• Stay at Home Fathers: the New Gender Benders

      Fischer, Jessica (2010-09-22)
      This study compared the gender roles and attitudes toward women‟s and men‟s social roles of stay at home fathers and employed fathers recruited on the Internet. The relationship between gender roles and attitudes toward women‟s and men‟s social roles on reasons for becoming a stay at home father were also investigated. It was predicted that stay at home fathers would endorse more traditionally feminine characteristics for themselves and would have more nontraditional attitudes toward men‟s and women‟s social roles than employed fathers. In addition, it was predicted that fathers who choose to stay at home for practical reasons (i.e. lost job) would be more traditional in their gender role attitudes than fathers who choose to stay at home for other reasons (i.e. really wanted to care for the children). Although stay at home and employed fathers reported having similar feminine and masculine characteristics, stay at home fathers reported having less traditional gender role attitudes than employed fathers. Biosocial theory (Eagly & Wood, 1999) suggests that stay at home fathers may have less traditional attitudes about gender roles because the gender role they are acting out is a non-traditional role for men. Stay at home fathers reported that they really wanted to stay home with their children more than any other reason, whereas the least reported reason for choosing to stay home was having a child with special needs. Contrary to a prediction based on evolutionary psychology, stay at home and employed fathers also reported that their children resembled them to the same degree. The results of this study will contribute further information about a group of fathers that have been under-studied and may also provide helpful information to support groups for stay at home and employed fathers.
    • Stressful Life Events and Interpersonal, Religious, and Spiritual Changes

      Murdock, Paul (2010-05-11)
      Survivors of stressful life events and traumatic experiences often report positive psychological changes “...as a result of the struggle with highly challenging life circumstances” (Tedeschi & Calhoun, 2004, p. 1). Three often reported areas of growth include having a greater appreciation for life in general, new priorities, and an increased significance placed on interpersonal, spiritual or religious issues. Despite reports of positive changes, the literature on stress-related growth (SRG) is inconclusive as to whether SRG is an illusion or represents actual change. For example, no studies to date appear to use longitudinal data, objective indictors, or behavioral measures of change. Thus, the goal of the present study is to use longitudinal data to examine if individuals who report experiencing stressful events place a greater emphasis on interpersonal, religious and spiritual concerns. 556 students at Indiana State University responded to questionnaires at three different time periods (i.e. before entering college, and again in the spring of their freshman and sophomore years). Questionnaires related to stressful events, religious, spiritual, and interpersonal behaviors were selected and include Commitment Components Items (i.e. Altruistic Life Goals and Personal Growth Life Goals), the Organizational Religiousness Short Form, Brief Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, FACIT-Sp Meaning & Peace Subscale, Life Attitude Profile Will to Meaning subscale, and Positive and Negative religious coping (RCOPE). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to determine if they predict changes on the dependent variables.Results show that individuals who reported experiencing a variety of stressful life events showed few positive changes on a variety of interpersonal, religious, and spiritual measures. Results also suggested that females and African Americans reported more positive change when compared to males and Caucasians. Potential reasons for the lack of stress leading to growth are discussed as well as limitations of the study and future directions.
    • The Correspondence of Attachment Dimensions to Prayer Styles Among Undergraduate Students

      Lamkin, Nathaniel Aaron (2013-09-05)
      Despite the fact that prayer is a daily practice for many Americans, and is considered by some the heart and soul of spirituality, relatively little research has been conducted to understand the individual differences of people’s prayer styles. A previous study found that people who have higher levels of avoidance attachment are less likely to engage in prayers that are designed to facilitate a closer relationship with God (e.g., Meditative and Colloquial). It also found that people who have higher levels of anxious attachment are more likely to engage in help seeking types of prayers (e.g., Petitionary). Since the study, two additional prayer models have been developed making it beneficial to reexamine this relationship. One-hundred and ninety nine undergraduate students in psychology courses at Indiana State University received the three prayer style measures (Prayer Questionnaire, Inward Outward Upward Prayer Model, and Multidimensional Prayer Inventory), the Relationship Scale Questionnaire (RSQ), and other related variables (e.g., demographics, student stress scale, and early religious involvement). A hierarchal regression analysis found that none of the four prayer styles that were believed to facilitate a relationship with God showed a negative relationship with avoidance attachment. Two of the three help seeking prayer styles positively correlated with anxious attachment, with the magnitude of the relationship being small. Both prayer styles that significantly correlated dealt with asking for material things, with non-significant prayer style dealing with more impersonal issues. Overall, the results showed only adequate support that attachment and prayer style relate in a meaningful way. Age and race appear to be moderating variables for many of the prayer styles. Implications of the results will be discussed.
    • The development of attentional Skill in a rapid serial visual presentation task: effects of extended practice on the ‘attentional blink’

      Simmons, Greg (2013-02-18)
      The selection of information through visual attention can be based on the time course of events as well as on the spatial location where information is presented. The attentional blink (AB) phenomenon reflects a limitation in selecting information based on time. This phenomenon is observed with a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) where the ability to accurately identify a second target (T2) is reduced when it follows 200 – 500 ms after the first target (T1). The goal of this study was to examine whether this deficit in identifying objects in time would be reduced through practice. This question was addressed by having young adults practice an RSVP task one hour a day for three consecutive days. The major result was that the magnitude and duration of the AB deficit and the proportion of errors in reporting the order of the two targets decreased substantially with practice. These results support theories of AB which assume the phenomenon is an outcome of cognitive control processes that are malleable. The results are not congruent with theories of AB based on fixed capacity limitations.
    • The dual system of education in the South

      Julian, Elizabeth A. (Elizabeth Azalia) (2012-08-16)
      Not Available.
    • The early recollections of resilient and nonresilient individuals

      Pfeifer, Jacqueline R (2012-05-16)
      The present study was designed to investigate the manifest content of early recollections of resilient and non-resilient individuals.The purpose of the study was to determine if adults who have undergone extreme childhood trauma,who were considered at-risk,and developed into successful independent adults(resilient),have significantly different manifest content in their ERs as compared to unsuccessful adults(nonresilient)who have not overcome many of the at-risk obstacles they encountered as children.More specifically,the purpose of the study was to determine if lifestyle reflected in the manifest content of memories recalled from childhood could serve to differentiate between adults who were resilient and those who were non-resilient on the 42 variables of the Manaster-Perryman Manifest Content Early Recollections Scoring Manual(Manaster & Perryman,1974).A total of 80 subjects participated in this study(N=80).The participants comprised two groups,resilient and non-resilient.The resilient group was composed of 16 males and 24 females(n=40).The non-resilient group consisted of 14 males and 26 females (n=40).A total of 30 males and 50 females participated in the study.Each participant was instructed to complete a questionnaire that listed specific life experiences as a child and as an adult that were used to operationally define the two groups.The participants who met the operational definition of resilient or non-resilient were the instructed to provide three written early recollections.Significant differences between the two groups were found on ten of the Manaster-Perryman Manifest Content Early Recollection Scoring Manual variables.The resilient group mentioned the mother character,father character,visual concern with detail,outside in the participant's neighborhood setting,and had more neutral effect in their early recollections.The nonresilient group mentioned the character variable of groups,the mastery theme,the mutuality theme,the motor concern with detail,and had a greater number of themes in their early recollections.Several conclusions were drawn from this study.One major conclusion of this study was that Early Recollections were a useful tool in differentiating resilient and non-resilient groups.Implications for practice and future research were also discussed.
    • The Effect of Intentionally Engaging Attention when Viewing Restorative Environments: Exploring Attention Restoration Theory

      Jaggard, Charles E. (2015-01-07)
      Although research exploring Attention Restoration Theory has been extensive, certain procedures for its study seem to be taken as implicit, but require investigation for a deeper understanding and application of both the theory and its underlying processes. This study aimed to answer the questions: “What is the result of engaging directed attention when viewing otherwise restorative environments?” and “Does this intentional engagement have any effect on already fatiguing non-restorative environments?” Participants were asked to complete a task designed to fatigue their directed attentional capacity and then view images of restorative or non-restorative environments, wherein they either were asked to direct their attention to these environments, or were allowed to view them freely. Those viewing restorative environments but asked to direct their attention had significantly lower and even inhibited recovery from Directed Attention Fatigue than participants viewing these environments freely. Additional analyses explored this effect between environments and on a number of subjective measures. Discussion focuses on the role of tasks in the restorative process and the seemingly inherent neutrality or facility of different environments in regards to restoration.
    • The effect of periodicity on temporal attention

      Key, Mickeal Nelay (2014-12-09)
      Currently, there is a gap in the literature in terms of the relationship between implicit learning and temporal attention. This study set out to discover whether implicit learning could influence the modulation of temporal attention. Employing the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) task, 42 volunteers from Indiana State University participated in the 45-minute experiment. The RSVP stream consisted of 11 uppercase letters, with a stimulus duration of 17ms and a presentation rate of 10Hz. Participants were asked to identify one blue target among 10 white distractors for 10 practice trials and 462 experimental trials. There were three independent variables. The first was Position were a target could appear in one of 5 positions in the RSVP stimulus stream. Three of these positions were considered “High-Frequency” and two of the positions were “Low-Frequency. The “Low-Frequency” positions occurred at a 1/3 of the frequency of the “High-Frequency positions”. The second variable was Jitter, were targets were manipulated so that they could appear 33 ms before, exactly at (0 ms), or 33 ms after the underlying 100 ms base periodicity. Periodicity was the third independent variable where participants were divided into two groups, Periodic or Non-Periodic. Those in the Periodic condition had distractors appear at regular 100ms intervals. Those in the Non-Periodic condition had distractors appear in an unpredictable pattern that averaged every 100 ms.. One outcome of the study was the replication of Position effects from a previous study, which supports the attentional awakening phenomenon for both conditions. A more significant outcome of the study was the provision of empirical support for the idea that periodicity is a iv factor that may influence implicit learning of temporal patterns. Results showed that target identification increased with the frequency of target occurrence at specific RSVP positions in the Periodic condition only. It seems periodicity aided participants in implicitly learning where targets were more likely to appear, thereby improving cognitive performance.
    • The Effect of Sex and Gender Role Orientation on Attitudes towards Individuals with Dependent Personality Disorder

      Slowik, Amanda K. (2013-09-06)
      Research suggests that Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD) is associated with a feminine gender role and the female sex. However, little is known about how men who demonstrate DPD are perceived. Research also suggests that attitudes might be affected by the sex and gender role of the participant, with men and individuals who identify with traditional gender roles making harsher judgments of individuals who exhibit behaviors that are not consistent with traditional gender roles. As the categorical diagnosis of personality disorders has been widely criticized and may soon be replaced, the DSM-5 draft describes the symptoms of DPD using three dimensions (i.e., submissiveness, anxiousness, separation insecurity) in hopes of reducing co-morbidity among diagnoses. The purpose of the present study is to examine attitudes towards men and women with DPD, the moderating effects of participant sex and gender role attitudes, and possible differences between the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 draft conceptualizations of DPD. A sample of 240 undergraduates (99 M, 141 F) from Indiana State University completed the study online. The participants read one of four DPD vignettes (developed following the method adopted by Rienzi et al., 1994), that portrayed a man or woman with DPD as characterized by the DSM-IV-TR or the DSM-5 draft criteria. Participants rated the perceived dysfunction, distress, psychopathology, and impairment of the person in the vignette (using items adopted from Functowicz & Widiger, 1999). They also rated the descriptiveness of the three dimensions of DPD in the DSM-5 for the person in the vignette (using the DSM-5 draft rating scale, APA, 2010) and rated general attitudes towards the person using items from the Rubin (1974) Liking Scale. Finally, participants completed the Social Roles Questionnaire (SRQ; Baber & Tucker, 2006) to examine participants’ attitudes toward gender roles. One-way ANOVAs indicated that female participants were significantly less traditional, less sex-linked, and more gender transcendent than male participants. Multivariate results indicated a significant effect of the covariate (participant’s gender role attitudes), but there were no significant effects of participant sex, sex of the person in the vignette, DSM version, or any significant interactions. The univariate analyses indicated significant differences in all dependent variables except for level of psychopathology as a function of a participant’s gender role orientation. Participants who had less traditional gender role attitudes rated the individual in the vignette more negatively (i.e., more impairment and distress; higher in dependency and the three traits representing DPD in the DSM-5 draft; lower agreement with the statements from the Liking Scale). Additionally, a significant interaction was found for sex of the person in the vignette and participant sex for ratings of distress and one item from the Liking Scale. Specifically, female participants gave significantly higher ratings of personal distress when the vignette described a man than when it described a woman, whereas men assigned similar ratings to both versions of the DPD case. Similarly, compared to men, women indicated less agreement with the statement that most people would react favorably to the person, and the ratings were lower for the male version than the female version of the vignette, whereas men assigned similar ratings to male and female versions of the case. Finally, the person in the vignette was perceived as heterosexual by most of the participants, regardless of which vignette the participants received. Overall, the hypotheses were generally not supported. However, the study provided some support for the importance of attitudes toward gender roles in attitudes towards individuals with DPD, although it does not appear that men with DPD are viewed differently than women with the disorder. Methodological limitations, implications of the findings, and directions for future research are discussed.
    • The Effect of Sex and Gender Role Orientation on Attitudes Towards Individuals with Dependent Personality Disorder

      Slowik, Amanda K. (2014-03-20)
      Research suggests that Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD) is associated with a feminine gender role and the female sex. However, little is known about how men who demonstrate DPD are perceived. Research also suggests that attitudes might be affected by the sex and gender role of the participant, with men and individuals who identify with traditional gender roles making harsher judgments of individuals who exhibit behaviors that are not consistent with traditional gender roles. As the categorical diagnosis of personality disorders has been widely criticized and may soon be replaced, the DSM-5 draft describes the symptoms of DPD using three dimensions (i.e., submissiveness, anxiousness, separation insecurity) in hopes of reducing co-morbidity among diagnoses. The purpose of the present study is to examine attitudes towards men and women with DPD, the moderating effects of participant sex and gender role attitudes, and possible differences between the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 draft conceptualizations of DPD. A sample of 240 undergraduates (99 M, 141 F) from Indiana State University completed the study online. The participants read one of four DPD vignettes (developed following the method adopted by Rienzi et al., 1994), that portrayed a man or woman with DPD as characterized by the DSM-IV-TR or the DSM-5 draft criteria. Participants rated the perceived dysfunction, distress, psychopathology, and impairment of the person in the vignette (using items adopted from Functowicz & Widiger, 1999). They also rated the descriptiveness of the three dimensions of DPD in the DSM-5 for the person in the vignette (using the DSM-5 draft rating scale, APA, 2010) and rated general attitudes towards the person using items from the Rubin (1974) Liking Scale. Finally, participants completed the Social Roles Questionnaire (SRQ; Baber & Tucker, 2006) to examine participants’ attitudes toward gender roles. One-way ANOVAs indicated that female participants were significantly less traditional, less sex-linked, and more gender transcendent than male participants. Multivariate results indicated a significant effect of the covariate (participant’s gender role attitudes), but there were no significant effects of participant sex, sex of the person in the vignette, DSM version, or any significant interactions. The univariate analyses indicated significant differences in all dependent variables except for level of psychopathology as a function of a participant’s gender role orientation. Participants who had less traditional gender role attitudes rated the individual in the vignette more negatively (i.e., more impairment and distress; higher in dependency and the three traits representing DPD in the DSM-5 draft; lower agreement with the statements from the Liking Scale). Additionally, a significant interaction was found for sex of the person in the vignette and participant sex for ratings of distress and one item from the Liking Scale. Specifically, female participants gave significantly higher ratings of personal distress when the vignette described a man than when it described a woman, whereas men assigned similar ratings to both versions of the DPD case. Similarly, compared to men, women indicated less agreement with the statement that most people would react favorably to the person, and the ratings were lower for the male version than the female version of the vignette, whereas men assigned similar ratings to male and female versions of the case. Finally, the person in the vignette was perceived as heterosexual by most of the participants, regardless of which vignette the participants received. Overall, the hypotheses were generally not supported. However, the study provided some support for the importance of attitudes toward gender roles in attitudes towards individuals with DPD, although it does not appear that men with DPD are viewed differently than women with the disorder. Methodological limitations, implications of the findings, and directions for future research are discussed.
    • The effects of encouragement,praise,and discouragement on internally and externally oriented children.

      Anderson, Judith.A (2012-04-19)
      The primary aim of this study was to investigate three types of parent communication—encouragement, praise, and discouragement—with regard to feelings elicited and perceived helpfulness, as reported by fifth-and sixth-grade subjects grouped according to high, medium or low locus of control. Subjects for the study were 37 male and 47 female volunteers. Bialer’s Children’s Locus of Control Scale was used to classify males and females into a high(internal),medium(middle range),or low(external) group. Encouragement, praise and discouragement were operationally defined as those responses receiving total agreement from a panel of experts as representing the Adlerian concepts under investigation. Perceptions were assessed by having subjects listen to an audio-tape, made specifically for this study, portraying parent-child interactions. Three parent responses, representing encouragement, praise and discouragement followed the presentation of each stimulus situation. Subjects rated each response: (a) on selected scales of the Semantic Differential measuring Evaluative and Potency dimensions, and (b) on a Likert scale measuring the degree of perceived helpfulness. The data were analysed by a 2 *3*3(set X locus of control X response type) analysis of variance, with repeated measures on the third dimension. A separate ANOVA was done for each of the three dependent variables—Evaluation, Potency, and Helpfulness. The following results and conclusions were reported as a result of this study: 1. Praising and encouraging responses were perceived by children as more helpful and more positive than discouraging responses. Discouraging responses were perceived as being as potent as praising responses and more potent than encouraging responses. These findings suggest that children discriminate between positive and negative parental communications. 2.Praising responses were perceived by children as more helpful, more positive ,and more potent than encouraging responses. This suggests that children prefer person-oriented praise rather than task-oriented encouragement from parents. In some respects, these findings appear to be at odds with Adlerian principles which suggest risks involved in responding to children with praise. However, this study suggests that Adlerians may have underestimated the usefulness of praise and overestimated the usefulness of encouragement. 3.Males perceived encouraging responses to be more helpful than discouraging responses, while females perceived responses defined as discouragement. Sex did not appear to function as a discriminating variable with regard to how children responded to the Evaluative and Potency dimensions. 4.Internally oriented children more clearly differentiated between praise and encouragement than did medium or low locus of control children. Praise was perceived as more helpful, more positive and more potent than encouragement. This was unexpected in light of literature which has suggested that the encouragement process can enhance the development of an internal control situation. 5.Sex did not appear to function as a discriminating variable between males and females of corresponding locus of control orientations in regard to their judgements of the helpfulness and value of parental responses. However, sex did appear to contribute to the perceptual framework within which internally oriented children judged the potency of parental responses. Males perceived discouragement as the most potent response, while females perceived praise as the most potent response. Recommendations for future research included: (1) examining children’s reactions to parental responses in an on-going parent-child relationship, (2) examining the effects encouragement, praise, and discouragement have on behavior, (3) longitudinal studies to increase understanding of how particular responses have come to take on reinforcing qualities, (4) the continued investigation of sex and locus of control as independent variables in future research of this nature.
    • The effects of encouragement,praise,and discouragement on internally and externally oriented children.

      Anderson, Judith.A (2012-04-19)
      The primary aim of this study was to investigate three types of parent communication—encouragement, praise, and discouragement—with regard to feelings elicited and perceived helpfulness, as reported by fifth-and sixth-grade subjects grouped according to high, medium or low locus of control. Subjects for the study were 37 male and 47 female volunteers. Bialer’s Children’s Locus of Control Scale was used to classify males and females into a high(internal),medium(middle range),or low(external) group. Encouragement, praise and discouragement were operationally defined as those responses receiving total agreement from a panel of experts as representing the Adlerian concepts under investigation. Perceptions were assessed by having subjects listen to an audio-tape, made specifically for this study, portraying parent-child interactions. Three parent responses, representing encouragement, praise and discouragement followed the presentation of each stimulus situation. Subjects rated each response: (a) on selected scales of the Semantic Differential measuring Evaluative and Potency dimensions, and (b) on a Likert scale measuring the degree of perceived helpfulness. The data were analysed by a 2 *3*3(set X locus of control X response type) analysis of variance, with repeated measures on the third dimension. A separate ANOVA was done for each of the three dependent variables—Evaluation, Potency, and Helpfulness. The following results and conclusions were reported as a result of this study: 1. Praising and encouraging responses were perceived by children as more helpful and more positive than discouraging responses. Discouraging responses were perceived as being as potent as praising responses and more potent than encouraging responses. These findings suggest that children discriminate between positive and negative parental communications. 2.Praising responses were perceived by children as more helpful, more positive ,and more potent than encouraging responses. This suggests that children prefer person-oriented praise rather than task-oriented encouragement from parents. In some respects, these findings appear to be at odds with Adlerian principles which suggest risks involved in responding to children with praise. However, this study suggests that Adlerians may have underestimated the usefulness of praise and overestimated the usefulness of encouragement. 3.Males perceived encouraging responses to be more helpful than discouraging responses, while females perceived responses defined as discouragement. Sex did not appear to function as a discriminating variable with regard to how children responded to the Evaluative and Potency dimensions. 4.Internally oriented children more clearly differentiated between praise and encouragement than did medium or low locus of control children. Praise was perceived as more helpful, more positive and more potent than encouragement. This was unexpected in light of literature which has suggested that the encouragement process can enhance the development of an internal control situation. 5.Sex did not appear to function as a discriminating variable between males and females of corresponding locus of control orientations in regard to their judgements of the helpfulness and value of parental responses. However, sex did appear to contribute to the perceptual framework within which internally oriented children judged the potency of parental responses. Males perceived discouragement as the most potent response, while females perceived praise as the most potent response. Recommendations for future research included: (1) examining children’s reactions to parental responses in an on-going parent-child relationship, (2) examining the effects encouragement, praise, and discouragement have on behavior, (3) longitudinal studies to increase understanding of how particular responses have come to take on reinforcing qualities, (4) the continued investigation of sex and locus of control as independent variables in future research of this nature.
    • The Effects of Mindfulness Meditation and Resonant Frequency Breath Training on Emotion Regulation and Physiological Responses

      Neary, Timothy James (2014-03-18)
      Efficient, integrative methods to foster greater emotion regulation that are applicable to diverse populations are needed. Mindfulness meditation and resonant frequency breath training are independently positively correlated with changes in emotion regulation. The acquisition of effective emotion regulation strategies may be amplified by the interaction of mindfulness meditation practice and resonant frequency breath training. A sample of 82 undergraduate novice meditators were randomized in a four group design utilizing a control, mindfulness only, resonance only, and combined mindfulness and resonance breath training conditions delivered in a three-week intervention. Self-report measures assessed the use of emotion regulation strategies (ERQ), changes in rates of positive and negative affectivity (PANAS), acquisition of mindfulness skills (FFMQ), and sub-clinical symptoms of distress (DASS-21). Changes to low frequency heart rate variability, breath rate, heart rate, and temperature were evaluated. Results support the effect of resonance breath training on decreasing low frequency and increasing high frequency heart rate variability. The mindfulness training did not yield any effects. The effect of brief resonant breath training on heart rate variability suggests that this may be a viable intervention for re-regulation of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system functioning.
    • THE Effects of Social Rank on Shame and Guilt

      Bohaska, Alexandra (2014-03-18)
      The differentiation of shame and guilt is not widely discussed. The reason why some people feel shame while others feel guilt is also not universally understood. Various theories have examined cultural influences and how individuals attribute the outcome of various situations. This paper discusses past theories of the reasons behind shame and guilt and conducts a study that examines how social rank, or lack thereof, could affect a person’s emotional response. It was predicted that when the participants, consisting of college undergraduates and residents of a private community, are primed towards feelings of superordination or equality, via vignettes, they would experience feelings of guilt, whereas those primed towards feelings of subordination would experience shame. Results indicated that there were no differences in feelings of shame and guilt, but the condition participants were placed into may have affected the intensity of these feelings. Furthermore, females were found to report higher levels of guilt than males across all conditions. Lastly, an order effect was found between which vignette appeared first to a participant, resulting in the analysis of only the first vignette a participant received. The results are discussed and it is indicated that the unequal distribution of age, gender and location, in addition to the dropout rate and low number of participants may have affected the lack of significant findings. Finally, it is recommended that a more thorough population and real-life situations be used in the future in order to yield more concrete results.
    • The effects of videotaped symbolic modeling on students expectations about counseling and perceptions of the counseling relationship.

      Mitsch, Raymond R (2012-04-19)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of a symbolic modeling videotaped as a vehicle to pretrain counseling-naive clients for their encounter with a counselor. One hundred and twenty-three psychology students volunteered for this study to receive extra credit for their research participation. They were divided into four groups and asked either to view the videotape or to serve as controls. Two of these groups were also asked to complete questionnaires prior to either viewing the videotaped or coming back the next day to complete the questionnaires again. The four groups completed the questionnaires following their involvement in the study. The independent variables were the symbolic modeling videotape and completion of the pre-treatment questionnaires. The dependent variables were congruence of expectations as measured by the Expectations about Counseling Questionnaire(EACQ) and student's perceptions of the counseling relationship as measured by the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory(BLRI). The socialization process was accomplished by a symbolic modeling videotape which portrayed a first counseling session in process between a female counselor and a female client.This tape was devised to deal with stereotypes often associated with counseling by college students and to provide information about counseling processes, "good client role behavior" and possible outcomes of counseling. This role-played counseling session was presented in an color, audiovisual format and lasted about 17 minutes. Eight two-way analyses of variance were computed on each of the four main expectancy factors of the EACQ and the four scales of the BLRI. Results indicated that the SMV had a positive impact on one factor (Counseling Expertise) of the EACQ and two scales (Empathic Understanding and Congruence) of the BLRI. The conclusion was drawn that this type of intervention provided a potentially useful means of socializing naive clients to counseling. The results did highlight the need for a longer videotape which would portray the vicissitudes of counseling more effectively and would give the potential client a more panoramic view of counseling.
    • The influence of retention intervals and warning signals on prospective memory.

      Sarapata, Michael Andrew (2012-04-23)
      Prospective memory, memory for future events, is used for remembering duties and obligations that all people must complete. Past research has contributed to our understanding of the bases of prospective memory tasks (time versus event) and the kinds of situations requiring prospective memory (appointments, chores, deadlines, and medications). However, research has yet to examine how prospective remembering unfolds over time. For example, very little is known about how such remembering is affected by the time from when the task is encoded to the time that a task must be conducted (the retention interval), the length of the time in which a response can be counted as correct (the response window), and the time from a warning signal, if given, to the time that the prospective task must be completed (the anticipatory lag). This research explored the accuracy and temporal precision to remember to complete a prospective memory task. An accurate prospective remembering involves responding within a response window. The precision of a prospective response refers to how close in time a response is to the ideal time expected of a response. Participants completed prospective memory tasks with three retention intervals ( 45 second, 60 second, and 7 5 second) and attempted to respond within a response window often seconds. Warning signals were either not presented or presented at five and fifteen seconds prior to the expected reaction time. The results indicated that a warning signal affected both the accuracy and precision of prospective remebering such that shorter anticipatory lags created greater accuracy and lower failure rates.