• The effects of mathematics on achievements in physics

      Green, Vern A. (2012-08-15)
      Not Available.
    • The Locational Determinants of Internet Usage in Asia and Nepal

      Chand, Smriti (2011-06-17)
      This study examines the relationship between internet development and various socio- economic factors that are assumed to affect internet infrastructure development decision. The data collected for 35 Asian countries is secondary data collected from various sources. This study tests six hypotheses about the impact of various socio-economic factors and economic freedom indicators on Internet Penetration Rate (IPR) and Internet Service Providers (ISP). The findings show that the IPR can be statistically explained by one independent variable: GDP (Gross Domestic Product). The study models also include Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), literacy rate, fertility rate, the percentage of urban population, the country's status as a former European Colony, Business Freedom, Freedom from Corruption, and Property Rights.
    • The polarographic determination of cobalt in potassium iodide

      Kiser, Donald Lee (2013-05-03)
      Not available.
    • The relationship of certain factors to semester marks in first year algebra

      Hatke, M. Agnes (Mary Agnes) (2012-08-06)
      Not Available.
    • The Status of Crawfish Frogs (lithobates areolatus) in Indiana, and a Tool to Assess Populations

      Engbrecht, Nathan J. (2011-03-16)
      The conservation status of Crawfish Frogs (Lithobates areolatus) in Indiana has changed over the past several decades. Once described as being locally plentiful, declines led to the listing of Crawfish Frogs as a State Endangered Species in 1988. Several records for this species in Indiana are > 50 yrs old and have gone unconfirmed for several decades. However, recent surveys have confirmed the continued presence of Crawfish Frogs in parts of southern Indiana, redefining the perceived range of this species in the state. In an effort to increase survey efficiency in this species, I used automated recording systems and manual call survey techniques to examine the chorusing phenologies of Crawfish Frogs at two sites along the northern extent of their range. Detection probabilities were determined as they related to season and environmental variables and survey duration. I also examined the effect that distance from wetland and position (ground level vs. approximate human ear level) had on call detection in automated recording systems. Correlations between call rates (calls/min) and numbers of male Crawfish Frogs present were used to calculate population estimates at 10 uncensused sites. Detection probabilities were highest when the frogs were breeding and when air temperatures were ≥ 13° C. Initial detection of Crawfish Frogs most frequently occurred during the first five min of sampling. Calls on automated recording units lost resolution as distance from wetland increased, and calls recorded at all distances at human ear level were measurably louder (in decibels) except at the wetland edge. Population estimates at uncensused sites ranged from a low of four to a high of 48. Using call rates and numbers of male frogs present in wetlands, I present a “rapid assessment” tool that can be used to quickly calculate on-site estimates of Crawfish Frogs in field studies.
    • The trends in high school chemistry since 1923

      Kessel, William G. (2012-08-09)
      Not Available.
    • …To TOC A Dendrochronological Analysis of Insect Outbreaks and Climate Effects on Tamarack from Indiana and Michigan

      Flinner, Nicholas Lorin (2015-01-07)
      Disturbances have a strong impact on tree stand dynamics across the world. In North America, the larch sawfly (Pristiphora erichsonii) and larch casebearer (Cleophora laricella) are two non-native species of insects affecting tamarack across much of their native range. The majority of research on the effects of larch sawfly on tamarack (Larix laricina) has been conducted in Canada with very little dendrochronological work in the United States along the geographical boundary of tamarack or on the effects of larch casebearer on radial growth. As a consequence, very little is known about the relationship between tamarack and these insects’ outbreaks in the United States. The traditional model of Ecological Amplitude in biogeography explains that species are limited along their southern border by species interaction, so it is very important to start to understand the relationship between predator and prey. At the Pigeon River State Fish and Wildlife Area in northern Indiana, tamarack are stressed and dying out on the landscape and local naturalists believe insect outbreaks are a potential factor. I use the traditional dendrochronological methods to develop and compare host and non-host chronologies from northern Indiana and central Michigan. I then compared these chronologies to each other, local climate variables, and insect outbreak information to better understand climate and outbreak signals in radial growth. I found that tamarack in Indiana showed a stronger negative response to temperature in Indiana than in Michigan which indicates warmer temperature play a role in limiting the southern margin of the species’ range. Tamarack also provided a good record of local insect outbreak events. Using outbreak information collected from local naturalists, I developed a tree ring outbreak signature for larch casebearer. Continued work along the southern boundary of the species will determine the combined impacts of multiple species specific predators as climate changes.
    • Transgenic Manipulation in Zebra Fish by Combination of Cre-loxP Recombinant System, Tol2 Transposon System, and RNAi Technique

      Bai, Yang (2010-09-21)
      The overall goal of this research is to make precisely controlled transgene constructs to target genes in zebrafish and facilitate their functional studies. Many of the previous transgenic techniques (e.g. morpholino) can only produce transient gene expression or inhibition, which is not good for long-term studies. Also, transgenes that randomly integrate into the chromosomes are typically difficult to control and are poorly regulated. Thus, it would be of great benefit to develop a reversibly controlled transgenic tool to help study gene function. Here, we propose to combine three distinct techniques to generate a stable transgenic tool to facilitate gene functional study in zebrafish, including Cre-loxP recombinant system, Tol2 transposon system, and RNAi technique. The first objective is to combine both Cre-loxP and Tol2 systems to make a convertible and movable transgene construct for insertional inactivation assays in zebrafish. The generated transheterozygous rfp/gfp fragments can be translocated to other loci in the fish genome upon the introduction of Tol2 transposase, which may result in insertional mutations and/or new patterns of interest. The second objective is to make a precisely controlled shRNA transgene construct to inhibit the gfp and/or fli1 expression in zebrafish. Once the target gene is silenced, the zebrafish should show reduced green fluorescence, or some altered phenotypes (in the case of an endogenous blood cell specific target) that can be easily observed. The results showed that we successfully established a stable homozygous pBa/RFP/loxP2/GFP/SBIR transgenic zebrafish line. The conversion from rfp to gfp expression was performed efficiently by heatshock-activated Cre recombinase in vivo. And the subsequent germline transmission of the converted gfp expression was observed in heatshocked pTol-EF1α-RFP-loxP2-GFP transgenic fish outcrosses. The newly generated red/green transheterozygous fish from the cross of non-converted red fish and converted green fish are ready for further insertional mutation assay using Tol2 transgenic fish (Fuji70) or Tol2 mRNA. The construction of the shRNA plasmid was completed and the F0 microinjected zebrafish showed mosaic rfp expression in a few blood vessel cells as well as muscle cells, which indicated the potential success of fli1 driven shGFP transcription in vivo. Future goals include an examination of the efficiency of shGFP anti-gfp expression in pTol-Fli1-EGFP transgenic fish, and Cre recombinase mediated shGFP deletion and target gene expression recovery in vivo.
    • Tree-Ring Analysis of Outbreak Dynamics across an Insect’s Entire Range: The Pandora Moth System

      de Graauw, Kristen (2012-10-22)
      In montane forests of the western United States, pandora moth (Coloradia pandora Blake) defoliates local pines, primarily ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex Laws.) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.). This defoliation stresses the tree, leaving a distinct outbreak signature in the tree-rings. The occurrence of pandora moth outbreaks has been recorded in ponderosa pine tree rings in Oregon as far back as 1500 years, however little is known of the outbreak history throughout the rest of the pandora moth range. To gain a better understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics of pandora moth I have reconstructed outbreaks across the entire range of the insect using 121 tree-ring chronologies from the International Tree-Ring Databank (ITRDB) and 19 chronologies from sites sampled for this study using dendrochronological techniques. I then created a fine resolution habitat model for pandora moth and a gridded tree-ring network of non-host chronologies, which was used to validate statistically confirmed outbreak events across the entire range of the insect. Sites with confirmed outbreaks were then tested against the habitat model for accuracy of model parameters. ArcMap 10 was used to create an animated map of the spatial and temporal distribution of pandora moth across its range. One of my most notable findings is the record of outbreak events further north than previously documented, and the agreement between those northern sites with my habitat model. In my research I have demonstrated the use of dendrochronology to study outbreaks across an insect’s range. The methods I have used here can be applied to other range-wide analyses.
    • Under the Influence of Large Woody Debris: A Survey of the La Crosse River In the Upper Midwest Driftless Area

      Prise, Adam (2012-10-19)
      Streams are dynamic environments driven by the force of gravity and shaped by local climate, geology, and vegetation. Large woody debris (LWD) can have important influences on stream processes. The main influence of LWD on these systems is a resistance to flow; this added roughness induces a multitude of channel adjustments. Despite the importance of LWD, streams have been heavily managed by humankind, often involving the removal of debris to improve flow. Recent studies have highlighted the significance of large woody debris in mountain streams, particularly in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada. However, there has been little research on the influence of LWD on streams in the Upper Midwest. This study will specifically investigate a stream (the La Crosse River) in southwestern Wisconsin’s Driftless Area. This area remained untouched by glaciers during the Last Glacial Maximum, but outwash from melting glaciers was deposited here, making the main bed material coarse sand. Combining stream survey methods (channel cross-sections) and a wood census, the influence of LWD was determined through statistical analysis of measurements of stream (velocity, depth, and width) and LWD (total counts, length, DBH, and volume) characteristics, in conjunction with qualitative analysis of detailed cross-sections. LWD are present in the study reach, but few relationships proved statistically significant, while local influences (initiation of scour and deposition) are clearly seen. Explanations of human, regional, historical, and bed form influences are explored.
    • Urban Flash Flood Risk Assessment and Inundation Model Utilizing GIS for Terre Haute, Indiana

      Ishman, Zachary Scott (2015-01-07)
      Use of ArcGIS to examine flash flooding variables and produce a flash flood risk assessment and inundation model for Terre Haute, Indiana. Risk assessment, produced within ArcGIS, indicates that an increase in developed area leads to an increase in very high flash flood risk area and majority of very high risk area resides in developed areas of Terre Haute. Inundation model, produced using ArcGIS and Python, indicates that the proposed model can determine locations of flash flooding, but spatial extent of model predicted flooding is not reliable based on field validation.
    • Using Analogues to Simulate Intensity, Trajectory, and Dynamical Changes in Alberta Clippers with Global Climate Change

      Ward, Jamie L. (2015-01-07)
      Alberta Clippers are extratropical cyclones that form in the lee of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and traverse through the Great Plains and Midwest regions of the United States. With the imminent threat of global climate change and its effects on regional teleconnection patterns like El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), properties of Alberta Clipper could be altered as a result of changing atmospheric circulation patterns. Since the Great Plains and Midwest regions both support a large portion of the national population and agricultural activity, the effects of global climate change on Alberta Clippers could affect these areas in a variety of ways. Despite this reasoning, relatively few studies have addressed Alberta Clippers, especially in comparison to the other North American storm tracks. In this study, the effects of global climate change on Alberta Clippers are examined by using atmospheric analogues chosen from 1950-2012 based on temperature and ENSO characteristics. Composite maps of regional MSLP at 12-hr intervals, 300mb vector wind and geopotential height at the time of cyclogenesis, and 850mb temperature and geopotential height patterns 36 hours after Clipper formation are constructed. Difference maps of 300mb geopotential height patterns between each of the analogues are also constructed. One-way ANOVA tests are also used to analyze Alberta Clipper latitude and longitude values at t=0, Clipper trajectory azimuths from t=0 to t=60, central MSLP values for these storms twelve hours after formation, and MSLP pressure gradients at t=24. The results from these tests indicate that, of the four analogues, the Cold and El Niño years are the most dissimilar, maintaining statistically significant differences in upper-level wind magnitude and starting longitude values. MSLP at t=12 is lower in the Cold storms than the El Niño storms, but statistical significance between these values is not quite achieved. Furthermore, geopotential height differences and their associated rate of change with respect to map distance indicate that the 300mb geopotential height patterns of the El Niño and Cold analogues are quite different from one another. The La Niña and Warm analogue years are different from one another with respect to latitude and longitude values of Alberta Clippers at cyclogenesis. Based on these results, the effects of temperature increase alone will not influence the properties of Alberta Clippers as much as changes in ENSO that could be caused by global climate change.
    • Using MyPlan as a tool for college students in maing their career decisions.

      Lamichhane, Reema (2012-05-21)
      Making a right career choice and preparing accordingly to achieve that career goal is a key to success for every individual. In this study, the researcher evaluated the effectiveness of students using MyPlan, a career assessment tool, to help them make career related decisions. The pretest-posttest analysis showed that MyPlan helped students make an informed career decision to some extent. Chi-squared and correlation analysis of students’ responses before and after taking MyPlan suggested a positive correlation between students taking MyPlan and choosing a college degree major. Also, students agreed strongly when they were asked if MyPlan was helpful in deciding their college major. Collectively, this study derived a strong suggestion that MyPlan is fairly effective and students find it helpful to guide them in making career choices. However, this study was limited as there was a time restraint, subject disparity, and small sample sizes. Therefore, a subsequent study is recommended with a larger sample size and a longer study period. Regardless, this study provided some preliminary data to indicate MyPlan can be an effective tool for college students to guide them in their career decision making process.