregate working memory or executive functioning deficits were significantly related to schizotypy. However, performance on the WMS-IV Visual Working Memory Index (VWMI) and the Spatial Addition subtest of this measure indicated impaired performance by PS participants compared to the MC group. Similarly, this investigation failed to find support for a linear relationship between level of impairment and deviance on PerAb and MagId WSS subscales. However, scores on the SocAnh scale did demonstrate an inverse relationship with performance on the VWMI. Further analyses which grouped the PS participants by symptom presentation, revealed that individuals exhibiting a negative symptom presentation, as indicated by deviant scores on the SocAnh scale, demonstrated impairment in visual working memory in comparison to both the MC group and their Per-Mag counterparts who exhibited more positive symptoms. This result is in agreement previous investigations that have specified visual working memory impairment as being related to negative symptom presentation (Cameron, 2002; Park et al., 2003). These results may be influenced by characteristics of the present sample, as the majority of individuals who reported symptoms did so on negative symptom dimensions, with only 6 individuals reporting positive symptomology. Negative symptom dimensions have been proposed to be related to working memory impairment (Gooding & Tallent, 2002), whereas positive symptoms have been proposed to be related to impairment in executive functioning (Donohoe et al., 2006; Lenzenweger & Korfine, 1994). The relative lack of individuals with positive symptom presentation in the current sample likely led to the lack of any notable results with regard to executive functioning. Results of this investigation aid our understanding of the course of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and join the broad body of literature investigating candidate endophenotypes. Future directions for related research include continued investigation into the differences between verbal and visual working memory as related to schizophrenia spectrum disorders, investigation of the present candidate endophenotypes alongside other proposed markers of liability, and longitudinal investigation to determine whether individuals possessing candidate endophenotypes exhibit a greater number of schizophrenia spectrum symptoms.