• Putting it in reverse: How communal relationships are pulled back into exchange norms by conflict.

      Richmond, Rakefet Yaakoba (2012-04-19)
      There is a body of research suggesting that conflict affects individual's behavior and cognitions in a close relationship(eg,Baucom & Adams, 1987; Forgas 1994). Previous research found that individuals in close relationships adjust behavior and attributions depending on the presence or absence of conflict (eg Gottman,1979,1994). The current study examined if conflict led individuals to make dispositional (as opposed to situational) attributions and follow exchange (as opposed to communal) norms. Participants included 215 students who worked on a "joint" task with one of three types of partners: (a)significant other; (b)close friend, or (c)stranger. The first two represent standard examples of communal relationships, while the third provided a baseline for an exchange relationship. Communal relationship participants were randomly assigned to either conflict or no-conflict manipulation groups and their behavior was observed and scores based on their tendency to display communal norms and presence or absence of attributional bias. It was predicted that participants in non-conflict, communal conditions would downplay their contribution to a joint task (following communal norms), whereas those interacting with strangers would emphasize personal contributions more than those in no-conflict, communal conditions (displaying regression from communal toward exchange norms). It was anticipated that findings would contribute to the understanding of the role of conflict in the dissolution of close relationships. Nevertheless, only the first hypothesis was partially supported, putting into question whether conflict, by itself is a causal factor in relationship quality and disssolution. Procedural and sampling limitations, as well as theoretical and clinical implications, are presented.
    • Race Bias in the Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

      Fernandez, Rose M. (2013-01-30)
      Accuracy of diagnoses appears to be influenced by the client’s race. Previous research indicates that African Americans are overdiagnosed with Schizophrenia, whereas findings for Hispanic patients have been inconsistent. However, there is evidence that the diagnostic approach used by the clinician may influence accuracy and that bias may be reduced by using a structured assessment of symptoms prior to assigning a diagnosis. There is also some limited evidence for the role of clinician race in diagnosis, with Caucasian clinicians more likely than non-Caucasian clinicians to diagnose African American patients with Schizophrenia. This study utilized a vignette methodology to examine the effects of race of the client, diagnostic approach, and clinician race on diagnoses. A national sample of psychologists read two cases containing a mixture of psychotic and mood disorder features in which patient race was varied, rated the symptoms in the cases, and assigned diagnoses. Diagnostic approach was manipulated by asking half of the clinicians to rate symptoms before assigning a diagnosis (i.e., simulated DSM-IV approach) and half to assign a diagnosis before rating the symptoms in the case (i.e., simulated prototype approach). It was hypothesized that the African American version of the cases would receive more diagnoses of Schizophrenia, particularly by Caucasian clinicians and when clinicians utilized the prototype approach. The results of the study provided little support for the hypotheses. There were few differences based on patient race, diagnostic approach, or significant interactions between them, and the best predictors of diagnoses were the symptom ratings. There also were no significant interactions between clinician race and patient race, although minority clinicians assigned more mood disorder diagnoses and fewer Schizophrenia diagnoses than Caucasian clinicians, regardless of patient race. This latter finding may be a function of the particular symptoms included in the two cases or the low number of minority clinicians, despite efforts to recruit a diverse sample. Overall, clinicians were reasonably consistent in their assessment of the symptoms and the assigned diagnosis, and were not biased by patient race or diagnostic approach. This is an encouraging finding and suggests that these clinicians may be more aware of concerns about misdiagnosis than in the studies conducted in the past, although the limitations of the study design may have contributed to the lack of significant findings. Despite the mostly negative findings and failure to support the hypotheses, the influence of race and other individual differences on assessment and diagnosis is an important topic and worthy of continued research.
    • Racial Identity and Religiousness: Role of Religion and Racial Identity on Substance Use In African American College Students

      Mailey, Chaz D (2011-09-20)
      The present study sought to explore the relationships between Black racial identity, religiosity, and substance use in African American college students. Religiosity has commonly been identified as a protective factor against substance use for many ethnic groups, and historically religion has played a significant role in the lives of African Americans. Surprisingly, some research suggests that while important, religiosity may not be as strong of a protective factor against abuse or excessive consumption of substances for African Americans as it is for other ethnicities (Amey, Albrect, & Miller, 1996). It has been suggested that for African Americans, a strong ethnic identity can help moderate drinking (Klonoff & Landrine, 1999; Pugh & Bry, 2007). One hundred and eighty-four African American students recruited from three Midwestern predominantly White universities, one Midwestern predominantly Black university and one Historically Black Southern university completed an online questionnaire consisting of the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS); the Religious Involvement subscale from the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religion and Spirituality (BMMRS), measures of alcohol and marijuana use, and the Young Adult Alcohol Problems Screening Test (YAAPST). As hypothesized, racial identity and religiousness/spirituality were related with substance use in African American college students. The secondary hypothesis that black racial identity would be a better predictor of substance use than would religiousness/spirituality was not supported. For African American students in the current sample, religiosity was a better predictor of substance use than was Black racial identity. However, several differential relationships were observed between males and females. Overall, the study contributes support to the literature regarding how Black racial identity and religiosity influence substance use in African Americans. Limitations, significant findings, and possible directions for future research are presented.
    • Relationship satisfaction as a function of the discrepancy between experienced and desired levels of intimacy

      Malcolm, Joan I (2012-04-23)
      The present study investigated the effect of discrepancies between experienced versus desired levels ·of intimacy on relationship satisfaction using data from 135 undergraduate students. Subjects completed the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (PAIR), the Dyaqic Relationship Questionnaire (DRQ), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and a Background Questionnaire (BQ).Correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that discrepancies between Desired and Experienced Intimacy, as measured by the PAIR and DRQ, was highly predictive of relationship satisfaction, as measured by the DAS. However, Experienced Intimacy was a better predictor of relationship satisfaction. Both males and females ranked Emotional Intimacy as most important to relationship satisfaction and it was also the strongest predictor of relationship satisfaction. The DRQ was found to be an efficacious pictorial assessment of intimacy.
    • Secondary school principal-central office communication:A comparitive study of team and non-team management.

      Kwak, Han Sik (2012-04-25)
      The study assumed there were possible differences in communication behavior between secondary school principles associated with team management type organizations and secondary school principles associated with non-team management type organizations in the State of Indiana.The purpose of the study was to gain an insight into Indiana secondary school principal's perceptions regarding the utlization and the desirability of the communication modes and the communication among relative to performance of secondary school principal's role functions.Method: A total of one-hundred participants from two groups were surveyed:fifty team management secondary school principles and fifty on-team management secondary school principles.The two-tailes t-test at the .05 level was used for the statistical treatment.Conclusions: 1)The Indiana non-team management principles not only practice,but also desire a greater amount of communication in regard to administration of student personnel,than the Indiana team management principals do. 2)The extent of utlization and desirability of face-to-face,instrumental,and written communication with central office administrators tends not to differ between team and non-team management principles. 3)The extent of utilization and sesirabality of communication with central office administrators concerning curriculum,budgets,evaluation and supervision of personnel,public relations programs, and physical facilities tends not to differ between the two groups of principals.4)Indiana team management principles desire a greater amount of written communication with central office administrators than is practiced concerning their specific role functions. 5)Indiana non-team management principals are not satisfied with communication with central office administrators,while Indiana team management principals tend to be satisfied with communication with central office administrators.
    • Self-concept,academic achievement,and sex as correlates of human figure drawings.

      Grubb, Deborah (2012-04-16)
      The purpose of the study was to determine whether or not there is a relationship between children's human figure drawings(HFDs),self-concept measured by the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale(CSCS),academic achievement and sex.The HFDs were analysed using the Koppitz(1984)scoring system for emotional indicators(EIs),a global rating of "pathological" or "not pathological",critical items drawn from past research,and the Goodenough-Harris(1963) scoring system.The subjects were 120 middle school students matched for sex and drawn for high or low achievement levels on the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills(CTBS).The results indicated that each of the HFD scoring methods was related to self-concept on the Piers-Harris CSCS.However,when achievement,sex,Koppitz EIs,critical features,global score,and the Goodenough-Harris score were all included in a stepwise multiple regression analysis,achievement was by far the best single predictor of self-concept.The results indicated that three of the four HFD scoring methods used in the study were significantly related to achievement level on the CTBS.These were Koppitz EIs,one critical feature,and the Goodenough-Harris HFD score.There were no sex differences on the global HFD score or the Piers-Harris CSCS.The intent of the study was to determine if HFDs could be validated as a measure of self-concept and to determine their relationship to academic achievement and sex.The present research indicates that both global score and individual HFD features are related to self-concept for adolescents.It also indicates that there are significant sex and achievement level differences in HFD performance.It appears that the prudent use of HFDs is an adjunct to other forms of evaluation.
    • Self-Discrepancies, Symbolic Self-Completion, and the Role of Possessions in the Transition from High School to College

      Lochbaum, Ashlee (2011-03-16)
      The purpose of the current study was to explore some of the ways that possessions may be used symbolically to aid adjustment in first-semester freshmen who are transitioning to college. Based on prior literature, the transition to college is often accompanied by self-discrepancies which may be alleviated through symbolic self-completion using possessions. Overall, 219 students participated in this study. Results indicate that first-semester freshmen, as well as upperclassmen students, rely on the symbolic use of possessions in both managing negative affect and symbolizing the ideal college student identity. Furthermore, managing affect through the use of feeling regulators was found to best aid adjustment early in the transition, while symbolizing the college identity through the use of identity claims was found to better aid adjustment later in the transition. In addition, the importance of the college student identity was found to moderate this relationship. The results of this study add to the current literature on self-discrepancies and symbolic self-completion, as well as pointing to the importance of personal possessions in symbolizing the identity and facilitating adjustment in self-relevant domains.
    • Self-Expansion and Breakups: Effects on Possessions

      Sandrick, Caroline (2014-03-18)
      The current study strives to understand the influence of breakups on the expanded self and its representation through possessions. The self-expansion theory (Aron & Aron, 1986) states that involving oneself in a romantic relationship alters one’s sense of self by taking on the partner’s characteristics and qualities and integrating them into the self. The study examined the reported self-expansion in the relationship and the couple representativeness of a possession to see if this affected the outcome of the possessions (kept vs. discarded). Participants were asked to report their three favorite possessions and five possessions they would keep (or kept) and five possessions they would discard (or discarded). As hypothesized, people in self-expanding relationships kept (or would keep) possessions that were more representative of their relationships; this was not found for items that were discarded (or would be discarded). People in a prior self-expanding relationship had more relationship representative items as their favorite possessions; this was not seen for those currently in a self-expanding relationship. There was no significant relationship between self-expansion in a prior relationship and emotional distress or self-concept clarity for those who were dumped by their partner. This study provides some support for the idea that people keep possessions from self-expanding relationships to receive support for the expanded self.
    • Self-Expansion and Couple Possessions: The Representation of The Self and Other in Valued Possessions

      Paniccia, Lindsey (2011-09-20)
      The current study seeks to understand the influence of romantic relationships on identity symbolism, specifically the use of personal possessions as a means of achieving social validation. According to self expansion theory (Aron & Aron, 1986), engaging in a romantic relationship alters one’s sense of self; romantic partners take on the qualities and characteristics of a partner and integrate them into the self. To understand the process of identity symbolism due to one’s newly expanded sense of self, this study investigated the link between the amount of reported self-expansion and couple representativeness as well as the function of one’s possessions (other-direct identity claim, self-directed identity claim, feeling regulator, and utility). Participants were asked to read a vignette in which they were told their home had been destroyed by a tornado and were then asked to list three possessions which they wished to find among the rubble. Results indicated that reported self-expansion is associated with the tendency to choose couple representative possessions as indicators of the self. As hypothesized, couple representativeness was significantly correlated with tendency to use possession as other-directed identity claims (as evidenced in both reported function and placement) and feeling regulators. Additionally, reported couple representativeness was significantly correlated with the tendency to use possessions as self-directed identity claims and for utility. This study provides support for the relationship between self-expansion and the tendency to communicate one’s expanded self to others by means of material possessions as well as the emotional significance tied to such possessions.
    • Sex bias in the diagnosis of narcissistic,histrionic,sadistic and borderline personality disorders.

      Campbell, Shirley L (2012-04-25)
      Recently, considerable attention has been given to sex bias in the diagnosis of personality disorders. Research has shown that clinicians will assign different diagnoses to case histories of males and females that contain identical symptoms. The present study attempted to examine sex bias in the diagnosis of Narcissistic,Histrionic, Borderline,and Sadistic personality disorders. Psychologists were presented with a male or female version of each of three audiotaped simulated interviews: a Narcissistic/Histrionic case, a Depression/Anxiety symptom case used as a "filler case," and a Borderline/Sadistic case. It was predicted that psychologists would assign more diagnoses of Borderline and Histrionic to the female versions of the cases, and Sadistic and Narcissistic to the male versions. The results showed that, while sex of the patient did not have a significant effect on diagnoses assigned, there was a trend for more Narcissistic and Sadistic diagnoses to be assigned to the male interviews and Borderline to the female interview by male psychologists only. Limitations of this study and directions for future research are discussed.
    • Spiritual Flow: The Influence of Religious Experience on Psychological Well-being

      Monson, Christian H. (2013-01-31)
      Researchers in the psychology of religion have attempted to better explain the relationship of religion/spiritual practice and psychological benefits, including the concept of well-being. The use of optimal experiences, or flow theory, has not yet been used in this endeavor. Flow is described as experiences which include meaningful enjoyment, focus, and intrinsic rewards and motivation. Since reports of transcendent, spiritual experiences appear similar to experiences of flow, it is likely that these experiences may overlap in structure. Also, since both religious and flow experiences have been associated with psychological well-being, it is likely that a spiritual flow experience may explain, in part, the mediating factors of the relationship between religion and mental health. This study used a cross-sectional, correlational design to examine if a spiritual flow experience predicts higher reports of psychological well-being in a religious adult population. One-Hundred and seventy five religiously active adults completed an online survey which included measures of mysticism, religious orientation, flow, psychological well-being, and spiritual well-being. The goal of the study was to assess the existence and structure of spiritual flow and its potential impact on well-being across a variety of domains. There was evidence that spiritual flow experiences do exist, though there were structural differences between spiritual and general flow. Though intrinsic religious motivation did not have an major effect on well-being, spiritual flow was a major predictor of well-being. A qualitative review of which activities tend to lead to spiritual flow is also discussed.
    • Stay at Home Fathers: the New Gender Benders

      Fischer, Jessica (2010-09-22)
      This study compared the gender roles and attitudes toward women‟s and men‟s social roles of stay at home fathers and employed fathers recruited on the Internet. The relationship between gender roles and attitudes toward women‟s and men‟s social roles on reasons for becoming a stay at home father were also investigated. It was predicted that stay at home fathers would endorse more traditionally feminine characteristics for themselves and would have more nontraditional attitudes toward men‟s and women‟s social roles than employed fathers. In addition, it was predicted that fathers who choose to stay at home for practical reasons (i.e. lost job) would be more traditional in their gender role attitudes than fathers who choose to stay at home for other reasons (i.e. really wanted to care for the children). Although stay at home and employed fathers reported having similar feminine and masculine characteristics, stay at home fathers reported having less traditional gender role attitudes than employed fathers. Biosocial theory (Eagly & Wood, 1999) suggests that stay at home fathers may have less traditional attitudes about gender roles because the gender role they are acting out is a non-traditional role for men. Stay at home fathers reported that they really wanted to stay home with their children more than any other reason, whereas the least reported reason for choosing to stay home was having a child with special needs. Contrary to a prediction based on evolutionary psychology, stay at home and employed fathers also reported that their children resembled them to the same degree. The results of this study will contribute further information about a group of fathers that have been under-studied and may also provide helpful information to support groups for stay at home and employed fathers.
    • Stressful Life Events and Interpersonal, Religious, and Spiritual Changes

      Murdock, Paul (2010-05-11)
      Survivors of stressful life events and traumatic experiences often report positive psychological changes “...as a result of the struggle with highly challenging life circumstances” (Tedeschi & Calhoun, 2004, p. 1). Three often reported areas of growth include having a greater appreciation for life in general, new priorities, and an increased significance placed on interpersonal, spiritual or religious issues. Despite reports of positive changes, the literature on stress-related growth (SRG) is inconclusive as to whether SRG is an illusion or represents actual change. For example, no studies to date appear to use longitudinal data, objective indictors, or behavioral measures of change. Thus, the goal of the present study is to use longitudinal data to examine if individuals who report experiencing stressful events place a greater emphasis on interpersonal, religious and spiritual concerns. 556 students at Indiana State University responded to questionnaires at three different time periods (i.e. before entering college, and again in the spring of their freshman and sophomore years). Questionnaires related to stressful events, religious, spiritual, and interpersonal behaviors were selected and include Commitment Components Items (i.e. Altruistic Life Goals and Personal Growth Life Goals), the Organizational Religiousness Short Form, Brief Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, FACIT-Sp Meaning & Peace Subscale, Life Attitude Profile Will to Meaning subscale, and Positive and Negative religious coping (RCOPE). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to determine if they predict changes on the dependent variables.Results show that individuals who reported experiencing a variety of stressful life events showed few positive changes on a variety of interpersonal, religious, and spiritual measures. Results also suggested that females and African Americans reported more positive change when compared to males and Caucasians. Potential reasons for the lack of stress leading to growth are discussed as well as limitations of the study and future directions.
    • The Correspondence of Attachment Dimensions to Prayer Styles Among Undergraduate Students

      Lamkin, Nathaniel Aaron (2013-09-05)
      Despite the fact that prayer is a daily practice for many Americans, and is considered by some the heart and soul of spirituality, relatively little research has been conducted to understand the individual differences of people’s prayer styles. A previous study found that people who have higher levels of avoidance attachment are less likely to engage in prayers that are designed to facilitate a closer relationship with God (e.g., Meditative and Colloquial). It also found that people who have higher levels of anxious attachment are more likely to engage in help seeking types of prayers (e.g., Petitionary). Since the study, two additional prayer models have been developed making it beneficial to reexamine this relationship. One-hundred and ninety nine undergraduate students in psychology courses at Indiana State University received the three prayer style measures (Prayer Questionnaire, Inward Outward Upward Prayer Model, and Multidimensional Prayer Inventory), the Relationship Scale Questionnaire (RSQ), and other related variables (e.g., demographics, student stress scale, and early religious involvement). A hierarchal regression analysis found that none of the four prayer styles that were believed to facilitate a relationship with God showed a negative relationship with avoidance attachment. Two of the three help seeking prayer styles positively correlated with anxious attachment, with the magnitude of the relationship being small. Both prayer styles that significantly correlated dealt with asking for material things, with non-significant prayer style dealing with more impersonal issues. Overall, the results showed only adequate support that attachment and prayer style relate in a meaningful way. Age and race appear to be moderating variables for many of the prayer styles. Implications of the results will be discussed.
    • The development of attentional Skill in a rapid serial visual presentation task: effects of extended practice on the ‘attentional blink’

      Simmons, Greg (2013-02-18)
      The selection of information through visual attention can be based on the time course of events as well as on the spatial location where information is presented. The attentional blink (AB) phenomenon reflects a limitation in selecting information based on time. This phenomenon is observed with a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) where the ability to accurately identify a second target (T2) is reduced when it follows 200 – 500 ms after the first target (T1). The goal of this study was to examine whether this deficit in identifying objects in time would be reduced through practice. This question was addressed by having young adults practice an RSVP task one hour a day for three consecutive days. The major result was that the magnitude and duration of the AB deficit and the proportion of errors in reporting the order of the two targets decreased substantially with practice. These results support theories of AB which assume the phenomenon is an outcome of cognitive control processes that are malleable. The results are not congruent with theories of AB based on fixed capacity limitations.
    • The dual system of education in the South

      Julian, Elizabeth A. (Elizabeth Azalia) (2012-08-16)
      Not Available.
    • The early recollections of resilient and nonresilient individuals

      Pfeifer, Jacqueline R (2012-05-16)
      The present study was designed to investigate the manifest content of early recollections of resilient and non-resilient individuals.The purpose of the study was to determine if adults who have undergone extreme childhood trauma,who were considered at-risk,and developed into successful independent adults(resilient),have significantly different manifest content in their ERs as compared to unsuccessful adults(nonresilient)who have not overcome many of the at-risk obstacles they encountered as children.More specifically,the purpose of the study was to determine if lifestyle reflected in the manifest content of memories recalled from childhood could serve to differentiate between adults who were resilient and those who were non-resilient on the 42 variables of the Manaster-Perryman Manifest Content Early Recollections Scoring Manual(Manaster & Perryman,1974).A total of 80 subjects participated in this study(N=80).The participants comprised two groups,resilient and non-resilient.The resilient group was composed of 16 males and 24 females(n=40).The non-resilient group consisted of 14 males and 26 females (n=40).A total of 30 males and 50 females participated in the study.Each participant was instructed to complete a questionnaire that listed specific life experiences as a child and as an adult that were used to operationally define the two groups.The participants who met the operational definition of resilient or non-resilient were the instructed to provide three written early recollections.Significant differences between the two groups were found on ten of the Manaster-Perryman Manifest Content Early Recollection Scoring Manual variables.The resilient group mentioned the mother character,father character,visual concern with detail,outside in the participant's neighborhood setting,and had more neutral effect in their early recollections.The nonresilient group mentioned the character variable of groups,the mastery theme,the mutuality theme,the motor concern with detail,and had a greater number of themes in their early recollections.Several conclusions were drawn from this study.One major conclusion of this study was that Early Recollections were a useful tool in differentiating resilient and non-resilient groups.Implications for practice and future research were also discussed.
    • The Effect of Intentionally Engaging Attention when Viewing Restorative Environments: Exploring Attention Restoration Theory

      Jaggard, Charles E. (2015-01-07)
      Although research exploring Attention Restoration Theory has been extensive, certain procedures for its study seem to be taken as implicit, but require investigation for a deeper understanding and application of both the theory and its underlying processes. This study aimed to answer the questions: “What is the result of engaging directed attention when viewing otherwise restorative environments?” and “Does this intentional engagement have any effect on already fatiguing non-restorative environments?” Participants were asked to complete a task designed to fatigue their directed attentional capacity and then view images of restorative or non-restorative environments, wherein they either were asked to direct their attention to these environments, or were allowed to view them freely. Those viewing restorative environments but asked to direct their attention had significantly lower and even inhibited recovery from Directed Attention Fatigue than participants viewing these environments freely. Additional analyses explored this effect between environments and on a number of subjective measures. Discussion focuses on the role of tasks in the restorative process and the seemingly inherent neutrality or facility of different environments in regards to restoration.
    • The effect of periodicity on temporal attention

      Key, Mickeal Nelay (2014-12-09)
      Currently, there is a gap in the literature in terms of the relationship between implicit learning and temporal attention. This study set out to discover whether implicit learning could influence the modulation of temporal attention. Employing the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) task, 42 volunteers from Indiana State University participated in the 45-minute experiment. The RSVP stream consisted of 11 uppercase letters, with a stimulus duration of 17ms and a presentation rate of 10Hz. Participants were asked to identify one blue target among 10 white distractors for 10 practice trials and 462 experimental trials. There were three independent variables. The first was Position were a target could appear in one of 5 positions in the RSVP stimulus stream. Three of these positions were considered “High-Frequency” and two of the positions were “Low-Frequency. The “Low-Frequency” positions occurred at a 1/3 of the frequency of the “High-Frequency positions”. The second variable was Jitter, were targets were manipulated so that they could appear 33 ms before, exactly at (0 ms), or 33 ms after the underlying 100 ms base periodicity. Periodicity was the third independent variable where participants were divided into two groups, Periodic or Non-Periodic. Those in the Periodic condition had distractors appear at regular 100ms intervals. Those in the Non-Periodic condition had distractors appear in an unpredictable pattern that averaged every 100 ms.. One outcome of the study was the replication of Position effects from a previous study, which supports the attentional awakening phenomenon for both conditions. A more significant outcome of the study was the provision of empirical support for the idea that periodicity is a iv factor that may influence implicit learning of temporal patterns. Results showed that target identification increased with the frequency of target occurrence at specific RSVP positions in the Periodic condition only. It seems periodicity aided participants in implicitly learning where targets were more likely to appear, thereby improving cognitive performance.
    • The Effect of Sex and Gender Role Orientation on Attitudes towards Individuals with Dependent Personality Disorder

      Slowik, Amanda K. (2013-09-06)
      Research suggests that Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD) is associated with a feminine gender role and the female sex. However, little is known about how men who demonstrate DPD are perceived. Research also suggests that attitudes might be affected by the sex and gender role of the participant, with men and individuals who identify with traditional gender roles making harsher judgments of individuals who exhibit behaviors that are not consistent with traditional gender roles. As the categorical diagnosis of personality disorders has been widely criticized and may soon be replaced, the DSM-5 draft describes the symptoms of DPD using three dimensions (i.e., submissiveness, anxiousness, separation insecurity) in hopes of reducing co-morbidity among diagnoses. The purpose of the present study is to examine attitudes towards men and women with DPD, the moderating effects of participant sex and gender role attitudes, and possible differences between the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 draft conceptualizations of DPD. A sample of 240 undergraduates (99 M, 141 F) from Indiana State University completed the study online. The participants read one of four DPD vignettes (developed following the method adopted by Rienzi et al., 1994), that portrayed a man or woman with DPD as characterized by the DSM-IV-TR or the DSM-5 draft criteria. Participants rated the perceived dysfunction, distress, psychopathology, and impairment of the person in the vignette (using items adopted from Functowicz & Widiger, 1999). They also rated the descriptiveness of the three dimensions of DPD in the DSM-5 for the person in the vignette (using the DSM-5 draft rating scale, APA, 2010) and rated general attitudes towards the person using items from the Rubin (1974) Liking Scale. Finally, participants completed the Social Roles Questionnaire (SRQ; Baber & Tucker, 2006) to examine participants’ attitudes toward gender roles. One-way ANOVAs indicated that female participants were significantly less traditional, less sex-linked, and more gender transcendent than male participants. Multivariate results indicated a significant effect of the covariate (participant’s gender role attitudes), but there were no significant effects of participant sex, sex of the person in the vignette, DSM version, or any significant interactions. The univariate analyses indicated significant differences in all dependent variables except for level of psychopathology as a function of a participant’s gender role orientation. Participants who had less traditional gender role attitudes rated the individual in the vignette more negatively (i.e., more impairment and distress; higher in dependency and the three traits representing DPD in the DSM-5 draft; lower agreement with the statements from the Liking Scale). Additionally, a significant interaction was found for sex of the person in the vignette and participant sex for ratings of distress and one item from the Liking Scale. Specifically, female participants gave significantly higher ratings of personal distress when the vignette described a man than when it described a woman, whereas men assigned similar ratings to both versions of the DPD case. Similarly, compared to men, women indicated less agreement with the statement that most people would react favorably to the person, and the ratings were lower for the male version than the female version of the vignette, whereas men assigned similar ratings to male and female versions of the case. Finally, the person in the vignette was perceived as heterosexual by most of the participants, regardless of which vignette the participants received. Overall, the hypotheses were generally not supported. However, the study provided some support for the importance of attitudes toward gender roles in attitudes towards individuals with DPD, although it does not appear that men with DPD are viewed differently than women with the disorder. Methodological limitations, implications of the findings, and directions for future research are discussed.