• An investigation of the ideals of present-day adolescents

      Horan, Rose Angela (2012-08-16)
      Not Available.
    • Assessing Risk of Violence in Caucasian and African-American Male Forensic Patients

      Herriott, Brandy Lynn (2013-01-30)
      Violence risk assessment, or the ability to predict the likelihood of a criminal offender’s to commit a violent act in the future, is an essential role of psychologists in the criminal justice system. One of the most widely used violence risk assessment instruments is the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG). The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is the most widely used measure of psychopathy and is often used as part of violence risk assessment, including in the the VRAG. The PCL-R is lengthy and time-consuming process, which has led to the development of the Childhood and Adolescent Taxon Scale (CATS), which is a shorter, more time efficient measure of psychopathy that can also be used in the VRAG. This study is an extension of research done by Bolton (2006) that was designed to assess and compare the utility of the PCL-R and CATS, specifically when used within the VRAG. The current study hypothesized that VRAG scores calculated with the CATS as its index of psychopathy would be equivalent to scores obtained with the PCL-R, supporting the use of the more time efficient CATS in prediction of likelihood of violent recidivism. It was also hypothesized that VRAG scores would be equivalent in assessment of both African-American and Caucasian offenders, regardless of which psychopathy measure was used. Furthermore, Bolton’s research identified potential racial bias in the use of violence risk assessment scores when making decisions concerning patients’ level of security and restrictiveness. The current study also examined decisions concerning levels of security and restrictiveness, and related violent risk assessment scores. One hundred twenty male forensic inpatients from a Midwestern psychiatric hospital [Caucasian (N=65), African-American (N=55)] were selected at random for inclusion in this study. Contrary to the hypotheses, results found that the VRAG-P and VRAG-C scores were not equivalent. VRAG-P scores were significantly higher than VRAG-C scores for the overall sample and African-American patients. However, scores were not significantly different for Caucasian patients. There were no significant differences within any risk assessment instrument based on race. Finally, no significant differences were found in decisions related to level of security between Caucasian and African-American subjects. Findings are discussed and their implications for clinical practice.
    • Assessment of emotionally disturbed adolescents using the Porschach:An analysis of the EA/es relationship.

      Mulder, Jordan.L (2012-04-17)
      There is a long history of debate regarding the validity of the Rorschach Inkblot test.Much of the previous research has involved adult subjects within clinical settings.This study investigates the validity of the Rorschash with adolescents classified as being emotionally disturbed according to the educational definition.School personnel and,particularly,school psychologists have the difficult task of identifying individuals who are emotionally disturbed(ED).It appears that a valid measure of covert processes may be helpful in making these determinations.Due to the vast number of scores and codes generated from the Rorschach using Exner's(1978)Comprehensive Scoring System,this study is limited to analysis of the Experience Actual(EA),experience stimulus(es)and codes that comprise them.Forty-nine adolescents classified as ED were used for the experimental sample.Sample data were compared to normative data published in Exnor's workbook(Exner,1990).The findings show ED adolescents have lower EA and es scores than non-ED individuals.Nearly two-thirds of the ED sample had EA scores that were lower than their es scores.Results support that interpretation of the EA and es provides information regarding emotional functioning.Analysis of the codes that comprise the EA and es,perhaps,raised more questions than found answers.However,there was evidence that achromatic and shading responses are associated with emotional disturbance.
    • Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life (Hrqol) in a Sample of Children Referred for an ADHD Evaluation

      Riccardi, Maria (2013-01-30)
      The present study examined the reliability and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory – Version 4.0 (PedsQL 4.0) generic core scales as a measure of Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) among children referred for an ADHD Evaluation. Additionally, a multiple regression analysis was used to determine which of certain parent and child variables (number of psychiatric diagnoses, child’s adaptive skills, child’s externalizing and internalizing behavior difficulties, child’s functional impairment, and parental stress) are significantly associated with HRQOL as measured by the PedsQL. Results revealed strong internal consistency for all but the school functioning subscale as well as good test-retest reliability. Agreement between parent and child ratings approached significance. As predicted, parent ratings on the PedsQL were moderately correlated with ratings on the Impairment Rating Scale. The strongest predictors of HRQOL were parent ratings of internalizing behavior and adaptive behavior (BASC-2). Results suggest that administering the PedsQL may be useful in assessing the adverse impact of ADHD symptoms on children’s everyday functioning.
    • Attachments to care-giver as reflected in early recollections and social interest of normal and conduct disorder adolescents.

      Latta, Michael Lee (2012-04-23)
      This study investigated the degree to which conduct disorder and normal adolescents differ with respect to social interest as assessed by the Personal Trait Value Scale (Crandall, 1975). An attempt was also made to determine whether significant differences exist between groups with respect to manifest content of early recollections as assessed by the Manaster-Perryman Manifest Content Early Recollections Scoring Manual(Manaster-Perryman, 1979). Special attention was given to the manifest content of early recollections regarding early caregiver-child interactions, the subjects' perceived attachment to caregiver, and sense of security.Sixty male subjects participated in this study {N=60).The conduct disorder group consisted of 30 adolescent criminal offenders. The normal adolescent group was comprised of 30 high school students with no known psychosocial adjustment difficulties. Both groups were similar with respect to age, race, and level of intellectual functioning. In the current study, the conduct disorder group scored significantly lower on the measure of social interest than did the normal adolescent group. Significant differences were also found in life style themes of early recollections. The normal group reported a significantly greater frequency of mother, father, and non-family members. The conduct disorder group mentioned a significantly greater frequency of negative themes. They also mentioned a significantly greater frequency of early recollections in which the setting was unclear, the subject initiated less activity, and the affect was negative. The normal group reported a significantly greater frequency of primed early recollections in which the caregiver was recalled as being interactive and providing a sense of security or support. The results suggest that conduct disorder adolescents display lower levels of social interest. Support is also added to the usefulness of early recollections as a means of assessing life style themes of different adolescent groups. The findings of the current study provide partial support for Adler's (1926/1988) assumptions about the relationship between early caregiver-child interactions, sense of security, and social interest.
    • Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder and Sleep Disturbances: Consideration of Familial Influences

      Noble, Gretchen Stuckert (2010-05-11)
      The present study examined the extent to which parenting influences problems with sleep in children referred for an evaluation of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Data was collected from parents and/or legal guardians of sixty-three 4- to 12-year old children referred for assessment at an ADHD Evaluation Clinic located at a Midwestern university. Previous literature linking sleep problems to ADHD has typically derived from community and pediatric sleep clinic samples and has largely overlooked children with sub-clinical sleep impairments and/or those whose sleep problems stem from alternate etiologies. More than 60% of parents/caregivers in the current study reported significant child sleep difficulties. As hypothesized, parenting (as related to the implementation of daily routines) added to the explained variance in sleep problems above and beyond the variance explained by an ADHD diagnosis. However, neither parent use of routines nor parenting stress were significant individual predictors of child sleep problems. Parent report of child internalizing symptomology, but not externalizing symptomology, was significantly correlated with reported problems with sleep. The present results suggest that children who display behaviors associated with anxiety and depression may be particularly likely to exhibit sleep difficulties and that evaluation of sleep difficulties should include consideration of parenting practices (i.e., lack of consistent sleep routines). Given the high percentage of sleep problems reported, current results also suggest that screening for sleep disturbances should be a routine part of child assessment.
    • Attitudes of boys and girls toward some common forms of behavior

      Schwartz, George Spencer (2013-03-08)
      Not available.
    • Attitudes Toward Complementary and Alternative Medicine in College Students as A Function of Nationality, Familiarity, and Personality Traits

      Ho, Joanna S. (2012-10-19)
      Personal and cultural forces leading to health care choices that deviate from conventional medicine have been minimally investigated. Success with treatment of illnesses is reliant on an adequate understanding of factors that influence attitudes and beliefs about medicine. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among college students as a function of American or Asian nationality, Familiarity/Exposure to CAM, and the personality construct of Openness to Experience. A web-based survey instrument was administered to 72 Asian international and 76 American college students at Indiana State University. No significant differences were found between attitudes of Asian students and American students. Within the total sample, positive attitudes toward CAM were found to be related to older age, more Familiarity/Exposure to CAM, and higher levels of Openness to Experience. After controlling for age, Familiarity/Exposure to CAM was found to be a significant predictor of positive attitudes in Asian students and Openness to Experience was found to be a significant predictor of positive attitudes in American students as initially hypothesized. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for health care professionals in addressing young adults‘ needs for effective and culturally sensitive treatment and a better understanding of predictors of CAM use.
    • Attitudes toward Transsexual People: Effects of Gender and Appearance

      Gerhardstein, Kelly R. (2010-07-20)
      The transgendered community, like other gender non-conforming communities, is the subject of stigmatization, discrimination, and violence. However, there is a notable lack of research investigating the specific attitudes toward various manifestations of transgenderism, and the factors that may be contributing to these attitudes. The goal of this study was to investigate factors that contribute to negative attitudes toward, and discrimination against, this consistently marginalized group of people. The present study explored the relationship between attitudes toward transsexuals and several gender-related variables, including gender of the rater, sex and apparent gender of the transsexual, as well as gender role beliefs, personal gender-role identification, and general attitudes toward transgenderism and homosexuality. The sample population for the main analyses consisted of 251 heterosexual undergraduate students, including 131 men and 120 women. Participants rated one of two vignettes, which were paired with one of four different pictures. The vignettes described either a male-to-female or female-to-male transsexual, and the corresponding picture depicted an individual whose appearance was stereotypically consistent with either the vignette character’s post-operative sex or his or her biological sex. Additionally, participants completed the Genderism and Transphobia Scale, the Kite Homosexuality Attitudes Scale, the Hypergender Ideology Scale, and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire to determine whether a relationship existed between these scales and ratings of the target vignette characters. There were significant main effects for appearance of the transsexual, gender of the participant, and sex of the transsexual. Participants reported more positive general perceptions and more positive evaluations of the transsexual character’s attractiveness as a friend or romantic partner when his/her appearance was congruent with the desired sex. Compared to women, men rated the transsexual character more negatively. There was also a significant interaction for gender of the participant and sex of the transsexual, such that females rated the attractiveness of the FTM transsexual significantly more positively than the MTF transsexual, whereas men’s attractiveness ratings for the FTM and MTF transsexuals were not significantly different. More negative attitudes toward gender non-conformists in general were associated with more negative general perceptions and more negative evaluations of the transsexual character’s attractiveness. Results of the present study suggest that gender-related variables, including appearance, are associated with attitudes toward transsexuals. In addition, there are both similarities and differences in the patterns of the relationships between gender and attitudes toward transsexuals and the patterns observed in attitudes toward gay and lesbian people.
    • Bias in a Just World? Sexual Prejudice, Gender Self-Esteem, and Intimate Partner Violence

      Mahoy, Crystal D. (2014-03-18)
      Each year, approximately 835,000 men and 1.3 million women are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV; American Bar Association, n.d). Although the prevalence of same-sex intimate partner violence (IPV) is approximately the same as IPV in heterosexual couples (Alexander, 2002), fewer studies have examined perceptions of IPV in same-sex couples or of IPV perpetrated against heterosexual men compared to heterosexual women. In the current study, Just World Theory (Lerner & Miller, 1978) is used as a framework for understanding factors associated with perceptions of heterosexual and same-sex IPV, including sexual prejudice and gender self-esteem. Perceptions of IPV were examined in a sample of 251 male and female undergraduate students from Indiana State University. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four vignette conditions in which the gender of the perpetrator and victim were manipulated, resulting in two heterosexual and two same-sex conditions. Participants then completed several self-report measures, including the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (assesses self-esteem related to gender) and the Modern Homonegativity Scale (assesses sexual prejudice). Participants also completed a measure of social desirability and a measure assessing attributions of blame in the IPV scenario. Results indicated that men and women did not differ significantly in their blame of perpetrators and victims as a function of target character gender or sexual orientation. Additionally, gender self-esteem was not related to blame of victims and sexual prejudice was related to victim responsibility for women but not for men. Sexual prejudice and gender self-esteem were not significantly correlated for men or women. Results emphasize the importance of professionals’awareness of their biases and potential sexual prejudice when working with victims and perpetrators of IPV, particularly gay men and lesbians. Results also highlight the difficulty that heterosexual and gay men and lesbians likely have in obtaining support following IPV victimization. Although results do not appear to provide support for the Just World Theory construct of position identification, it is possible that other factors such as sexual prejudice outweighed the need for women to protect their potential position as a victim.
    • Characteristics associated with resilience in battered women.

      Chang, Mei-I (2012-04-17)
      Higgins(1994)offered resilience as an alternative conceptual approach to the traditional focus on psychological growth despite an abusive relationship.The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between staff ratings ofresilience,individual psychological resources,and situational abuse factors.A sample of 105 battered women,served by San Deigo domestic violence agencies,was administered a battery of five questionnaires assessing constructive thinking,social support appraisal,optimism,psychological distress,and abuse experiences.Agency staff members recruited participants and provided clinical ratings of resilience.Correlational and multiple regression analyses indicated that six psychological concepts were not predictive of staff ratings.Staff members rated women who utilized fewer community resources as more resilient.There were significant inter-correlations among four of the six psychological variables,suggesting that there may be different dimensions of resilience.The intrapsychic aspects of resilience may consist of greater constructive thinking,positive appraisal of social support,greater optimism,and less psychological distress.
    • Characteristics of Difficult Patients in Prisons Compared to Difficult Patients in Primary Care Settings

      Kistler, Emily (2011-07-19)
      Research has found that patients perceived as being difficult by their physicians share a number of characteristics. These "difficult" characteristics include Axis I disorders, personality disorders, somatization, complex health problems, and aggression. Current research has focused on defining "difficult patients" in community populations, while other populations have gone overlooked. One population that has prevalence rates of the "difficult" characteristics identified in community samples is offenders. As a group, offenders tend to have high rates of mental illness, chronic health problems, and behavioral issues such as aggression. While difficult patients in prison may resemble difficult patients in the community, research has not examined patient characteristics among offenders. It may be that offenders present with additional "difficult" characteristics, such as malingering, due to the uniqueness of the prison environment. This study examined nurses perceptions to difficult patients in prison and in primary care settings. It was hypothesized that difficult offender patients would be perceived as having more psychopathology, malingering more frequently, seeking medication more frequently, making more frequent requests to see the doctor, and that there would be a higher rate of difficult patients in correctional settings as compared to difficult patients in primary care settings. Results show that correctional nurses perceived difficult patients exaggerating their medical symptoms more, being less truthful about their symptoms, being more drug-seeking, and being less reasonable in their requests for medication than difficult patients in the community. There were no significant results in ratings of mental health, manipulative behavior, or requests to see the physician. Additionally, correctional nurses indicated that there are a higher percentage of difficult patients in their setting as compared to community nurses. Results from this study will help generate techniques or suggestions that may alleviate some of the problems nurses experience while treating offenders as well as improving the overall quality of the interaction between offenders and health professionals. This may, in turn, improve offender patient medication compliance, reduce the number of unnecessary doctor appointments, and reduce health-care provider burn-out. Other possible implications include improving the overall health of offender patients and reducing the amount of unnecessary spending to treat patients (e.g.improving patient compliance).
    • Cross racial preferences in viewing sexually explicit material:a comparison bewteen African-American and Caucasian males.

      Horton, Boyd Randal (2012-04-16)
      The present study investigated that extent to which the race of actors in an erotic video affected sexual arousal in African-American and Caucasian heterosexual males.It was hypothesized that the two racial groups would be significantly more sexually aroused while watching their respective homoethnic erotic video.The htpothesis was grounded in the modeling effects of Bandura's Social Leaning Theory(1977),the Matching Hypothesis(1982)and worldview differences between African-Americans and Caucasians(Baldwin and Bell,1985.Thirty-four African-American and Caucasian males were shown homoethnic and non-homethnic erotic videos while penile circumference,systolic and diastolic blood pressures,and self-report ratings of sexual arousal were measured.In addition,sexual attitude measures and an xultural identity questionnaire were given to the participants to assess whether sexual attitudes and cultural identity questionnaire were given to the participants to assess whether sexual attitudes and cultural identity were related to sexual responitivity.The hypothesis was not supported.The results of this study showed that the race of actors in an erotic video did not affect differentially the sexual responding of the African-American and Caucasian men.However,systolic blood pressure tended to be a more sensitive indicator of general arousal in African-American men.While this study failed to support the hypothesis,the results did provide data relevant to the study of male sexuality in the laboratory setting.This area of research is still new and deserves more attention.
    • Desirable personality traits of teachers

      Reed, Loren T. (2012-08-16)
      Not Available.
    • Diagnosis of Depersonalization Disorder

      DeHoff, Margaret R. (2010-09-22)
      Depersonalization Disorder (DPD) is considered both under-researched and underdiagnosed. A variety of reasons have been proposed for the under-diagnosis of DPD, including the high frequency of depersonalization as a symptom and comorbidity of DPD with other disorders. Under-diagnosis of DPD has also been attributed to inadequate diagnostic criteria in the DSM-IV-TR, as it lists only four criteria and only one specifically addresses the phenomenon of depersonalization. Several groups of researchers have proposed more comprehensive and in-depth conceptualizations of DPD. Further, common biases in clinical decision-making, such as an over-reliance on cognitive heuristics and the use of prototypes, can contribute to inaccurate diagnosis and under-diagnosis. A national sample of licensed psychologists was randomly selected and recruited from the membership of the American Psychological Association. The study was conducted on-line and participants were asked to read one of two DPD cases, assign a diagnosis, and rate the representativeness of a series of diagnoses for the case. They were also asked to rate the presence of a list of symptoms, including the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria for DPD, and the symptoms and dimensions of DPD and depersonalization from the literature. Half of the participants were asked to assign a diagnosis and then rate symptoms (simulated prototype approach) while the others rated the symptoms before assigning a diagnosis (simulated DSM-IV approach). The study found that clinicians under-diagnosed DPD and that the DSM-IV depersonalization criterion had high sensitivity but not adequate specificity. Results indicated that a simulated DSM-IV approach improved accuracy of diagnosing DPD. Finally, results indicated that the symptoms of DPD and depersonalization proposed by researchers had better predictive value for DPD representativeness ratings than the current DSM-IV criteria, but not for a diagnosis of DPD. The results of this study have implications for the diagnostic criteria for DPD, clinical decisionmaking strategies, clinical training, and future research on DPD.
    • Disclosure Involving a Third-Party: Reciprocity and Liking Outcomes

      Cotterell, Keith (2011-09-19)
      This investigation examines the function of third-party disclosures on reciprocal self-disclosures and liking. Sixty-eight college students engaged in a social interaction with one or two computers. In the experiment, one computer would “disclose” information either about itself or about another computer (third-party). Each disclosure was followed by a question to the participant. Questions were asked either by the discloser or by third-party to assess reciprocation of disclosures. Afterwards, participants rated liking for the two computers-as-social-actors. Participants showed a tendency to disclose more (i.e., give longer responses) to an actor who disclosed to them, regardless of whether the disclosure was about the self- or about a third-party (though intimacy of the disclosures was not different). Participants did not disclose more to the third-party whom they heard disclosures about. Liking was unaffected by the disclosures. These results suggest that positive social benefits may be gained by disclosing about another in the place of oneself. Having another individual disclose about oneself, did not elicit of the same social benefits. Implications are discussed about the nature of disclosures and relationship formation.
    • Disorders of Extreme Stress, Not Otherwise Specified, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Borderline Personality Disorder: A Vignette Study Exploring Clinicians' Diagnostic Perceptions

      Knowles, Awen (2010-05-11)
      Research suggests that some individuals who suffer invasive, early childhood trauma develop significant character pathology, and may meet the criteria for both Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Trauma researchers have proposed a new diagnostic category for these individuals, called Disorders of Extreme Stress, Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS), also known as Complex PTSD. The present study compared clinicians’ symptom ratings for two case vignettes to determine if DESNOS was a better description of the cases than PTSD, BPD, or comorbid PTSD/BPD. Additionally, potential sex bias in diagnosis was examined by manipulating the sex of the client in the vignette, and examining effects of participant sex. A national sample of 123 licensed psychologists completed the study online. The participants read both vignettes, rated the symptoms in each case, and assigned a diagnosis. The hypothesis that DESNOS would receive higher mean symptom ratings than PTSD, BPD, or comorbid PTSD/BPD was not supported. PTSD and BPD each received higher mean symptom ratings than DESNOS in Vignette A, but in Vignette B there were no significant differences in the symptom ratings. The hypothesis that sex of the client in the vignette would influence the diagnosis of BPD was not supported in Vignette A, but was supported in Vignette B, in which all BPD diagnoses were assigned to the female case. The hypothesis that female participants would endorse higher PTSD diagnostic ratings than would male participants was not supported. However, female participants assigned higher PTSD symptom ratings, and endorsed more of the symptoms of PTSD for Vignette A than did male participants, suggesting that the women attended more to the trauma history in the case. Overall, the study provided limited support for the construct of DESNOS. Limitations of the methodology, implications of the findings, and directions for future research are discussed.
    • Domain specific identity commitment and alcohol use and problems.

      Glanville, Alison (2012-04-18)
      Identity formation is an important developmental task of the college days.Previous research has demonstrated that identity commitment,as defined by James Marcia,is related to decreased substance use and problems.That is,individuals who are identity achieved or foreclosed use substances less frequently and experience fewer substance-related problems than do individuals who are classified in the statues of identity diffused or moratorium.However,Marcia discussed identity as developing in two domains,the occupational and the ideological(religious beliefs and political ideology).To date,no studies have examined in which domain commitment is associated witha decrease in substance use and problems.Using a sample of 283 college students,the present study sought to examine the relationship between identity development in these domains and alcohol use and problems.It was hypothesized that identity commitment in the ideological domain,rather than the occupational domain,would account for the relationship between overall identity commitment and substance use and problems and that this relationship would be mediated by anxiety.Overall,the hypotheses were not supported by the data.Identity commitment was not a significant predictor of alcohol use and problems and identity crisis was a better predictor than commitment.Religious identity appeared to the best predictor of alcohol use and problems of the three identity domains.Of the separate identity status,identity achievement had the highest predictive value for alcohol use.Finally,there was no evidence in the data to support the hypothesis that any relationships between identity and alcohol variables were mediated by anxiety.Limitations of the current study include differences in sample and measures as compared to other studies,as well as a number of variables that were not measured here. Implications and applications for working with adolescents and for substance abuse treatment are discussed along with recommendations for future studies.