• Relationship satisfaction as a function of the discrepancy between experienced and desired levels of intimacy

      Malcolm, Joan I (2012-04-23)
      The present study investigated the effect of discrepancies between experienced versus desired levels ·of intimacy on relationship satisfaction using data from 135 undergraduate students. Subjects completed the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (PAIR), the Dyaqic Relationship Questionnaire (DRQ), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and a Background Questionnaire (BQ).Correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that discrepancies between Desired and Experienced Intimacy, as measured by the PAIR and DRQ, was highly predictive of relationship satisfaction, as measured by the DAS. However, Experienced Intimacy was a better predictor of relationship satisfaction. Both males and females ranked Emotional Intimacy as most important to relationship satisfaction and it was also the strongest predictor of relationship satisfaction. The DRQ was found to be an efficacious pictorial assessment of intimacy.
    • The influence of retention intervals and warning signals on prospective memory.

      Sarapata, Michael Andrew (2012-04-23)
      Prospective memory, memory for future events, is used for remembering duties and obligations that all people must complete. Past research has contributed to our understanding of the bases of prospective memory tasks (time versus event) and the kinds of situations requiring prospective memory (appointments, chores, deadlines, and medications). However, research has yet to examine how prospective remembering unfolds over time. For example, very little is known about how such remembering is affected by the time from when the task is encoded to the time that a task must be conducted (the retention interval), the length of the time in which a response can be counted as correct (the response window), and the time from a warning signal, if given, to the time that the prospective task must be completed (the anticipatory lag). This research explored the accuracy and temporal precision to remember to complete a prospective memory task. An accurate prospective remembering involves responding within a response window. The precision of a prospective response refers to how close in time a response is to the ideal time expected of a response. Participants completed prospective memory tasks with three retention intervals ( 45 second, 60 second, and 7 5 second) and attempted to respond within a response window often seconds. Warning signals were either not presented or presented at five and fifteen seconds prior to the expected reaction time. The results indicated that a warning signal affected both the accuracy and precision of prospective remebering such that shorter anticipatory lags created greater accuracy and lower failure rates.
    • Psychometric properties of a weeping propensity scale.

      Olson, Phyllis M (2012-04-23)
      The Weeping Propensity Scale is a 24-item questionnaire using a nine point Likert-type scale to query the intensity of a subject's weeping response to a variety of potentially crying-inducing situations. Results indicated that the measure has substantial reliability, both internal consistency (Cronbach alpha= .95) and test-retest reliability (r = .90). The study examined the stability of the factor structure of a revision of the Weeping Propensity Scale (WPS) and examined expected relationships with gender, instrumentality/expressiveness measured by the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence, Helmreich, & Stapp, 1974),empathy measured by the Questionnaire Measure of Emotional Empathy (Mehrabian & Epstein, 1972), and the domain scales of the NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Attitudes toward weeping were also assessed through a short questionnaire constructed for this study. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the revised version of the WPS was an adequate model. In a series of simultaneous multiple regressions, weeping propensity was most effectively predicted by gender, empathy, neuroticism, extraversion (for men but not for women), and attitudes toward weeping. Implications of the results are discussed.
    • Investigation of instructional reading strategies,professional development and training,and reading assessments used at the secondary level to improve student reading skills.

      Brown III, Neal (2012-04-23)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate instructional reading strategies,professional development and training, and reading assessments used to improve student reading skills in secondary high schools. The study focused on urban high schools in Northeast Indiana with diverse populations. Classroom teachers at the secondary level described their experiences in teaching reading.These "lived through" classroom experiences were examined to gain a better understanding of how instructional reading strategies, professional development and training, and reading assessments could be used at the secondary level to improve student reading skills. This study expanded on the works ofBarry (1997), High School Reading Program Revisited; Barry (2002), Reading Strategies Teachers Say They Use; Said, Sisson, Worley, & Zipperer (2002), Literacy Education and Reading Programs in the Secondary Schools: Status, Problems, and Solutions; and Schneider and Spor (1999), Content Reading Strategies: What Teachers Know, Use, and Want to Learn. This research examined the responses and the information pertaining to 13 interview questions through teacher interviews, classroom observations, and a review of the curriculum. These sources presented emerging themes and patterns.The results of this investigation revealed that perhaps the biggest obstacle to improving student reading skills in the focus schools was the attitude of classroom teachers. Presently, secondary teachers do not accept the teaching of reading skills as ttheir responsibility. Once administrators convince secondary classroom teachers to accept their responsibility for teaching reading, administrators have a challenge of providing appropriate professional development and training in instructional reading strategies and reading assessments. The current study focused on an investigation of instructional reading strategies,professional development and training, and reading assessments used at the secondary level to improve student reading skills. Due to the complexity of the reading process, a more in-depth research study needs to be conducted on each of the components of this research study. Evidence of failure, clearly points out that learning to read the English language is not as easy as some may lead one to believe. Therefore, the following recommendations are suggested on topics of instructional reading strategies, professional development and training, and reading assessment used at the secondary level to improve student reading skills: (a) instructional reading strategies used at the secondary level to improve student reading skills, (b) professional development and training used at the secondary level to improve student reading skills, (c) reading assessment used at the secondary level to improve student reading skills, (d) and focus on the principal's role at the secondary level to improve student reading skills.
    • Attachments to care-giver as reflected in early recollections and social interest of normal and conduct disorder adolescents.

      Latta, Michael Lee (2012-04-23)
      This study investigated the degree to which conduct disorder and normal adolescents differ with respect to social interest as assessed by the Personal Trait Value Scale (Crandall, 1975). An attempt was also made to determine whether significant differences exist between groups with respect to manifest content of early recollections as assessed by the Manaster-Perryman Manifest Content Early Recollections Scoring Manual(Manaster-Perryman, 1979). Special attention was given to the manifest content of early recollections regarding early caregiver-child interactions, the subjects' perceived attachment to caregiver, and sense of security.Sixty male subjects participated in this study {N=60).The conduct disorder group consisted of 30 adolescent criminal offenders. The normal adolescent group was comprised of 30 high school students with no known psychosocial adjustment difficulties. Both groups were similar with respect to age, race, and level of intellectual functioning. In the current study, the conduct disorder group scored significantly lower on the measure of social interest than did the normal adolescent group. Significant differences were also found in life style themes of early recollections. The normal group reported a significantly greater frequency of mother, father, and non-family members. The conduct disorder group mentioned a significantly greater frequency of negative themes. They also mentioned a significantly greater frequency of early recollections in which the setting was unclear, the subject initiated less activity, and the affect was negative. The normal group reported a significantly greater frequency of primed early recollections in which the caregiver was recalled as being interactive and providing a sense of security or support. The results suggest that conduct disorder adolescents display lower levels of social interest. Support is also added to the usefulness of early recollections as a means of assessing life style themes of different adolescent groups. The findings of the current study provide partial support for Adler's (1926/1988) assumptions about the relationship between early caregiver-child interactions, sense of security, and social interest.
    • Effects of selctive lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis on working memory in rats.

      Noble, Michelle Marie (2012-04-23)
      The nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) of the rat brain is analogous to the nucleus basalis of Meynert found in humans. Alzheimer's disease patients have working memory impairments, which may be attributable to damage to the basal nucleus of Meynert. Excitotoxins such as quisqualic and ibotenic acid have been previously used to make lesions of the NBM in research animals. NBM lesions made with ibotenic or quisqualic acid are known to impair working memory. However, in addition to damaging the cholinergic neurons of the NBM, the lesions made by these excitotoxins also destroy cells of other nearby structures, and it is unclear whether the impairments found are due to damage to the NBM or to surrounding non-cholinergic structures. With the recent advent ofthe highly selective immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin, it may be possible to determine if lesions involving only the cortically projecting NBM cholinergic neurons impair working memory. The current experiment tests the hypothesis that selective lesions of cholinergic neurons of the NBM impair working memory. To test this hypothesis, a delayed non-matching-to-position-task was used as a test for working memory. Results of this experiment provide novel evidence of the involvement of the cholinergic neurons of the NBM in working memory and will contribute to our understanding of the cognitive impairments seen in Alzheimer's disease.
    • Early recollection and hypnosis.

      Coram, Gregory J (2012-04-23)
      This study compared the contents of Early Recollections(ERs)obtained from Ss in a hypnotic state with the ERs obtained from the same Ss ina normal waking state.This comparison was done in an attempt to dsicover differences in the content of the ER's collected under two conditions that might be significant for a more complte understanding of personality.Forty individuals,20 scoring at or above the 60 percentile on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility,Form A and 20 scoring at or below the 19 percentile,were randomly selected for the study.The 40 Ss were administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale,Form C.Subjects scoring _+ 1 of their group score were selected for continuation in the investigation.Ss failing to reach criterion were replaced by randomly selected Ss matched for sex and susceptiblity.Ss participated in two different sessions approximately two weeks apart.Two ER's were initially elicited from half of the Ss in anormal waking state;another set of ERs was solicited by using a standard induction technique.For the other half of Ss this order was counterbalanced.The counterbalance technique was utlilized to control for any carryover effects.The stattistical design for this study was a 2(sex) X2 (Levels of Susceptibility) X2(Order) X2 (Condition-with or without hypnosis) factorial design, with the last factor repeated for all subjects.After collection of ERs,scoring of protocols began.To this end the Manaster-Perryman Scoring Manual was employed.This manual contains 42 variables divided among seven categories.ERs were independently scored by 2 judges after a study of the manual.A reliability test was conducted to determine the degree of agreement between scores.Three scores were generated for each variable:a score on each varibale for each ER and a total score(T-score) overall two ERs on each variable.ER-T scores were analysed by the analysis of variance procedure to determine differences,if any,across conditions.There were no carry-over effects(the content of the ER reported earlier did not have any influence/effect on the content of the ER reported later,whether the content reported earlier was elicited while the Ss were in hyponosis or in the ordinary waking state).Carry-over effects were analysed not only for individual items but also for clusters.The content of the ERs of hypnotic Ss showed not only a significant increase in "themes" but also an increase in "details" when compared to non-hypnotized subjects.In their ERs,Ss in hyponosis mentioned "mother" offered themes conatining "misdeeds","hostility",,"mastery", and "mutality";reported "visual" and "motor" detail;and revealed "active" content significantly more often than did Ss in the "ordinary" waking state.Irrespective of state, ie hypnosis or non-hypnosis,amles offered more themes related to "death" than did females;on the other hand females verbalized more themes of "hostility" than did males.In hypnosis low suspectible males and females offered more "school-relevant" settings than did low suspectible males,whereas low suspectible females produced more "school-relevant" settings than did high suspectible females.High susceptible Ss reported more themes related to "hostility" during hypnosis,whereas low susceptible Ss did not differe in reporting "hostility" across states.Further,high susceptible males revealed more themes of "mutuality" irrespective of state than did low susceptible males;however,high susceptible females,irrespective of state,revealed significantly fewer themes of "mutality"than low susceptible females.The implications of these findings for a more comprehensive understanding of personality are discussed from Adlerian and non-Adlerian perspectives.
    • Sex bias in the diagnosis of narcissistic,histrionic,sadistic and borderline personality disorders.

      Campbell, Shirley L (2012-04-25)
      Recently, considerable attention has been given to sex bias in the diagnosis of personality disorders. Research has shown that clinicians will assign different diagnoses to case histories of males and females that contain identical symptoms. The present study attempted to examine sex bias in the diagnosis of Narcissistic,Histrionic, Borderline,and Sadistic personality disorders. Psychologists were presented with a male or female version of each of three audiotaped simulated interviews: a Narcissistic/Histrionic case, a Depression/Anxiety symptom case used as a "filler case," and a Borderline/Sadistic case. It was predicted that psychologists would assign more diagnoses of Borderline and Histrionic to the female versions of the cases, and Sadistic and Narcissistic to the male versions. The results showed that, while sex of the patient did not have a significant effect on diagnoses assigned, there was a trend for more Narcissistic and Sadistic diagnoses to be assigned to the male interviews and Borderline to the female interview by male psychologists only. Limitations of this study and directions for future research are discussed.
    • Prediction of oral communication apprehension in community college students.

      Bond, Byron D (2012-04-25)
      This study attempted to dtermine which information routinely collected during the admission process could be significant predictors of high levels of oral communication apprehension in community college students.The independent variables of 1)scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test, 2) scores on the Assessment and Placement Test for Community Colleges prepared by the College Board, 3)student rank in high school graduating class, 5)age of the student, 6)sex of the student, and 7)the student's race were examined as potential predictors of overall communication apprehension and of oral communication apprehension in each of four contexts including group communication,meeting communication,dyadic communication,and public speaking.Students enrolled in three introductory speech courses at Vincennes University-Junior College responded to the twenty-four item Personal Report of Communication Apprehension.After eliminating those cases in which demographic information was missing,a workable sample of N = 135 remained for Statistical Package for the Social Sciences.This technique allowed relative analysis of the ability of each independent variable to predict the criterion in question.Statistical analysis resulted in rejection of all null hypotheses posited in the study.Scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test were found to be the strongest,most consistent predictors of all contexts of oral communication apprehension.Scores on the Assessment and Placement Tests for Community Colleges contributed little to the prediction of oral communication apprehension scores.Although the student's rank in high school graduating class was often influential in predicting apprehension scores,the size of the graduating class was an insignificant predictor.The student's age,sex,and race tended to be inconsistent predictors of oral communication apprehension scores.The author recommended that the scope of oral communication apprehension should be expanded giving special attention to community college students.It was also suggested that future multiples regression analyses should be limited to fewer independent variables to allow a more focused investigation.Also,the influence of race/ethnic origin upon scores in the five oral communication apprehension contexts were found to merit attention in future investigations.
    • Secondary school principal-central office communication:A comparitive study of team and non-team management.

      Kwak, Han Sik (2012-04-25)
      The study assumed there were possible differences in communication behavior between secondary school principles associated with team management type organizations and secondary school principles associated with non-team management type organizations in the State of Indiana.The purpose of the study was to gain an insight into Indiana secondary school principal's perceptions regarding the utlization and the desirability of the communication modes and the communication among relative to performance of secondary school principal's role functions.Method: A total of one-hundred participants from two groups were surveyed:fifty team management secondary school principles and fifty on-team management secondary school principles.The two-tailes t-test at the .05 level was used for the statistical treatment.Conclusions: 1)The Indiana non-team management principles not only practice,but also desire a greater amount of communication in regard to administration of student personnel,than the Indiana team management principals do. 2)The extent of utlization and desirability of face-to-face,instrumental,and written communication with central office administrators tends not to differ between team and non-team management principles. 3)The extent of utilization and sesirabality of communication with central office administrators concerning curriculum,budgets,evaluation and supervision of personnel,public relations programs, and physical facilities tends not to differ between the two groups of principals.4)Indiana team management principles desire a greater amount of written communication with central office administrators than is practiced concerning their specific role functions. 5)Indiana non-team management principals are not satisfied with communication with central office administrators,while Indiana team management principals tend to be satisfied with communication with central office administrators.
    • Life stress, adjustment, and religious support in African Americans.

      Maddux, Jemour A (2012-04-25)
      The paper sought to extend the work on religious coping in African Americans by exploring the religious moderators of the relationship between stress and adjustment between cultures. Specifically, the goal of the present investigation was to identify whether the buffering effects of religious moderators (i.e., religious coping and religious support) on the relationship between stress and adjustment varied by race. Many studies on African Americans supports that social and individualistic coping styles are respectively predictors of positive and negative adjustment. Results partially supported that religious support in African Americans was a better predictor of adjustment than religious coping. Overall, this was true for alcoholrelated variables, but not for well-being variables. Results provided much stronger support for the predicted moderating effect of religious support on the relationship between stress and adjustment in African Americans. Religious coping failed to moderate this relationship, and no significant buffering effects were found for religious coping or religious support in Whites. This is one of the study's strongest findings. Overall, results were consistent with Agnew's (1992) general strain theory. Alternative explanations for why hypothesis were, or were not supported are offered.
    • Parental compliance to clinical recommendations in an ADHD clinic.

      Thibodeau, Alice Samantha (2012-04-26)
      Psychological assessments are a cornerstone of clinical practice in psychology,but if results and recommendations are not used to guide treatment interventions, their value is greatly diminished. Currently, there is very little research that examines adherence to treatment recommendations given to parents or caregivers following psychological evaluations of their children. The present study expands on previous research (MacNaughton & Rodrigue, 2001) examining perceived barriers to parental compliance with psychological assessment recommendations by considering the impact of severity of child behavior problems and parenting stress on compliance. Eighty caregiver/child dyads were recruited through an ADHD evaluation clinic and caregivers completed a telephone interview approximately 4 to 6 weeks after receiving recommendations for their children's care. It was predicted that parents/caregivers reporting greater levels of stress would report lower levels of compliance; parents/caregivers reporting greater levels of compliance would report greater improvement in children's behavior; parents/caregivers would report compliance to less than 70% of the recommendations (MacNaughton & Rodrigue, 2001) and the recommendation to which parents/caregivers most commonly adhered would be that of consulting with a non-psychological professional (i.e., physician). Results revealed that caregivers reporting greater levels of parenting stress were more likely to report following recommendations, that greater levels of compliance were associated with greater levels of improvement, that caregivers reported adherence to 81.5% of recommendations, and that caregivers were equally likely to engage in active self-help recommendations (i.e., parent education on ADHD) and those for professional nonpsychological services (i.e. consulting with a physician for medication) and least likely to follow through on recommendations for psychological services (child. or family counseling). The most commonly reported barriers to following recommendations were 1) that caregivers had not had time to comply and 2) that teachers were uncooperative with implementing school-based recommendations.
    • Ethnicity and Therapeutic Alliance.

      Huertas, Victor M (2012-05-08)
      The therapeutic alliance,defined as a relationship between the therapist and patient in which they work together in a realistic collaboration based on mutual respect,liking,trust and commitment to the work of the psychotherapeutic treatment,is thought to be an important component of successful therapeutic interventions and may also serve to reduce premature terminations.The concept of therapeutic alliance,however,has not been addressed directly in the ethnic minority literature.Literature pertaining to the psychotherapeutic treatment of ethnic minorities was reviewed with an emphasis on therapeutic alliance.Factors that may influence the development of an adequate therapeutic alliance with ethnic minority patients are identified and discussed.In addition, recommendations for integrating into clinical psychology training programs the process of building therapeutic alliances with ethnic minority are made.
    • Family factors of resilient and non-resilient children

      Williams, Roger Duane (2012-05-10)
      The focus of this study was to determine if resilient and non-resilient children could be differentially described by a sub-set of the following varibales:parental attitude toward education,sibling order,siblings who dropped out of school,family composition,parental divorce or separation,familial drug or alcohol abuse,and physical or sexual abuse.The sample of fourth,seventh,and tenth garde at-risk children was selected from data provided by Phi Delta Kappa.Of this sample,102 were determined to be resiient and 258 were determined to be non-resilient.The null hypothesis was tested by a stepwise discriminant analysis.Tests of significance were computed,ascertaining the most parsimonious subset of discriminating variables.Tests of classification accuracy and total variance explained in the dependent variables were conducted.The criterion groups were significantly differentiated by four of the seven predictor varibales.The families of resilient children were found to have a positive parental attitude toward school,higher incidences of divorce or separation within the past year,more problems with alcohol or drug use,and to be headed by a single parent.The variable contributing the most to the separation of the resilient and non-resilient groups was parental attitude toward education.Those variables that did not contribute to group diferences were sibling order,physical or sexual abuse,and sibling drop outs.Conclusions drawn from the findings of the study suggested the modearting effects of parental attitude toward schooling.In particular,the protective effect of positive attitudes toward assistance providers and taking assertive action to resolve difficulties was indicated.Proactive efforts that involve the families of at-risk children was determined to be important of training psychologists in family-oriented theories and intervention techniques was proposed.
    • The early recollections of resilient and nonresilient individuals

      Pfeifer, Jacqueline R (2012-05-16)
      The present study was designed to investigate the manifest content of early recollections of resilient and non-resilient individuals.The purpose of the study was to determine if adults who have undergone extreme childhood trauma,who were considered at-risk,and developed into successful independent adults(resilient),have significantly different manifest content in their ERs as compared to unsuccessful adults(nonresilient)who have not overcome many of the at-risk obstacles they encountered as children.More specifically,the purpose of the study was to determine if lifestyle reflected in the manifest content of memories recalled from childhood could serve to differentiate between adults who were resilient and those who were non-resilient on the 42 variables of the Manaster-Perryman Manifest Content Early Recollections Scoring Manual(Manaster & Perryman,1974).A total of 80 subjects participated in this study(N=80).The participants comprised two groups,resilient and non-resilient.The resilient group was composed of 16 males and 24 females(n=40).The non-resilient group consisted of 14 males and 26 females (n=40).A total of 30 males and 50 females participated in the study.Each participant was instructed to complete a questionnaire that listed specific life experiences as a child and as an adult that were used to operationally define the two groups.The participants who met the operational definition of resilient or non-resilient were the instructed to provide three written early recollections.Significant differences between the two groups were found on ten of the Manaster-Perryman Manifest Content Early Recollection Scoring Manual variables.The resilient group mentioned the mother character,father character,visual concern with detail,outside in the participant's neighborhood setting,and had more neutral effect in their early recollections.The nonresilient group mentioned the character variable of groups,the mastery theme,the mutuality theme,the motor concern with detail,and had a greater number of themes in their early recollections.Several conclusions were drawn from this study.One major conclusion of this study was that Early Recollections were a useful tool in differentiating resilient and non-resilient groups.Implications for practice and future research were also discussed.
    • Individual personality studies

      Ewing, Gertrude N. (2012-06-22)
      Not Available.
    • A survey of vocational choosing

      Brown, Oran I. (Oran Irwine) (2012-08-14)
      Not Available.