• Optimal Experience in Relationships, Activities, and Beyond: Connecting Flow with Self-Expansion

      Dean, Brandy M. (2010-05-11)
      Flow is a state of optimal experience characterized by complete immersion in an enjoyable activity and has been associated with positive experience in activities. Self-expansion is a state of increase in the diversity and complexity of the self and has been linked with positive experience in relationships. Despite phenomenological similarities, the connection between these two states has not been examined. The current study used a correlational design to explore the degrees of overlap between these states by comparing them in general, situation-specific, and predictive contexts. It was expected that flow and self-expansion would occur at similar frequencies, be produced by similar situations, be positively correlated within given activities and relationships, similarly predict attraction to other within a given relationship, and be similarly predicted by a personality trait. Results indicated that these experiences do tend to cooccur. Among students reporting both experiences, the frequencies of the experiences were positively related, although flow experiences were reported as more frequent. Flow and selfexpansion experiences were produced by similar sources across activities and relationships, and students tended to specify the same type of activity or relationship as the source of both experiences. As expected, flow and self-expansion were positively related within a given activity and within a given relationship. Both flow and self-expansion experienced in a relationship were positively related to attraction to the other, although the relationship between self-expansion and attraction was stronger than the relationship between flow and attraction. Neither flow nor self expansion experienced in an activity was related to trait happiness, and there was no significant difference between these correlations. These results are reviewed in the context of previous research, and implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed. Finally, considerations for future research comparing these two theories, as well as other varieties of positive experience, are discussed.
    • Parental compliance to clinical recommendations in an ADHD clinic.

      Thibodeau, Alice Samantha (2012-04-26)
      Psychological assessments are a cornerstone of clinical practice in psychology,but if results and recommendations are not used to guide treatment interventions, their value is greatly diminished. Currently, there is very little research that examines adherence to treatment recommendations given to parents or caregivers following psychological evaluations of their children. The present study expands on previous research (MacNaughton & Rodrigue, 2001) examining perceived barriers to parental compliance with psychological assessment recommendations by considering the impact of severity of child behavior problems and parenting stress on compliance. Eighty caregiver/child dyads were recruited through an ADHD evaluation clinic and caregivers completed a telephone interview approximately 4 to 6 weeks after receiving recommendations for their children's care. It was predicted that parents/caregivers reporting greater levels of stress would report lower levels of compliance; parents/caregivers reporting greater levels of compliance would report greater improvement in children's behavior; parents/caregivers would report compliance to less than 70% of the recommendations (MacNaughton & Rodrigue, 2001) and the recommendation to which parents/caregivers most commonly adhered would be that of consulting with a non-psychological professional (i.e., physician). Results revealed that caregivers reporting greater levels of parenting stress were more likely to report following recommendations, that greater levels of compliance were associated with greater levels of improvement, that caregivers reported adherence to 81.5% of recommendations, and that caregivers were equally likely to engage in active self-help recommendations (i.e., parent education on ADHD) and those for professional nonpsychological services (i.e. consulting with a physician for medication) and least likely to follow through on recommendations for psychological services (child. or family counseling). The most commonly reported barriers to following recommendations were 1) that caregivers had not had time to comply and 2) that teachers were uncooperative with implementing school-based recommendations.
    • Parenting a Child with Behavior Problems: Dimensions of Religiousness that Influence Parental Stress and Sense of Competence

      Weyand, Chelsea (2010-09-22)
      Parenting a child with behavior problems has been associated with an increase in parental stress and a decrease in parental sense of competence. While parental religiosity has generally been associated with greater child and parent functioning, it has been suggested that when parenting a child with behavior problems, some aspects of parental religiousness (e.g., negative religious coping, biblical conservatism) might decrease functioning. One hundred and thirty-nine parents of children between the ages of three and twelve completed a questionnaire in order to examine the influence of religious variables (sanctification of parenting, negative religious coping, positive religious coping, biblical conservatism) on the relationship between child behavior problems and parental stress and sense of competence. Sanctification of parenting was found to moderate the relationship between child behavior problems and parental stress, such that parents high in sanctification showed little change in parenting stress as severity of behavior problems increased. Similarly, positive religious coping was found to play a protective role in the relationship between behavior problems and parental sense of competence. Overall, positive religious coping was related to increased stress in parents of children with few behavior problems while not decreasing stress for parents of children with more difficult behavior. Parents of children with greater perceived behavior problems reported significantly higher sanctification of parenting and parenting stress, as well as lesser use of positive religious coping and lower sense of competence. Negative religious coping and biblical conservatism did not moderate the relationship between child behavior problems and parental stress, nor sense of competence. This study provides further clarification of the dimensions of religiousness that are relevant to the parenting experience. It also provides evidence to suggest that parental religiousness can have either a positive or negative influence on parental functioning, depending on parenting circumstances and personal perceptions of God and religion.
    • Perception of Control: Accuracy among Optimists and Pessimists on Noncontingency and Contingengy Tasks

      Baum, Spencer (2011-03-15)
      The learned helplessness theory asserts that depressed individuals unrealistically believe that they have little to no control over aversive outcomes in their lives. Paradoxically, research on judgment of control has demonstrated that depressed individuals are not necessarily pessimistic, but rather more realistic than non-depressed individuals. Most of the research on depressive realism has investigated individual’s perceived control in situations in which they have no actual control. Few studies have investigated perception of control in situations where control is possible. Considering that many circumstances in life are controllable, it is important to examine how different personality variables contribute to accurate judgments of control in controllable situations. In addition, many studies have found a negative correlation between optimism and depression and the positive correlation between depression and pessimism, yet the research on control lacks information on optimistic and pessimistic individuals’ perception of control. Using a computerized judgment of control task, the current study examined perception of control in both no-control and control situations among participants classified as either optimistic or pessimistic and as dysphoric or non-dysphoric. Measures of optimism and pessimism used in this study were the Attributional Style Questionnaire and the Life Orientation Test-Revised and the Beck Depression Inventory-II was used to assess depressogenic symptoms. Participants were 88 undergraduate students. It was hypothesized that optimistic participants would exhibit illusory control in both contingent and non-contingent situations, while the pessimistic participants would provide accurate judgments of control in the no-control situation and underestimate control in the iv control situations. Additionally, it was hypothesized that dysphoric participants would provide accurate control judgments in the no-control situation and underestimate control in the control conditions. The results provided mixed support for the study’s hypotheses. Participants with optimistic explanatory styles provided accurate control judgments in the high contingency task and overestimated control in noncontingent and low contingent tasks. Participants with pessimistic explanatory styles underestimated control in the high contingency task and overestimated in noncontingent and low contingent tasks. Contrary to the depressive realism hypothesis, dysphoric participants did not provide accurate judgments of control regardless of the contingency situation. Dysphoric participants underestimated control in the high contingency situation and overestimated control in noncontingent and low contingent tasks.
    • Personality assessments and their uses in Washington State registered health and human service organizations.

      McKeague, Marianne Ille (2012-04-16)
      The problem of this study was to identify the uses of personality assessments and their resulting consequences on employment at organizations registered with the Northwest Region of the U.S Department of Health and Human Services.This investigation reported on the application of psychometric testing within the organizational context.Specific to this study was personality or behavioral assessments administered when recruting,evaluating or evaluating or retaining workers,the potential implications of behavioral/personality assessments on workers within the organization,and the organizational value perceived by testers utilizing these forms of personality assessments.The investigation examined the current personality measuring practices of organizations by analyzing their responses to a survey questionnaire.The intent of the questionnaire was to determine if responses represented a trend toward a standardization of personality assessment use for purposes of employment development,recruitment,and retention.Response data revealed that use of personality/behavioral tests isn't prevalent at State registered health and human service organizations.Data collected exhibited limited familiarity of personality/behavioral tests isn't prevalent as State registered health and human service organizations.Data collected exhibited limited familiarity/behavioral assessments and a trend against a standardization of personality assessment use in health and human service organizations.Recommendations for future studies are specific to the fundamental hiring and screening processes administered at health and human service organizations,and the instruments utilized for screening individuals desiring to work with vulnerable or disadvantaged populations.Additionally,a duplicate study applying equivalent methodology to a dissimilar demographic re:law firms,retail outlets,or technology companies has the capacity to render information vital for broad analysis of consistency,contextual application,and diversity of workplace personality/behavioral testing.
    • Prediction of oral communication apprehension in community college students.

      Bond, Byron D (2012-04-25)
      This study attempted to dtermine which information routinely collected during the admission process could be significant predictors of high levels of oral communication apprehension in community college students.The independent variables of 1)scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test, 2) scores on the Assessment and Placement Test for Community Colleges prepared by the College Board, 3)student rank in high school graduating class, 5)age of the student, 6)sex of the student, and 7)the student's race were examined as potential predictors of overall communication apprehension and of oral communication apprehension in each of four contexts including group communication,meeting communication,dyadic communication,and public speaking.Students enrolled in three introductory speech courses at Vincennes University-Junior College responded to the twenty-four item Personal Report of Communication Apprehension.After eliminating those cases in which demographic information was missing,a workable sample of N = 135 remained for Statistical Package for the Social Sciences.This technique allowed relative analysis of the ability of each independent variable to predict the criterion in question.Statistical analysis resulted in rejection of all null hypotheses posited in the study.Scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test were found to be the strongest,most consistent predictors of all contexts of oral communication apprehension.Scores on the Assessment and Placement Tests for Community Colleges contributed little to the prediction of oral communication apprehension scores.Although the student's rank in high school graduating class was often influential in predicting apprehension scores,the size of the graduating class was an insignificant predictor.The student's age,sex,and race tended to be inconsistent predictors of oral communication apprehension scores.The author recommended that the scope of oral communication apprehension should be expanded giving special attention to community college students.It was also suggested that future multiples regression analyses should be limited to fewer independent variables to allow a more focused investigation.Also,the influence of race/ethnic origin upon scores in the five oral communication apprehension contexts were found to merit attention in future investigations.
    • Professional Psychology Training Programs: Program Interventions and Prediction of Doctoral Student Stress and Life Satisfaction

      Montgomery, Crista (2010-05-11)
      A growing literature on professional training and practice of psychology advocates that psychologists must be educated on risks and effects of impairment and the importance of self-care. Despite the general recognition of the importance of these issues, they have not been incorporated into training standards such as the American Psychological Association (APA) Guidelines and Principles of Accreditation (2007). In order to assess the approaches that programs currently adopt to address impairment and self-care, this study extended and updated previous research. A large sample of students (n = 591) enrolled in APA accredited doctoral training programs in professional psychology completed surveys regarding their training in self-care and impairment. Trainee well-being was also measured using satisfaction and stress (both professional and personal) scales. How interventions vary by program type was examined. Results showed that psychology trainee reports of professional and personal well-being were consistent with those of similar populations, such as other doctoral students (Pavot & Diener, 1993) and medical students (Firth, 1986). The respondents’ relationship status was not significantly associated with ratings of professional well-being, but partnered individuals scored higher on personal well-being measures. Also, professional satisfaction was higher in younger students and second year students endorsed significantly higher professional stress than first years. The most common interventions students reported receiving were focused primarily on enhancing relational skills and providing of interpersonal support. Programs differed somewhat in the type of interventions they employ to address student well-being. The majority of students reported a desire for their program to increase the amount of interventions offered. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are explored.
    • Psychometric properties of a weeping propensity scale.

      Olson, Phyllis M (2012-04-23)
      The Weeping Propensity Scale is a 24-item questionnaire using a nine point Likert-type scale to query the intensity of a subject's weeping response to a variety of potentially crying-inducing situations. Results indicated that the measure has substantial reliability, both internal consistency (Cronbach alpha= .95) and test-retest reliability (r = .90). The study examined the stability of the factor structure of a revision of the Weeping Propensity Scale (WPS) and examined expected relationships with gender, instrumentality/expressiveness measured by the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence, Helmreich, & Stapp, 1974),empathy measured by the Questionnaire Measure of Emotional Empathy (Mehrabian & Epstein, 1972), and the domain scales of the NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Attitudes toward weeping were also assessed through a short questionnaire constructed for this study. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the revised version of the WPS was an adequate model. In a series of simultaneous multiple regressions, weeping propensity was most effectively predicted by gender, empathy, neuroticism, extraversion (for men but not for women), and attitudes toward weeping. Implications of the results are discussed.
    • Putting it in reverse: How communal relationships are pulled back into exchange norms by conflict.

      Richmond, Rakefet Yaakoba (2012-04-19)
      There is a body of research suggesting that conflict affects individual's behavior and cognitions in a close relationship(eg,Baucom & Adams, 1987; Forgas 1994). Previous research found that individuals in close relationships adjust behavior and attributions depending on the presence or absence of conflict (eg Gottman,1979,1994). The current study examined if conflict led individuals to make dispositional (as opposed to situational) attributions and follow exchange (as opposed to communal) norms. Participants included 215 students who worked on a "joint" task with one of three types of partners: (a)significant other; (b)close friend, or (c)stranger. The first two represent standard examples of communal relationships, while the third provided a baseline for an exchange relationship. Communal relationship participants were randomly assigned to either conflict or no-conflict manipulation groups and their behavior was observed and scores based on their tendency to display communal norms and presence or absence of attributional bias. It was predicted that participants in non-conflict, communal conditions would downplay their contribution to a joint task (following communal norms), whereas those interacting with strangers would emphasize personal contributions more than those in no-conflict, communal conditions (displaying regression from communal toward exchange norms). It was anticipated that findings would contribute to the understanding of the role of conflict in the dissolution of close relationships. Nevertheless, only the first hypothesis was partially supported, putting into question whether conflict, by itself is a causal factor in relationship quality and disssolution. Procedural and sampling limitations, as well as theoretical and clinical implications, are presented.
    • Race Bias in the Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

      Fernandez, Rose M. (2013-01-30)
      Accuracy of diagnoses appears to be influenced by the client’s race. Previous research indicates that African Americans are overdiagnosed with Schizophrenia, whereas findings for Hispanic patients have been inconsistent. However, there is evidence that the diagnostic approach used by the clinician may influence accuracy and that bias may be reduced by using a structured assessment of symptoms prior to assigning a diagnosis. There is also some limited evidence for the role of clinician race in diagnosis, with Caucasian clinicians more likely than non-Caucasian clinicians to diagnose African American patients with Schizophrenia. This study utilized a vignette methodology to examine the effects of race of the client, diagnostic approach, and clinician race on diagnoses. A national sample of psychologists read two cases containing a mixture of psychotic and mood disorder features in which patient race was varied, rated the symptoms in the cases, and assigned diagnoses. Diagnostic approach was manipulated by asking half of the clinicians to rate symptoms before assigning a diagnosis (i.e., simulated DSM-IV approach) and half to assign a diagnosis before rating the symptoms in the case (i.e., simulated prototype approach). It was hypothesized that the African American version of the cases would receive more diagnoses of Schizophrenia, particularly by Caucasian clinicians and when clinicians utilized the prototype approach. The results of the study provided little support for the hypotheses. There were few differences based on patient race, diagnostic approach, or significant interactions between them, and the best predictors of diagnoses were the symptom ratings. There also were no significant interactions between clinician race and patient race, although minority clinicians assigned more mood disorder diagnoses and fewer Schizophrenia diagnoses than Caucasian clinicians, regardless of patient race. This latter finding may be a function of the particular symptoms included in the two cases or the low number of minority clinicians, despite efforts to recruit a diverse sample. Overall, clinicians were reasonably consistent in their assessment of the symptoms and the assigned diagnosis, and were not biased by patient race or diagnostic approach. This is an encouraging finding and suggests that these clinicians may be more aware of concerns about misdiagnosis than in the studies conducted in the past, although the limitations of the study design may have contributed to the lack of significant findings. Despite the mostly negative findings and failure to support the hypotheses, the influence of race and other individual differences on assessment and diagnosis is an important topic and worthy of continued research.
    • Racial Identity and Religiousness: Role of Religion and Racial Identity on Substance Use In African American College Students

      Mailey, Chaz D (2011-09-20)
      The present study sought to explore the relationships between Black racial identity, religiosity, and substance use in African American college students. Religiosity has commonly been identified as a protective factor against substance use for many ethnic groups, and historically religion has played a significant role in the lives of African Americans. Surprisingly, some research suggests that while important, religiosity may not be as strong of a protective factor against abuse or excessive consumption of substances for African Americans as it is for other ethnicities (Amey, Albrect, & Miller, 1996). It has been suggested that for African Americans, a strong ethnic identity can help moderate drinking (Klonoff & Landrine, 1999; Pugh & Bry, 2007). One hundred and eighty-four African American students recruited from three Midwestern predominantly White universities, one Midwestern predominantly Black university and one Historically Black Southern university completed an online questionnaire consisting of the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS); the Religious Involvement subscale from the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religion and Spirituality (BMMRS), measures of alcohol and marijuana use, and the Young Adult Alcohol Problems Screening Test (YAAPST). As hypothesized, racial identity and religiousness/spirituality were related with substance use in African American college students. The secondary hypothesis that black racial identity would be a better predictor of substance use than would religiousness/spirituality was not supported. For African American students in the current sample, religiosity was a better predictor of substance use than was Black racial identity. However, several differential relationships were observed between males and females. Overall, the study contributes support to the literature regarding how Black racial identity and religiosity influence substance use in African Americans. Limitations, significant findings, and possible directions for future research are presented.
    • Relationship satisfaction as a function of the discrepancy between experienced and desired levels of intimacy

      Malcolm, Joan I (2012-04-23)
      The present study investigated the effect of discrepancies between experienced versus desired levels ·of intimacy on relationship satisfaction using data from 135 undergraduate students. Subjects completed the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (PAIR), the Dyaqic Relationship Questionnaire (DRQ), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and a Background Questionnaire (BQ).Correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that discrepancies between Desired and Experienced Intimacy, as measured by the PAIR and DRQ, was highly predictive of relationship satisfaction, as measured by the DAS. However, Experienced Intimacy was a better predictor of relationship satisfaction. Both males and females ranked Emotional Intimacy as most important to relationship satisfaction and it was also the strongest predictor of relationship satisfaction. The DRQ was found to be an efficacious pictorial assessment of intimacy.
    • Secondary school principal-central office communication:A comparitive study of team and non-team management.

      Kwak, Han Sik (2012-04-25)
      The study assumed there were possible differences in communication behavior between secondary school principles associated with team management type organizations and secondary school principles associated with non-team management type organizations in the State of Indiana.The purpose of the study was to gain an insight into Indiana secondary school principal's perceptions regarding the utlization and the desirability of the communication modes and the communication among relative to performance of secondary school principal's role functions.Method: A total of one-hundred participants from two groups were surveyed:fifty team management secondary school principles and fifty on-team management secondary school principles.The two-tailes t-test at the .05 level was used for the statistical treatment.Conclusions: 1)The Indiana non-team management principles not only practice,but also desire a greater amount of communication in regard to administration of student personnel,than the Indiana team management principals do. 2)The extent of utlization and desirability of face-to-face,instrumental,and written communication with central office administrators tends not to differ between team and non-team management principles. 3)The extent of utilization and sesirabality of communication with central office administrators concerning curriculum,budgets,evaluation and supervision of personnel,public relations programs, and physical facilities tends not to differ between the two groups of principals.4)Indiana team management principles desire a greater amount of written communication with central office administrators than is practiced concerning their specific role functions. 5)Indiana non-team management principals are not satisfied with communication with central office administrators,while Indiana team management principals tend to be satisfied with communication with central office administrators.
    • Self-concept,academic achievement,and sex as correlates of human figure drawings.

      Grubb, Deborah (2012-04-16)
      The purpose of the study was to determine whether or not there is a relationship between children's human figure drawings(HFDs),self-concept measured by the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale(CSCS),academic achievement and sex.The HFDs were analysed using the Koppitz(1984)scoring system for emotional indicators(EIs),a global rating of "pathological" or "not pathological",critical items drawn from past research,and the Goodenough-Harris(1963) scoring system.The subjects were 120 middle school students matched for sex and drawn for high or low achievement levels on the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills(CTBS).The results indicated that each of the HFD scoring methods was related to self-concept on the Piers-Harris CSCS.However,when achievement,sex,Koppitz EIs,critical features,global score,and the Goodenough-Harris score were all included in a stepwise multiple regression analysis,achievement was by far the best single predictor of self-concept.The results indicated that three of the four HFD scoring methods used in the study were significantly related to achievement level on the CTBS.These were Koppitz EIs,one critical feature,and the Goodenough-Harris HFD score.There were no sex differences on the global HFD score or the Piers-Harris CSCS.The intent of the study was to determine if HFDs could be validated as a measure of self-concept and to determine their relationship to academic achievement and sex.The present research indicates that both global score and individual HFD features are related to self-concept for adolescents.It also indicates that there are significant sex and achievement level differences in HFD performance.It appears that the prudent use of HFDs is an adjunct to other forms of evaluation.
    • Self-Discrepancies, Symbolic Self-Completion, and the Role of Possessions in the Transition from High School to College

      Lochbaum, Ashlee (2011-03-16)
      The purpose of the current study was to explore some of the ways that possessions may be used symbolically to aid adjustment in first-semester freshmen who are transitioning to college. Based on prior literature, the transition to college is often accompanied by self-discrepancies which may be alleviated through symbolic self-completion using possessions. Overall, 219 students participated in this study. Results indicate that first-semester freshmen, as well as upperclassmen students, rely on the symbolic use of possessions in both managing negative affect and symbolizing the ideal college student identity. Furthermore, managing affect through the use of feeling regulators was found to best aid adjustment early in the transition, while symbolizing the college identity through the use of identity claims was found to better aid adjustment later in the transition. In addition, the importance of the college student identity was found to moderate this relationship. The results of this study add to the current literature on self-discrepancies and symbolic self-completion, as well as pointing to the importance of personal possessions in symbolizing the identity and facilitating adjustment in self-relevant domains.
    • Self-Expansion and Breakups: Effects on Possessions

      Sandrick, Caroline (2014-03-18)
      The current study strives to understand the influence of breakups on the expanded self and its representation through possessions. The self-expansion theory (Aron & Aron, 1986) states that involving oneself in a romantic relationship alters one’s sense of self by taking on the partner’s characteristics and qualities and integrating them into the self. The study examined the reported self-expansion in the relationship and the couple representativeness of a possession to see if this affected the outcome of the possessions (kept vs. discarded). Participants were asked to report their three favorite possessions and five possessions they would keep (or kept) and five possessions they would discard (or discarded). As hypothesized, people in self-expanding relationships kept (or would keep) possessions that were more representative of their relationships; this was not found for items that were discarded (or would be discarded). People in a prior self-expanding relationship had more relationship representative items as their favorite possessions; this was not seen for those currently in a self-expanding relationship. There was no significant relationship between self-expansion in a prior relationship and emotional distress or self-concept clarity for those who were dumped by their partner. This study provides some support for the idea that people keep possessions from self-expanding relationships to receive support for the expanded self.
    • Self-Expansion and Couple Possessions: The Representation of The Self and Other in Valued Possessions

      Paniccia, Lindsey (2011-09-20)
      The current study seeks to understand the influence of romantic relationships on identity symbolism, specifically the use of personal possessions as a means of achieving social validation. According to self expansion theory (Aron & Aron, 1986), engaging in a romantic relationship alters one’s sense of self; romantic partners take on the qualities and characteristics of a partner and integrate them into the self. To understand the process of identity symbolism due to one’s newly expanded sense of self, this study investigated the link between the amount of reported self-expansion and couple representativeness as well as the function of one’s possessions (other-direct identity claim, self-directed identity claim, feeling regulator, and utility). Participants were asked to read a vignette in which they were told their home had been destroyed by a tornado and were then asked to list three possessions which they wished to find among the rubble. Results indicated that reported self-expansion is associated with the tendency to choose couple representative possessions as indicators of the self. As hypothesized, couple representativeness was significantly correlated with tendency to use possession as other-directed identity claims (as evidenced in both reported function and placement) and feeling regulators. Additionally, reported couple representativeness was significantly correlated with the tendency to use possessions as self-directed identity claims and for utility. This study provides support for the relationship between self-expansion and the tendency to communicate one’s expanded self to others by means of material possessions as well as the emotional significance tied to such possessions.
    • Sex bias in the diagnosis of narcissistic,histrionic,sadistic and borderline personality disorders.

      Campbell, Shirley L (2012-04-25)
      Recently, considerable attention has been given to sex bias in the diagnosis of personality disorders. Research has shown that clinicians will assign different diagnoses to case histories of males and females that contain identical symptoms. The present study attempted to examine sex bias in the diagnosis of Narcissistic,Histrionic, Borderline,and Sadistic personality disorders. Psychologists were presented with a male or female version of each of three audiotaped simulated interviews: a Narcissistic/Histrionic case, a Depression/Anxiety symptom case used as a "filler case," and a Borderline/Sadistic case. It was predicted that psychologists would assign more diagnoses of Borderline and Histrionic to the female versions of the cases, and Sadistic and Narcissistic to the male versions. The results showed that, while sex of the patient did not have a significant effect on diagnoses assigned, there was a trend for more Narcissistic and Sadistic diagnoses to be assigned to the male interviews and Borderline to the female interview by male psychologists only. Limitations of this study and directions for future research are discussed.
    • Spiritual Flow: The Influence of Religious Experience on Psychological Well-being

      Monson, Christian H. (2013-01-31)
      Researchers in the psychology of religion have attempted to better explain the relationship of religion/spiritual practice and psychological benefits, including the concept of well-being. The use of optimal experiences, or flow theory, has not yet been used in this endeavor. Flow is described as experiences which include meaningful enjoyment, focus, and intrinsic rewards and motivation. Since reports of transcendent, spiritual experiences appear similar to experiences of flow, it is likely that these experiences may overlap in structure. Also, since both religious and flow experiences have been associated with psychological well-being, it is likely that a spiritual flow experience may explain, in part, the mediating factors of the relationship between religion and mental health. This study used a cross-sectional, correlational design to examine if a spiritual flow experience predicts higher reports of psychological well-being in a religious adult population. One-Hundred and seventy five religiously active adults completed an online survey which included measures of mysticism, religious orientation, flow, psychological well-being, and spiritual well-being. The goal of the study was to assess the existence and structure of spiritual flow and its potential impact on well-being across a variety of domains. There was evidence that spiritual flow experiences do exist, though there were structural differences between spiritual and general flow. Though intrinsic religious motivation did not have an major effect on well-being, spiritual flow was a major predictor of well-being. A qualitative review of which activities tend to lead to spiritual flow is also discussed.
    • Stay at Home Fathers: the New Gender Benders

      Fischer, Jessica (2010-09-22)
      This study compared the gender roles and attitudes toward women‟s and men‟s social roles of stay at home fathers and employed fathers recruited on the Internet. The relationship between gender roles and attitudes toward women‟s and men‟s social roles on reasons for becoming a stay at home father were also investigated. It was predicted that stay at home fathers would endorse more traditionally feminine characteristics for themselves and would have more nontraditional attitudes toward men‟s and women‟s social roles than employed fathers. In addition, it was predicted that fathers who choose to stay at home for practical reasons (i.e. lost job) would be more traditional in their gender role attitudes than fathers who choose to stay at home for other reasons (i.e. really wanted to care for the children). Although stay at home and employed fathers reported having similar feminine and masculine characteristics, stay at home fathers reported having less traditional gender role attitudes than employed fathers. Biosocial theory (Eagly & Wood, 1999) suggests that stay at home fathers may have less traditional attitudes about gender roles because the gender role they are acting out is a non-traditional role for men. Stay at home fathers reported that they really wanted to stay home with their children more than any other reason, whereas the least reported reason for choosing to stay home was having a child with special needs. Contrary to a prediction based on evolutionary psychology, stay at home and employed fathers also reported that their children resembled them to the same degree. The results of this study will contribute further information about a group of fathers that have been under-studied and may also provide helpful information to support groups for stay at home and employed fathers.