• Moderating role of self-monitoring in the presentation of self through display of possessions.

      Burchard, Piotr.T (2012-04-12)
      The literature concerning the nature and presentation of the self is briefly reviewed, and the role of self-monitoring as a moderator in the presentation of self through display of possessions is discussed. It is hypothesized that high self-monitors differ from low self-monitors in the extent to which their private and public living spaces reveal their personality.Photographs of living rooms and bedrooms of 40 homeowners of different living status were collected to serve as stimuli and measure of the homeowner's personality and self-monitoring were taken.The photographs were presented to unacquainted observers who rated the homeowner's personality on the same scale.The correlations and discrepancy scores between the self-reported personality scores and observer's ratings were calculated for high and low self-monitoring homeowners for each living status category.The results, although partially consistent with findings of previous research,failed to provide clear support for the proposed and factors that could have influenced the obtained pattern of results are discussed.Lastly, limitations of the present study are acknowledged, and directions for further research are proposed.
    • Oliver Cromwell:change and continuity

      Ellis, Kari.L (2012-04-12)
      This study looks at the life of Oliver Cromwell,Lord Protector of England in an effort to clarify the diverse and conflicting interpretations resulting from a lack of agreement between those who are biased for and against the Lord Protector.The purpose of the study of this conflicting information is not to settle whether Cromwell was a good figure or bad, but to define more clearly his time.Cromwell, clarified creates a broader understanding of the seventeenth century Englishman.An introduction develops a brief summarization of Pre-Reformation Europe,the forces which brought changes,Reformation Europe and the Post-Reformation era in which Cromwell lived.The non-Cromwellian periods were included to develop a broader picture for the reader of the atmosphere into which Cromwell emerged.The study concentrates on six key points of conflict within the lifetime of Cromwell and discussion of those conflicts through use of periods or roles within his life.Cromwell's changeable nature does not lend itself to a static,one dimensional interpretation, but rather to one that attempts to incorporate the normal fluctuations of human nature and the continuity of change.This study concludes with no-earth shattering developments,but with the assertion that Cromwell's seeming inconsistencies are indicative of a man who illustrates not the static,stiffness which brings frequently disastrous results,but rather his openness to change.He is a prime example of how the only constant in life is change.Finally,the conclusion is a call to other students of history for recognition of the need for further action in defining not only Cromwell, but his time and a thorough investigation and study of the seventeenth century through interpretive works.
    • An extension of McGuire's inoculation theory to controversial topics.

      Roberts, Michele.S (2012-04-16)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the extension of McGuire's inoculation theory to controversial topics.It was assumed that the employment of controversial topics would reverse the conditions described as obtaining with the employment of cultural truisms.McGuire's first study on the inoculation theory was used as a paradigm,and three hypotheses were investigated:Hypothesis One: A supportive treatment will be superior to a refutational treatment in conferring resistance to persuasion.Hypothesis Two: An active participation in developing defenses will increase the amount of immunity conferred.Hypothesis Three:There is an interactive effect between the type of defense(supportive versus refutational) and the amount of participation(active versus passive): the demands of an active defense will be less detrimental in a supportive defence than in a refutational defense.To test these hypotheses,pretesting was conducted to identify a topic which produced a mean range closest to 7.5 on a 15-interval attitude scale.On the basis of this pretest,130 S's were chosen from 2 local high schools who rated from 1 to 3 the identified topic.Seven days following the pretest,S's were told that they were participating in an investigation of the relationship between reading and writing skills,and were assigned to 1 to 4 treatment conditions.S's in passive treatment conditions were required to read a prepared essay on the controversial topic and underline the main sentence;S's in active treatment conditions were required to follow a prepared outline and construct an essay on the controversial topic.S's in refutational treatment conditions were exposed to refutations of possible arguments counter to the controversial topic.An attitude measure completed this first session.Two days later,all S's were required to read and underline the main sentences in an essay attacking the controversial topic.A final attitude measure completed the study.A two-way analysis of variance was used to test the relative effects of active and passive participation in supportive and refutational treatments.This comparison of attack protest to pretest scores failed to provide support for any of the three hypotheses tested.Failure to demonstrate the predicted effects was probably due to the noted weaknesses in the experimental design.It was suggested that future research was necessary to determine whether differences between belief maintenance in cultural truisms and controversial topics were obscured by faulty experimental design,or simply do not exist.
    • Cross racial preferences in viewing sexually explicit material:a comparison bewteen African-American and Caucasian males.

      Horton, Boyd Randal (2012-04-16)
      The present study investigated that extent to which the race of actors in an erotic video affected sexual arousal in African-American and Caucasian heterosexual males.It was hypothesized that the two racial groups would be significantly more sexually aroused while watching their respective homoethnic erotic video.The htpothesis was grounded in the modeling effects of Bandura's Social Leaning Theory(1977),the Matching Hypothesis(1982)and worldview differences between African-Americans and Caucasians(Baldwin and Bell,1985.Thirty-four African-American and Caucasian males were shown homoethnic and non-homethnic erotic videos while penile circumference,systolic and diastolic blood pressures,and self-report ratings of sexual arousal were measured.In addition,sexual attitude measures and an xultural identity questionnaire were given to the participants to assess whether sexual attitudes and cultural identity questionnaire were given to the participants to assess whether sexual attitudes and cultural identity were related to sexual responitivity.The hypothesis was not supported.The results of this study showed that the race of actors in an erotic video did not affect differentially the sexual responding of the African-American and Caucasian men.However,systolic blood pressure tended to be a more sensitive indicator of general arousal in African-American men.While this study failed to support the hypothesis,the results did provide data relevant to the study of male sexuality in the laboratory setting.This area of research is still new and deserves more attention.
    • Effect of item clarity and probability of item endorsement on response latencies on personality test items.

      Kinney, James.R (2012-04-16)
      In this study,regression analysis was used to examine the affects of item clarity and probability of endorsement on response latencies of 60 undergraduates responding on personality test items from the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire(16 Personality Factor test) (Cattell,Eber & Tatsuoka,1970,5th Edition).Response latencies to personality test items,though frequently studied,have yet to be operationally utilized in the interpretation of personality tests.Forty-four items from the 16 Personality Factor test were selected.Each item from the original test was rated for clarity and matched with an emotionally neutral statement with an equivalent number of words.The standard test items and reconstituted items were also matched for linguistic complexity.For example:Standard test item:"i consider myself a very socially bold,outgoing person."Reconstituted test item:"Books and magazines can be found in a library."Original test items were administered to 60 undergraduates in standard,pencil-and-paper format and computer format.In the computer format each standard test item was followed by a linguistically matched,emotionally neutral reconstituted item and all response latencies were recorded.The data were analysed with response latency being the dependent variable and item clarity and endorsement probability as independent variables.It was found that item clarity and endorsement probability did not relate to response latency on standard test items,neutral questions matched to standard test items or adjusted test items.This finding was attributed to the likelihood that subject responses to items reflect a binary decision-making process which requires relatively simple and consistent responses.16 Personality Factor test item response latencies adjusted by subtracting latencies of linguistically neutral items were also not affected by item clarity or probability of endorsement.Consistent with the finding of both Van Merrienboer et al.(1989) and Rattan(1992),it is suggested that the amount of time required for the successful completion of a task depends,in part,on the task's psychological complexity and specific nature.It is also suggested,consistent with Sternberg(1989),that the amount of time required for various tasks does not operate as a consistent function(of intelligence),but rather as a function of the interaction between the task and the individual's psychological and intellectual make up.
    • Personality assessments and their uses in Washington State registered health and human service organizations.

      McKeague, Marianne Ille (2012-04-16)
      The problem of this study was to identify the uses of personality assessments and their resulting consequences on employment at organizations registered with the Northwest Region of the U.S Department of Health and Human Services.This investigation reported on the application of psychometric testing within the organizational context.Specific to this study was personality or behavioral assessments administered when recruting,evaluating or evaluating or retaining workers,the potential implications of behavioral/personality assessments on workers within the organization,and the organizational value perceived by testers utilizing these forms of personality assessments.The investigation examined the current personality measuring practices of organizations by analyzing their responses to a survey questionnaire.The intent of the questionnaire was to determine if responses represented a trend toward a standardization of personality assessment use for purposes of employment development,recruitment,and retention.Response data revealed that use of personality/behavioral tests isn't prevalent at State registered health and human service organizations.Data collected exhibited limited familiarity of personality/behavioral tests isn't prevalent as State registered health and human service organizations.Data collected exhibited limited familiarity/behavioral assessments and a trend against a standardization of personality assessment use in health and human service organizations.Recommendations for future studies are specific to the fundamental hiring and screening processes administered at health and human service organizations,and the instruments utilized for screening individuals desiring to work with vulnerable or disadvantaged populations.Additionally,a duplicate study applying equivalent methodology to a dissimilar demographic re:law firms,retail outlets,or technology companies has the capacity to render information vital for broad analysis of consistency,contextual application,and diversity of workplace personality/behavioral testing.
    • Self-concept,academic achievement,and sex as correlates of human figure drawings.

      Grubb, Deborah (2012-04-16)
      The purpose of the study was to determine whether or not there is a relationship between children's human figure drawings(HFDs),self-concept measured by the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale(CSCS),academic achievement and sex.The HFDs were analysed using the Koppitz(1984)scoring system for emotional indicators(EIs),a global rating of "pathological" or "not pathological",critical items drawn from past research,and the Goodenough-Harris(1963) scoring system.The subjects were 120 middle school students matched for sex and drawn for high or low achievement levels on the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills(CTBS).The results indicated that each of the HFD scoring methods was related to self-concept on the Piers-Harris CSCS.However,when achievement,sex,Koppitz EIs,critical features,global score,and the Goodenough-Harris score were all included in a stepwise multiple regression analysis,achievement was by far the best single predictor of self-concept.The results indicated that three of the four HFD scoring methods used in the study were significantly related to achievement level on the CTBS.These were Koppitz EIs,one critical feature,and the Goodenough-Harris HFD score.There were no sex differences on the global HFD score or the Piers-Harris CSCS.The intent of the study was to determine if HFDs could be validated as a measure of self-concept and to determine their relationship to academic achievement and sex.The present research indicates that both global score and individual HFD features are related to self-concept for adolescents.It also indicates that there are significant sex and achievement level differences in HFD performance.It appears that the prudent use of HFDs is an adjunct to other forms of evaluation.
    • Characteristics associated with resilience in battered women.

      Chang, Mei-I (2012-04-17)
      Higgins(1994)offered resilience as an alternative conceptual approach to the traditional focus on psychological growth despite an abusive relationship.The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between staff ratings ofresilience,individual psychological resources,and situational abuse factors.A sample of 105 battered women,served by San Deigo domestic violence agencies,was administered a battery of five questionnaires assessing constructive thinking,social support appraisal,optimism,psychological distress,and abuse experiences.Agency staff members recruited participants and provided clinical ratings of resilience.Correlational and multiple regression analyses indicated that six psychological concepts were not predictive of staff ratings.Staff members rated women who utilized fewer community resources as more resilient.There were significant inter-correlations among four of the six psychological variables,suggesting that there may be different dimensions of resilience.The intrapsychic aspects of resilience may consist of greater constructive thinking,positive appraisal of social support,greater optimism,and less psychological distress.
    • Assessment of emotionally disturbed adolescents using the Porschach:An analysis of the EA/es relationship.

      Mulder, Jordan.L (2012-04-17)
      There is a long history of debate regarding the validity of the Rorschach Inkblot test.Much of the previous research has involved adult subjects within clinical settings.This study investigates the validity of the Rorschash with adolescents classified as being emotionally disturbed according to the educational definition.School personnel and,particularly,school psychologists have the difficult task of identifying individuals who are emotionally disturbed(ED).It appears that a valid measure of covert processes may be helpful in making these determinations.Due to the vast number of scores and codes generated from the Rorschach using Exner's(1978)Comprehensive Scoring System,this study is limited to analysis of the Experience Actual(EA),experience stimulus(es)and codes that comprise them.Forty-nine adolescents classified as ED were used for the experimental sample.Sample data were compared to normative data published in Exnor's workbook(Exner,1990).The findings show ED adolescents have lower EA and es scores than non-ED individuals.Nearly two-thirds of the ED sample had EA scores that were lower than their es scores.Results support that interpretation of the EA and es provides information regarding emotional functioning.Analysis of the codes that comprise the EA and es,perhaps,raised more questions than found answers.However,there was evidence that achromatic and shading responses are associated with emotional disturbance.
    • Learning styles of Myers-Briggs Type Indicators

      Cohen, Juanita Jane (2012-04-17)
      This research study illustrated that personlaity type influences learning type.The study compared the personalities expressed in Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI)to Felder and Silverman's(1998)Index of Learning Styles(ILS).Phase one was a combined MBTI and ILS assessment that was administered to 105 participants.To further define learning style,phase two was a follw-up questionnaire administered to 37 participants and was based on Goley's(1982)Learning Pattern(LP)assessment.The research did indicate a correlation between specific dichotomies of MBTI,ILS and LP.The Extravert and Introvert dichotomy in MTBI appeared to correlate with the Active and Reflective dichotomy in ILS.Furthermore,a relationship emerged for MBTI Sensing and the ILS Sensory dichotomy,although no connection appeared in MBTI and the ILS Intuitive dichotomies.Moreover,participants who preferred MBTI Sensing dichotomy generally preferred Sequential learning.Participants with Intuitive personality in MBTI appeared to be either Sequential or Global learners.Finally,it was interesting to note that 68% of the participants scored as Visual as opposed to Verbal learners.The findings indicated personality does affect leaning styles.Curriculum designers and corporate trainers should consider personality in their training.Although the number of participants was small,the findings were significant enough to indicate that further research could improve training effectiveness and should be conducted.
    • Indiana laws affecting health care providers in psychology:abuse of children and endangered species.

      Repetz, Nancy K. (2012-04-17)
      This project discusses Indiana law addressing child abuse and abuse of endangered adults as it relates to the practice of psychology.Intended as a resource for psychologists,this paper reviews important issues in the areas of child abuse and abuse of endangered adults,offers understandable explanations of the laws and procedures utilized in the application of these laws in Indiana,discusses ethical concerns related to confidentiality and offers suppositions for public policy and advocacy by the profession.In addition,selected text of the Indiana Code is presented for future references.
    • The validity of selected draw-a-person test classifying criteria among homosexual and non homosexual males.

      Ornsteiner, Joel Von (2012-04-18)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the validity of Machover's(1949)interpretation that attention to both the hips and buttocks drawn by males subjects in their first male Draw-A-Person Test(DAP) or the drawing of a female figure first are significant indicators of male homosexuality.The hypothesis was that the frequency of these homosexual indicators among non-instituted homosexuals indicators among non-instituted homosexuals would be significantly higher(P = < .05) than the male heterosexual group.One hundred homosexual and 100 heterosexual males were selected from groups of volunteers from two universities,one bookstore and a community center in the New York area.The subjects were administered a DAP test in booklet format and a questionnaire.The drawings were classified for homosexual indicators blindly and independently by three judges who were trained in the use of the Machover interpretation of the DAP. Chi square analyses were calculated for the frequency of hips and buttocks and for the drawing of a female figure first and no significant differences between the self identified homosexual and heterosexual male groups in the expected direction were found.It was concluded that the lack of any significant difference between the scores of the homosexual and heterosexual males in this study casts considerable doubt on the validity of the male homosexual interpretations explored.Speculations were made concerning the widely discrepant results from past studies and this investigation.The majority of the past research had been conducted within institutional settings and there have been cultural changes over the last fifty years in both psychology and society's tolerance for the male homosexual.Unlike any previous DAP study,one-hundred urban homosexual and one-hundred heterosexual males were randomly selected.This researcher cautions that the DAP test should be interpreted with other available information,and results based on its independent use are viewed with much skepticism.Implications for future research were discussed.
    • Domain specific identity commitment and alcohol use and problems.

      Glanville, Alison (2012-04-18)
      Identity formation is an important developmental task of the college days.Previous research has demonstrated that identity commitment,as defined by James Marcia,is related to decreased substance use and problems.That is,individuals who are identity achieved or foreclosed use substances less frequently and experience fewer substance-related problems than do individuals who are classified in the statues of identity diffused or moratorium.However,Marcia discussed identity as developing in two domains,the occupational and the ideological(religious beliefs and political ideology).To date,no studies have examined in which domain commitment is associated witha decrease in substance use and problems.Using a sample of 283 college students,the present study sought to examine the relationship between identity development in these domains and alcohol use and problems.It was hypothesized that identity commitment in the ideological domain,rather than the occupational domain,would account for the relationship between overall identity commitment and substance use and problems and that this relationship would be mediated by anxiety.Overall,the hypotheses were not supported by the data.Identity commitment was not a significant predictor of alcohol use and problems and identity crisis was a better predictor than commitment.Religious identity appeared to the best predictor of alcohol use and problems of the three identity domains.Of the separate identity status,identity achievement had the highest predictive value for alcohol use.Finally,there was no evidence in the data to support the hypothesis that any relationships between identity and alcohol variables were mediated by anxiety.Limitations of the current study include differences in sample and measures as compared to other studies,as well as a number of variables that were not measured here. Implications and applications for working with adolescents and for substance abuse treatment are discussed along with recommendations for future studies.
    • The effects of encouragement,praise,and discouragement on internally and externally oriented children.

      Anderson, Judith.A (2012-04-19)
      The primary aim of this study was to investigate three types of parent communication—encouragement, praise, and discouragement—with regard to feelings elicited and perceived helpfulness, as reported by fifth-and sixth-grade subjects grouped according to high, medium or low locus of control. Subjects for the study were 37 male and 47 female volunteers. Bialer’s Children’s Locus of Control Scale was used to classify males and females into a high(internal),medium(middle range),or low(external) group. Encouragement, praise and discouragement were operationally defined as those responses receiving total agreement from a panel of experts as representing the Adlerian concepts under investigation. Perceptions were assessed by having subjects listen to an audio-tape, made specifically for this study, portraying parent-child interactions. Three parent responses, representing encouragement, praise and discouragement followed the presentation of each stimulus situation. Subjects rated each response: (a) on selected scales of the Semantic Differential measuring Evaluative and Potency dimensions, and (b) on a Likert scale measuring the degree of perceived helpfulness. The data were analysed by a 2 *3*3(set X locus of control X response type) analysis of variance, with repeated measures on the third dimension. A separate ANOVA was done for each of the three dependent variables—Evaluation, Potency, and Helpfulness. The following results and conclusions were reported as a result of this study: 1. Praising and encouraging responses were perceived by children as more helpful and more positive than discouraging responses. Discouraging responses were perceived as being as potent as praising responses and more potent than encouraging responses. These findings suggest that children discriminate between positive and negative parental communications. 2.Praising responses were perceived by children as more helpful, more positive ,and more potent than encouraging responses. This suggests that children prefer person-oriented praise rather than task-oriented encouragement from parents. In some respects, these findings appear to be at odds with Adlerian principles which suggest risks involved in responding to children with praise. However, this study suggests that Adlerians may have underestimated the usefulness of praise and overestimated the usefulness of encouragement. 3.Males perceived encouraging responses to be more helpful than discouraging responses, while females perceived responses defined as discouragement. Sex did not appear to function as a discriminating variable with regard to how children responded to the Evaluative and Potency dimensions. 4.Internally oriented children more clearly differentiated between praise and encouragement than did medium or low locus of control children. Praise was perceived as more helpful, more positive and more potent than encouragement. This was unexpected in light of literature which has suggested that the encouragement process can enhance the development of an internal control situation. 5.Sex did not appear to function as a discriminating variable between males and females of corresponding locus of control orientations in regard to their judgements of the helpfulness and value of parental responses. However, sex did appear to contribute to the perceptual framework within which internally oriented children judged the potency of parental responses. Males perceived discouragement as the most potent response, while females perceived praise as the most potent response. Recommendations for future research included: (1) examining children’s reactions to parental responses in an on-going parent-child relationship, (2) examining the effects encouragement, praise, and discouragement have on behavior, (3) longitudinal studies to increase understanding of how particular responses have come to take on reinforcing qualities, (4) the continued investigation of sex and locus of control as independent variables in future research of this nature.
    • The effects of encouragement,praise,and discouragement on internally and externally oriented children.

      Anderson, Judith.A (2012-04-19)
      The primary aim of this study was to investigate three types of parent communication—encouragement, praise, and discouragement—with regard to feelings elicited and perceived helpfulness, as reported by fifth-and sixth-grade subjects grouped according to high, medium or low locus of control. Subjects for the study were 37 male and 47 female volunteers. Bialer’s Children’s Locus of Control Scale was used to classify males and females into a high(internal),medium(middle range),or low(external) group. Encouragement, praise and discouragement were operationally defined as those responses receiving total agreement from a panel of experts as representing the Adlerian concepts under investigation. Perceptions were assessed by having subjects listen to an audio-tape, made specifically for this study, portraying parent-child interactions. Three parent responses, representing encouragement, praise and discouragement followed the presentation of each stimulus situation. Subjects rated each response: (a) on selected scales of the Semantic Differential measuring Evaluative and Potency dimensions, and (b) on a Likert scale measuring the degree of perceived helpfulness. The data were analysed by a 2 *3*3(set X locus of control X response type) analysis of variance, with repeated measures on the third dimension. A separate ANOVA was done for each of the three dependent variables—Evaluation, Potency, and Helpfulness. The following results and conclusions were reported as a result of this study: 1. Praising and encouraging responses were perceived by children as more helpful and more positive than discouraging responses. Discouraging responses were perceived as being as potent as praising responses and more potent than encouraging responses. These findings suggest that children discriminate between positive and negative parental communications. 2.Praising responses were perceived by children as more helpful, more positive ,and more potent than encouraging responses. This suggests that children prefer person-oriented praise rather than task-oriented encouragement from parents. In some respects, these findings appear to be at odds with Adlerian principles which suggest risks involved in responding to children with praise. However, this study suggests that Adlerians may have underestimated the usefulness of praise and overestimated the usefulness of encouragement. 3.Males perceived encouraging responses to be more helpful than discouraging responses, while females perceived responses defined as discouragement. Sex did not appear to function as a discriminating variable with regard to how children responded to the Evaluative and Potency dimensions. 4.Internally oriented children more clearly differentiated between praise and encouragement than did medium or low locus of control children. Praise was perceived as more helpful, more positive and more potent than encouragement. This was unexpected in light of literature which has suggested that the encouragement process can enhance the development of an internal control situation. 5.Sex did not appear to function as a discriminating variable between males and females of corresponding locus of control orientations in regard to their judgements of the helpfulness and value of parental responses. However, sex did appear to contribute to the perceptual framework within which internally oriented children judged the potency of parental responses. Males perceived discouragement as the most potent response, while females perceived praise as the most potent response. Recommendations for future research included: (1) examining children’s reactions to parental responses in an on-going parent-child relationship, (2) examining the effects encouragement, praise, and discouragement have on behavior, (3) longitudinal studies to increase understanding of how particular responses have come to take on reinforcing qualities, (4) the continued investigation of sex and locus of control as independent variables in future research of this nature.
    • Voluntary control of penile tumescence while receiving both cognitive and physical stimulation.

      Carpenter, Todd M (2012-04-19)
      Voluntary control of erectile responses represents a serious threat to the validity of phallometry( or penile plethysmography).Cognitive methods,such as not attending to the sexual stimuli or distraction through the use of fantasy,may be used effectively to distort phallometric measures.The primary purpose of this study was to explore the degree of control men have over their sexual arousal while receiving both cognitive and vibrotactile stimulation.More specifically,this study examined the ability of males to suppress penile tumescence to preferred sexual stimuli as well as their ability to enhance tumuscence to nonpreferred and neutral stimuli.Participants were randomly assigned to view one of three 4-minute video clips(heterosexual scene,homosexual scene,or neutral scene) while also receiving low-level penile vibrotactile stimulation. A 3 X 2 X 2 mixed model MANOVA was used to analyse the data.The results indicated that while receiving low-level vibrotactile stimulation,participants were able to "enhance" sexual arousal when instructed to do so regardless of video type but had much greater difficulty "suppressing" sexual arousal to the preferred video.Furthermore, under "enhance" instructions,mean and peak tumescence measures were not significantly difficult when comparing men who viewed a heterosexual VS homosexual video.The findings of this study are somewhat inconsistent with those of previous research and raise important issues clinically,theoretically and legally regarding the use of penile plethysmography.
    • Putting it in reverse: How communal relationships are pulled back into exchange norms by conflict.

      Richmond, Rakefet Yaakoba (2012-04-19)
      There is a body of research suggesting that conflict affects individual's behavior and cognitions in a close relationship(eg,Baucom & Adams, 1987; Forgas 1994). Previous research found that individuals in close relationships adjust behavior and attributions depending on the presence or absence of conflict (eg Gottman,1979,1994). The current study examined if conflict led individuals to make dispositional (as opposed to situational) attributions and follow exchange (as opposed to communal) norms. Participants included 215 students who worked on a "joint" task with one of three types of partners: (a)significant other; (b)close friend, or (c)stranger. The first two represent standard examples of communal relationships, while the third provided a baseline for an exchange relationship. Communal relationship participants were randomly assigned to either conflict or no-conflict manipulation groups and their behavior was observed and scores based on their tendency to display communal norms and presence or absence of attributional bias. It was predicted that participants in non-conflict, communal conditions would downplay their contribution to a joint task (following communal norms), whereas those interacting with strangers would emphasize personal contributions more than those in no-conflict, communal conditions (displaying regression from communal toward exchange norms). It was anticipated that findings would contribute to the understanding of the role of conflict in the dissolution of close relationships. Nevertheless, only the first hypothesis was partially supported, putting into question whether conflict, by itself is a causal factor in relationship quality and disssolution. Procedural and sampling limitations, as well as theoretical and clinical implications, are presented.
    • The effects of videotaped symbolic modeling on students expectations about counseling and perceptions of the counseling relationship.

      Mitsch, Raymond R (2012-04-19)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of a symbolic modeling videotaped as a vehicle to pretrain counseling-naive clients for their encounter with a counselor. One hundred and twenty-three psychology students volunteered for this study to receive extra credit for their research participation. They were divided into four groups and asked either to view the videotape or to serve as controls. Two of these groups were also asked to complete questionnaires prior to either viewing the videotaped or coming back the next day to complete the questionnaires again. The four groups completed the questionnaires following their involvement in the study. The independent variables were the symbolic modeling videotape and completion of the pre-treatment questionnaires. The dependent variables were congruence of expectations as measured by the Expectations about Counseling Questionnaire(EACQ) and student's perceptions of the counseling relationship as measured by the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory(BLRI). The socialization process was accomplished by a symbolic modeling videotape which portrayed a first counseling session in process between a female counselor and a female client.This tape was devised to deal with stereotypes often associated with counseling by college students and to provide information about counseling processes, "good client role behavior" and possible outcomes of counseling. This role-played counseling session was presented in an color, audiovisual format and lasted about 17 minutes. Eight two-way analyses of variance were computed on each of the four main expectancy factors of the EACQ and the four scales of the BLRI. Results indicated that the SMV had a positive impact on one factor (Counseling Expertise) of the EACQ and two scales (Empathic Understanding and Congruence) of the BLRI. The conclusion was drawn that this type of intervention provided a potentially useful means of socializing naive clients to counseling. The results did highlight the need for a longer videotape which would portray the vicissitudes of counseling more effectively and would give the potential client a more panoramic view of counseling.
    • The relationship between friendship transition and conflict.

      Jaroscak, Danielle R (2012-04-23)
      The transition from acquaintanceship to friendship was examined in this study.In particular,the study focused on the development of friendship and how situations that may invite conflict affect that process.Participants were assigned to one of three relationship conditions(exchange,pre-friendship,communal) and read about a negative(conflict) and positive(non-conflict)scenario involving the assigned relationship partner.Each participant reported how he or she would feel in the imagined situations.The results of this study showed differences between the pre-friendship conditions and exchange and communal conditions.There is a pre-friendship condition felt as comfortable with the other's behavior as friends,and attributed their negative behavior to unstable,situational conditions,as is done for friends but reported that the behavior of pre-friends was more important to their relationship.This research suggests that pre-relationship is a distinct type of relationship in which a person thinks of their partners as a friends,but do not feel like friends,and attend to interactions in order to assess the status of the relationship.These findings expand our understanding of the process of friendship formation,but raise questions about the adequacy of traditional models of social relationships.
    • Friendships,romantic relationsips,and the importance of self-expansion.

      Kashiwabara, Mami (2012-04-23)
      Self-expansion theory (Aron & Aron, 1986) posits that individuals enter and maintain relationships in order to expand their sense of self and suggests that expanding the sense of self is a basic human motivation. In this study, I examined whether the perceived opportunities for self-expansion within a relationship predicted feelings of closeness and passion for a partner, and unlike many previous studies, I explored the importance of self-expansion in friendships as well as romantic relationships. I also explored individual differences in the importance of self-expansion opportunities in predicting closeness and passion. The results suggest that opportunities for self-expansion may motivate involvement in both friendships and romantic relationships, although the experience may be different in the two categories of relationship. The results also suggest that there may be individual differences in the importance of self-expansion, but these patterns were not as expected. I discuss the implications of these results for self-expansion theory and understanding close relationships.