• The effects of encouragement,praise,and discouragement on internally and externally oriented children.

      Anderson, Judith.A (2012-04-19)
      The primary aim of this study was to investigate three types of parent communication—encouragement, praise, and discouragement—with regard to feelings elicited and perceived helpfulness, as reported by fifth-and sixth-grade subjects grouped according to high, medium or low locus of control. Subjects for the study were 37 male and 47 female volunteers. Bialer’s Children’s Locus of Control Scale was used to classify males and females into a high(internal),medium(middle range),or low(external) group. Encouragement, praise and discouragement were operationally defined as those responses receiving total agreement from a panel of experts as representing the Adlerian concepts under investigation. Perceptions were assessed by having subjects listen to an audio-tape, made specifically for this study, portraying parent-child interactions. Three parent responses, representing encouragement, praise and discouragement followed the presentation of each stimulus situation. Subjects rated each response: (a) on selected scales of the Semantic Differential measuring Evaluative and Potency dimensions, and (b) on a Likert scale measuring the degree of perceived helpfulness. The data were analysed by a 2 *3*3(set X locus of control X response type) analysis of variance, with repeated measures on the third dimension. A separate ANOVA was done for each of the three dependent variables—Evaluation, Potency, and Helpfulness. The following results and conclusions were reported as a result of this study: 1. Praising and encouraging responses were perceived by children as more helpful and more positive than discouraging responses. Discouraging responses were perceived as being as potent as praising responses and more potent than encouraging responses. These findings suggest that children discriminate between positive and negative parental communications. 2.Praising responses were perceived by children as more helpful, more positive ,and more potent than encouraging responses. This suggests that children prefer person-oriented praise rather than task-oriented encouragement from parents. In some respects, these findings appear to be at odds with Adlerian principles which suggest risks involved in responding to children with praise. However, this study suggests that Adlerians may have underestimated the usefulness of praise and overestimated the usefulness of encouragement. 3.Males perceived encouraging responses to be more helpful than discouraging responses, while females perceived responses defined as discouragement. Sex did not appear to function as a discriminating variable with regard to how children responded to the Evaluative and Potency dimensions. 4.Internally oriented children more clearly differentiated between praise and encouragement than did medium or low locus of control children. Praise was perceived as more helpful, more positive and more potent than encouragement. This was unexpected in light of literature which has suggested that the encouragement process can enhance the development of an internal control situation. 5.Sex did not appear to function as a discriminating variable between males and females of corresponding locus of control orientations in regard to their judgements of the helpfulness and value of parental responses. However, sex did appear to contribute to the perceptual framework within which internally oriented children judged the potency of parental responses. Males perceived discouragement as the most potent response, while females perceived praise as the most potent response. Recommendations for future research included: (1) examining children’s reactions to parental responses in an on-going parent-child relationship, (2) examining the effects encouragement, praise, and discouragement have on behavior, (3) longitudinal studies to increase understanding of how particular responses have come to take on reinforcing qualities, (4) the continued investigation of sex and locus of control as independent variables in future research of this nature.
    • The effects of encouragement,praise,and discouragement on internally and externally oriented children.

      Anderson, Judith.A (2012-04-19)
      The primary aim of this study was to investigate three types of parent communication—encouragement, praise, and discouragement—with regard to feelings elicited and perceived helpfulness, as reported by fifth-and sixth-grade subjects grouped according to high, medium or low locus of control. Subjects for the study were 37 male and 47 female volunteers. Bialer’s Children’s Locus of Control Scale was used to classify males and females into a high(internal),medium(middle range),or low(external) group. Encouragement, praise and discouragement were operationally defined as those responses receiving total agreement from a panel of experts as representing the Adlerian concepts under investigation. Perceptions were assessed by having subjects listen to an audio-tape, made specifically for this study, portraying parent-child interactions. Three parent responses, representing encouragement, praise and discouragement followed the presentation of each stimulus situation. Subjects rated each response: (a) on selected scales of the Semantic Differential measuring Evaluative and Potency dimensions, and (b) on a Likert scale measuring the degree of perceived helpfulness. The data were analysed by a 2 *3*3(set X locus of control X response type) analysis of variance, with repeated measures on the third dimension. A separate ANOVA was done for each of the three dependent variables—Evaluation, Potency, and Helpfulness. The following results and conclusions were reported as a result of this study: 1. Praising and encouraging responses were perceived by children as more helpful and more positive than discouraging responses. Discouraging responses were perceived as being as potent as praising responses and more potent than encouraging responses. These findings suggest that children discriminate between positive and negative parental communications. 2.Praising responses were perceived by children as more helpful, more positive ,and more potent than encouraging responses. This suggests that children prefer person-oriented praise rather than task-oriented encouragement from parents. In some respects, these findings appear to be at odds with Adlerian principles which suggest risks involved in responding to children with praise. However, this study suggests that Adlerians may have underestimated the usefulness of praise and overestimated the usefulness of encouragement. 3.Males perceived encouraging responses to be more helpful than discouraging responses, while females perceived responses defined as discouragement. Sex did not appear to function as a discriminating variable with regard to how children responded to the Evaluative and Potency dimensions. 4.Internally oriented children more clearly differentiated between praise and encouragement than did medium or low locus of control children. Praise was perceived as more helpful, more positive and more potent than encouragement. This was unexpected in light of literature which has suggested that the encouragement process can enhance the development of an internal control situation. 5.Sex did not appear to function as a discriminating variable between males and females of corresponding locus of control orientations in regard to their judgements of the helpfulness and value of parental responses. However, sex did appear to contribute to the perceptual framework within which internally oriented children judged the potency of parental responses. Males perceived discouragement as the most potent response, while females perceived praise as the most potent response. Recommendations for future research included: (1) examining children’s reactions to parental responses in an on-going parent-child relationship, (2) examining the effects encouragement, praise, and discouragement have on behavior, (3) longitudinal studies to increase understanding of how particular responses have come to take on reinforcing qualities, (4) the continued investigation of sex and locus of control as independent variables in future research of this nature.
    • The Effects of Mindfulness Meditation and Resonant Frequency Breath Training on Emotion Regulation and Physiological Responses

      Neary, Timothy James (2014-03-18)
      Efficient, integrative methods to foster greater emotion regulation that are applicable to diverse populations are needed. Mindfulness meditation and resonant frequency breath training are independently positively correlated with changes in emotion regulation. The acquisition of effective emotion regulation strategies may be amplified by the interaction of mindfulness meditation practice and resonant frequency breath training. A sample of 82 undergraduate novice meditators were randomized in a four group design utilizing a control, mindfulness only, resonance only, and combined mindfulness and resonance breath training conditions delivered in a three-week intervention. Self-report measures assessed the use of emotion regulation strategies (ERQ), changes in rates of positive and negative affectivity (PANAS), acquisition of mindfulness skills (FFMQ), and sub-clinical symptoms of distress (DASS-21). Changes to low frequency heart rate variability, breath rate, heart rate, and temperature were evaluated. Results support the effect of resonance breath training on decreasing low frequency and increasing high frequency heart rate variability. The mindfulness training did not yield any effects. The effect of brief resonant breath training on heart rate variability suggests that this may be a viable intervention for re-regulation of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system functioning.
    • THE Effects of Social Rank on Shame and Guilt

      Bohaska, Alexandra (2014-03-18)
      The differentiation of shame and guilt is not widely discussed. The reason why some people feel shame while others feel guilt is also not universally understood. Various theories have examined cultural influences and how individuals attribute the outcome of various situations. This paper discusses past theories of the reasons behind shame and guilt and conducts a study that examines how social rank, or lack thereof, could affect a person’s emotional response. It was predicted that when the participants, consisting of college undergraduates and residents of a private community, are primed towards feelings of superordination or equality, via vignettes, they would experience feelings of guilt, whereas those primed towards feelings of subordination would experience shame. Results indicated that there were no differences in feelings of shame and guilt, but the condition participants were placed into may have affected the intensity of these feelings. Furthermore, females were found to report higher levels of guilt than males across all conditions. Lastly, an order effect was found between which vignette appeared first to a participant, resulting in the analysis of only the first vignette a participant received. The results are discussed and it is indicated that the unequal distribution of age, gender and location, in addition to the dropout rate and low number of participants may have affected the lack of significant findings. Finally, it is recommended that a more thorough population and real-life situations be used in the future in order to yield more concrete results.
    • The effects of videotaped symbolic modeling on students expectations about counseling and perceptions of the counseling relationship.

      Mitsch, Raymond R (2012-04-19)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of a symbolic modeling videotaped as a vehicle to pretrain counseling-naive clients for their encounter with a counselor. One hundred and twenty-three psychology students volunteered for this study to receive extra credit for their research participation. They were divided into four groups and asked either to view the videotape or to serve as controls. Two of these groups were also asked to complete questionnaires prior to either viewing the videotaped or coming back the next day to complete the questionnaires again. The four groups completed the questionnaires following their involvement in the study. The independent variables were the symbolic modeling videotape and completion of the pre-treatment questionnaires. The dependent variables were congruence of expectations as measured by the Expectations about Counseling Questionnaire(EACQ) and student's perceptions of the counseling relationship as measured by the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory(BLRI). The socialization process was accomplished by a symbolic modeling videotape which portrayed a first counseling session in process between a female counselor and a female client.This tape was devised to deal with stereotypes often associated with counseling by college students and to provide information about counseling processes, "good client role behavior" and possible outcomes of counseling. This role-played counseling session was presented in an color, audiovisual format and lasted about 17 minutes. Eight two-way analyses of variance were computed on each of the four main expectancy factors of the EACQ and the four scales of the BLRI. Results indicated that the SMV had a positive impact on one factor (Counseling Expertise) of the EACQ and two scales (Empathic Understanding and Congruence) of the BLRI. The conclusion was drawn that this type of intervention provided a potentially useful means of socializing naive clients to counseling. The results did highlight the need for a longer videotape which would portray the vicissitudes of counseling more effectively and would give the potential client a more panoramic view of counseling.
    • The influence of retention intervals and warning signals on prospective memory.

      Sarapata, Michael Andrew (2012-04-23)
      Prospective memory, memory for future events, is used for remembering duties and obligations that all people must complete. Past research has contributed to our understanding of the bases of prospective memory tasks (time versus event) and the kinds of situations requiring prospective memory (appointments, chores, deadlines, and medications). However, research has yet to examine how prospective remembering unfolds over time. For example, very little is known about how such remembering is affected by the time from when the task is encoded to the time that a task must be conducted (the retention interval), the length of the time in which a response can be counted as correct (the response window), and the time from a warning signal, if given, to the time that the prospective task must be completed (the anticipatory lag). This research explored the accuracy and temporal precision to remember to complete a prospective memory task. An accurate prospective remembering involves responding within a response window. The precision of a prospective response refers to how close in time a response is to the ideal time expected of a response. Participants completed prospective memory tasks with three retention intervals ( 45 second, 60 second, and 7 5 second) and attempted to respond within a response window often seconds. Warning signals were either not presented or presented at five and fifteen seconds prior to the expected reaction time. The results indicated that a warning signal affected both the accuracy and precision of prospective remebering such that shorter anticipatory lags created greater accuracy and lower failure rates.
    • The Rebound Effect: The Use of Short-term Mating Strategies after the Dissolution of a Significant, Loving Relationship

      Pierce, Sarah L. (2013-01-31)
      Previous studies have defined rebound relationships according to retrospective accounts based on the length of engagement, time elapsed since previous relationship, or simply denied their existence in total. The goal of this study is to better understand the concept of the rebound relationship and to determine how pursuing a rebound relationship differs from other types of romantic engagements. The current study poses that rebound relationships reflect a change in mating strategy which is evident in a temporary shift in the characteristics of the pursued mate and the benefits gained. The current paper hypothesized that rebound relationships are intentionally short-lived relationships, with a unique set of pursued partner qualities and benefits. It was further hypothesized that rebounds reflect a change in mating strategy which is evident in a temporary shift in the characteristics of the pursued mate. This change in mating strategy was expected to be associated with a change in cognitive processing and an increase in mating effort while maintaining long-term partner preferences. Participants were psychology students from a mid-sized Midwestern university and participated in either a survey style study or an experimental study based on relationship status. Results from the survey indicate that rebound relationships are a unique pattern of partnering according to participants’ responses, both intentionally short-term in length and based on partner characteristics more indicative of short-term mating. But results from the experiment failed to indentify the anticipated shift in mating strategy or uncover the expected patterns in cognitive processing or mating effort.
    • The relationship between friendship transition and conflict.

      Jaroscak, Danielle R (2012-04-23)
      The transition from acquaintanceship to friendship was examined in this study.In particular,the study focused on the development of friendship and how situations that may invite conflict affect that process.Participants were assigned to one of three relationship conditions(exchange,pre-friendship,communal) and read about a negative(conflict) and positive(non-conflict)scenario involving the assigned relationship partner.Each participant reported how he or she would feel in the imagined situations.The results of this study showed differences between the pre-friendship conditions and exchange and communal conditions.There is a pre-friendship condition felt as comfortable with the other's behavior as friends,and attributed their negative behavior to unstable,situational conditions,as is done for friends but reported that the behavior of pre-friends was more important to their relationship.This research suggests that pre-relationship is a distinct type of relationship in which a person thinks of their partners as a friends,but do not feel like friends,and attend to interactions in order to assess the status of the relationship.These findings expand our understanding of the process of friendship formation,but raise questions about the adequacy of traditional models of social relationships.
    • The school and personality development

      Fletcher, Kenneth J. (2013-03-21)
      Not Available.
    • The validity of selected draw-a-person test classifying criteria among homosexual and non homosexual males.

      Ornsteiner, Joel Von (2012-04-18)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the validity of Machover's(1949)interpretation that attention to both the hips and buttocks drawn by males subjects in their first male Draw-A-Person Test(DAP) or the drawing of a female figure first are significant indicators of male homosexuality.The hypothesis was that the frequency of these homosexual indicators among non-instituted homosexuals indicators among non-instituted homosexuals would be significantly higher(P = < .05) than the male heterosexual group.One hundred homosexual and 100 heterosexual males were selected from groups of volunteers from two universities,one bookstore and a community center in the New York area.The subjects were administered a DAP test in booklet format and a questionnaire.The drawings were classified for homosexual indicators blindly and independently by three judges who were trained in the use of the Machover interpretation of the DAP. Chi square analyses were calculated for the frequency of hips and buttocks and for the drawing of a female figure first and no significant differences between the self identified homosexual and heterosexual male groups in the expected direction were found.It was concluded that the lack of any significant difference between the scores of the homosexual and heterosexual males in this study casts considerable doubt on the validity of the male homosexual interpretations explored.Speculations were made concerning the widely discrepant results from past studies and this investigation.The majority of the past research had been conducted within institutional settings and there have been cultural changes over the last fifty years in both psychology and society's tolerance for the male homosexual.Unlike any previous DAP study,one-hundred urban homosexual and one-hundred heterosexual males were randomly selected.This researcher cautions that the DAP test should be interpreted with other available information,and results based on its independent use are viewed with much skepticism.Implications for future research were discussed.
    • Traitorous Texting: Addressing the Methodological Issue of Arousal in Romantic Jealousy Research

      Rasley, Rachel (2013-01-30)
      Many psychological studies have focused on jealousy in romantic relationships, often from the evolutionary view that men should be more distressed by sexual infidelity and women by emotional infidelity. One criticism of this research is that in studies using physiological methods, arousal is reported as indicating distress, when the arousal is actually ambiguous. The present study investigates the influence of arousal on reported jealousy by manipulating arousal itself. Two groups of participants were overwhelmed with non-sexual arousal (exercise) before completing infidelity manipulations; the other group completed the manipulations without exercising. All participants read cell phone text messages suggesting either emotional or sexual unfaithfulness, and were asked to imagine that their partners sent the messages to another person. The central predictions were as follows: first, that men and women in the no-arousal group would demonstrate the evolution-predicted sex difference; and second, that the sex difference would be either diminished or augmented under a condition of arousal, suggesting a misattribution effect or response facilitation effect, respectively. None of the hypotheses were statistically supported. However, trends among male participants appear to endorse a misattribution effect of arousal, implying that elevated arousal among men in response to sexual infidelity scenarios may not necessarily reflect elevated distress. In future studies of jealousy, researchers should consider arousal to be a possible confound.
    • Undergraduate Students’ Gender Self-Esteem and Attitudes Towards Transmen, Transwomen, Gay Men, and Lesbian Women

      Glotfelter, Michael Ann (2012-10-22)
      Research on individuals who do not conform to traditional sexual norms has increased over the past two decades, but there still remains little research on attitudes towards transpeople (i.e., individuals who violate gender norms). The goal of the current research is to contribute to knowledge regarding attitudes towards transpeople who continue to be subjected to prejudice, violence, and discrimination based on non-conformity. The current research explores and compares gender differences in attitudes towards lesbian women, gay men, transwomen (i.e., male-to-female transsexuals or men who deviate greatly from male gender norms and a male gender identity), and transmen (i.e., female-to-male transsexuals or women who deviate greatly from female gender norms and a female gender identity). Social Identity Theory (SIT), as it relates to gender self-esteem, is used as a theoretical framework to help explain prejudice towards lesbian women, gay men, and transpeople. The possible relationship between gender self-esteem and prejudice is also examined. The sample consisted of 402 heterosexual undergraduates with 195 (48.5%) women and 207 (51.5%) men. Participants completed the Genderism and Transphobia Scale, the Transphobia Scale, the Modern Homonegativity Scale, a gender specific Collective Self-Esteem Scale, and the Social Desirability Scale-17. Consistent with other research, heterosexual men reported significantly higher levels of prejudice toward lesbian women, gay men and transpeople compared to women. Men reported significantly more negative attitudes toward gay men compared to lesbian women, and reported more possible violence toward and discomfort around transwomen than transmen. In contrast to men, heterosexual women reported similar levels of sexual prejudice toward gay men and lesbian women and more discomfort around a transman than a transwoman. Both men and women reported more teasing of transwomen compared to transmen. Men with high gender self-esteem reported more sexual prejudice toward gay men and lesbian. These results were not found for heterosexual women who reported high gender self-esteem.. This research will contribute to knowledge and awareness of what factors affect and predict negative attitudes, prejudice, and violence against sexual and gender minorities. This current research suggests some similarities as well as differences in the prediction of sexual prejudice and transprejudice. Additionally, the results suggest that SIT can be a useful framework to begin to understand both sexual prejudice and transprejudice. Furthermore, although there are some similarities in the predictors of sexual prejudice and transprejudice for heterosexual women and men, the differences are important enough to suggest some divergence in how social identities interact with gender to influence prejudicial attitudes. Finally, greater awareness regarding sexual prejudice and transprejudice can lead to more effective interventions to decrease prejudice and violence.