• An experimental comparison of two methods of teaching ninth year algebra

      McBeth, Grace M. (Grace McAllister) (2012-08-16)
      Not Available.
    • An objective test in biology

      Dixon, Napoleon (2012-07-30)
      Not Available.
    • Analyses of seven high school geography textbooks

      Walters, Lee (2012-08-14)
      Not Available.
    • Analysis of Urban Heat Islands by Using Multi-Sensor and Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Images

      Umamaheshwaran, Rajasekar (2011-09-20)
      This doctoral dissertation research has developed models to facilitate in characterization,analysis and monitoring of urban heat islands (UHI). Over the past few years there has been evidence of mass migration of the population towards urban areas which has led to the increase in the number of mega cities (cities with more than 10 million in population) around the world. According to the UN in 2007 around 60% (from 40% in 2000) of world populations was living in urban areas. This increase in population density in and around cities has lead to several problems related to environment such as air quality, water quality, development of Urban Heat Islands (UHI), etc. The purpose of this doctoral dissertation research was to develop a synergetic merger of remote sensing with advancements in data mining techniques to address modeling and monitoring of UHI in space and in time. The effect of urban heat islands in space and over time was analyzed within this research using exploratory and quantitative models. Visualization techniques including animation were experimented with developing a mechanism to view and understand the UHI over a city. Association rule mining models were implemented to analyze the relationship between remote sensing images and geographic information system (GIS) data. This model was implemented using three different remote sensing images i.e., Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The effect of the spatial resolution on the model and the phenomenon were analyzed in detail to determine variables which strongly associate with land use land cover (LULC) in space and in time.A non-parametric process convolution model was developed and was used to characterize UHI from MODIS time series images. The resulting characterized images were used to study the relationship between LULC and UHI. The behavior of UHI including its movement and magnitude was analyzed in space and time.The intellectual merits of these methods are two-fold; first, they will be a forerunner in the development and implementation of association rule mining algorithm within remote sensing image analysis framework. Second, since most of the existing UHI models are parametric in nature; the non-parametric approach is expected to overcome the existing problems within characterization and analysis. Parametric models pose problems (in terms of efficiency, since the implementation of such models are time consuming and need human intervention) while analyzing UHI effect from multiple imageries. These proposed models are expected to aid in effective spatial characterization and facilitate in temporal analysis and monitoring of UHI phenomenon.
    • Applying Geophysics and Geochemistry to Understand Middle Woodland Site Spatial Organization At the Northwood Site, Vigo County, Indiana

      Grossman, Tiffany (2012-10-22)
      The Northwood site (12Vi194) in northern Vigo County is attributed to the Late Middle Woodland culture known as Allison-LaMotte. Previous studies at other Allison-LaMotte sites are inconclusive regarding the village structure of this culture. While some studies identify a habitation zone surrounding a circular plaza, other Allison-LaMotte sites lack an observable spatial layout to the site. Magnetometry studies completed at the Northwood site in 2005 reveal a possible semi-circular community pattern with a central plaza. This study employed the 2005 magnetometer survey data, magnetic susceptibility, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and geochemical analyses to confirm the hypothesized site organization. Magnetic data from the magnetometer survey and magnetic susceptibility of artifact classes were compared to identify sources of magnetic anomalies. The map produced by magnetometry was compared with the GPR map to identify overlaps in possible pit features and the plaza zone. Excavating in locations identified as magnetic anomalies allowed for ground truthing survey results and collecting magnetic susceptibility measurements and soil samples for geochemical analysis. Geochemical analyses included detailed phosphorus geochemistry, total organic matter content, and organic carbon enhancement of soils collected from the site. Finally, determination of the source and strength of feature magnetic signals were analyzed using magnetic susceptibility and magnetometer data. These investigations provide better estimates of site spatial structure at the Northwood Site.
    • Assessing Environmental Conditions at the Friar Tuck Mining Complex, Dugger, Indiana

      McBride, Windy Jo (2011-09-20)
      Many abandoned mine lands (AML) continue to present significant environmental concerns. The abandoned Friar Tuck Mining Complex in Greene and Sullivan counties, Indiana, continues to impair local water quality despite closing in 1952 for operations and multiple remediation attempts. Most areas within the Friar Tuck Mining Complex have been successfully remediated; however, the area of research interest requires additional treatment and continues to be impacted by runoff from gob piles. Subsequently, areas characterized by a loss of vegetation where mine seeps occur behave unpredictably and are characterized by the exposure of bare soil. These mine seep areas are of particular concern because contaminated soil may leave the site during summer months as aerosols due to soil desiccation. The primary goal of this project was to evaluate spatial variability in the distribution of metals in surface soils. In May 2010, 258 soil samples were collected at the Friar Tuck Mining Complex to evaluate metal accumulation and bioavailability using several different geochemical techniques, including bulk geochemistry following reaction with water and acid and a sequential extraction technique. Results indicate that surface soils at the Friar Tuck Mining Complex continue to be degraded, pH is moderately to highly acid (pH=4-1) in areas of mine seeps, surface flow, and where the slurry pond narrows and begins to discharge into Mud creek. Surface soils also have elevated concentrations of bioavailable metals due to the persistent influence of AMD, such as Zn, Cu, Cr and Pb, especially in areas of mine seeps, surface flow, and water ponding.
    • Assessment and Impact of Gentrified Public Housing Neighborhoods in The United States: A Case Study of Chicago

      Sink, Todd W. (2011-09-20)
      Social-mix housing policies play a unique role in shaping the geography of gentrification in cities throughout the U.S. and Europe. The HOPE VI program in the U.S. is one popular example. Since its inception in 1992, HOPE VI has simultaneously displaced thousands of urban poor from their homes and neighborhoods, reduced their housing opportunities, and created and encouraged housing development for a more affluent population. Yet over the years, very few empirical studies have emerged that examine the place-based outcomes of HOPE VI within the context of gentrification. As such, important empirical questions remain unanswered. This study focuses on the geography of HOPE VI policy and gentrification in Chicago. The purpose of the study is to examine when, in what way, and to what magnitude the gentrification process has unfolded in public housing neighborhoods targeted by the HOPE VI program during the period 1990-2007. Socio-economic data from the U.S. Census and Geolytics; mortgage financing data from the FFIEC; building permits from the City of Chicago; and field surveys are utilized to create an assessment of gentrification. The findings show that the relationship between HOPE VI and gentrification is different in different areas of Chicago. HOPE VI is driving the gentrification process directly in some areas and indirectly in others. HOPE VI is the foundation that has made gentrification possible in public housing neighborhoods in Chicago. But HOPE VI is not the only driving force, as some areas have experienced gentrification even though they have not been cited for new housing and commercial development under HOPE VI. Latent market demand, incredibly profitable rent-gaps, excellent locations near shopping districts, and weakening insecurities among mortgage lenders are also solid forces working to expand the gentrification frontier in public housing neighborhoods.
    • Bat Species Diversity at an Urban-Rural Interface: Dominance by One Species in an Urban Area

      Damm, Jason Philip (2012-01-13)
      The growth of urban areas is known to affect different species of wildlife in varying ways. Many organisms have exhibited declines in abundance due to habitat loss, while overall species diversity decreases. Bats can serve as reliable indicators of habitat quality and level of anthropogenic disturbance. To investigate urbanization impacts on a Midwestern bat community, I analyzed nine years of mist-net captures from a study area on the edge of Indianapolis, Indiana, where the percentage of urbanized ground cover ranged from zero to 26%, within 1.3-km of a net site. I used Pearson correlation statistics to examine the effect of urban ground cover on each species’ abundance, and the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was used to quantify species diversity at the study area. To test the effect of urbanization on diversity, linear mixed models were constructed using percentage of urban ground cover and year. A total of 10 species were captured over nine years, seven of them annually. The big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) was the dominant species at all urbanized sites and at five of six rural sites. Most species were more common at rural sites than at urbanized sites. Urbanization was significantly and negatively related to bat species diversity, although one species, the northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis), showed a significant positive correlation with urban ground cover. Two bat species, the eastern pipistrelle (Perimyotis subflavus) and the little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) both displayed significant negative correlations with the percentage of urban ground cover. The Indiana myotis (Myotis sodalis) had a marginal negative correlation, but not significant.
    • Breeding Migrations, Survivorship, and Obligate Crayfish Burrow Use by Adult Crawfish Frogs (Lithobates Areolatus)

      Heemeyer, Jennifer L (2011-07-19)
      Movements are risky behaviors to animals, and amphibians are no exception. Being unable to cover long distances quickly, amphibians may find migrations challenging, yet many if not most species exhibit cyclic annual migrations. Crawfish Frogs (Lithobates areolatus), are a relatively understudied species of North American amphibian listed as endangered in Indiana and Iowa, and considered a species of conservation concern throughout much of their range. To better understand the biology of this species, and in particular, to assess the role that movements play in affecting survivorship, I radio tracked 48 Crawfish Frog adults, in 2009 and 2010. My study encompassed a total of 7,898 telemetered-frog days; single frogs were tracked for up to 606 days. These data demonstrate two behaviors previously undocumented in this species: 1) migration distances that averaged nearly ½ km, and for one frog was > 1,187 m; and 2) fidelity to upland burrows excavated by crayfish. Together, these findings indicate that Crawfish Frogs have a remarkable ability to home to distant upland burrow sites. Burrow fidelity in Crawfish Frogs involves, in part, frogs following similar migration routes to and from breeding wetlands. Burrow fidelity also occurs after ranging movements, and often involves individual frogs following the same circuit across years. Further, I demonstrate that movements are risky for Crawfish Frogs (about 12 times riskier than burrow dwelling), and therefore have survival consequences. My data also suggest that adult Crawfish Frogs are likely not dispersing to colonize new sites; instead, it seems more likely that juveniles represent the dispersing stage. To ensure the least impact to Crawfish Frog populations several conservation measures should be taken. First, core habitat and buffers should be established that exclude or limit roads for at least a 1.1-km radius around breeding wetlands. Secondly, burrow destruction should be minimized by limiting new cultivation and other ground disturbance within the core habitat and buffer. Thirdly, prescribed burns should be avoided from mid-March to mid-May, when frogs are out of their burrows migrating to and from wetlands.

      Ramalinga, Anupama B. (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      Staphylococcus aureus is known to cause a wide range of infections from simple, curable skin infections like carbuncles, furuncles, and impetigo to deadly infections such as bacteremia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis and post-operative infections. Recently, the emergence of multiple antibiotic resistances has posed a great challenge to therapeutics and infection management. Very early in therapeutics of Staphylococcus aureus infections, it acquired resistance to the penicillin, including methicillin [1], that was designed specifically for the penicillin resistant strains. These strains were designated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Originally, MRSA was only seen in hospital-associated infections (HA MRSA) [2-4], but recently, MRSA found in community settings (CA MRSA) are more invasive infections [5, 6] with greater genetic diversity and hence different antibiotic resistance patterns [4, 7]. MSSA476 is a CA MRSA, though evolutionarily, it is closely related to MRSA252, a HA MRSA [2, 8]. Hence we decided to identify hypothetical proteins from MSSA476. Disease management involves understanding the properties of bacteria in order to tackle the infection efficiently and finding new effective drugs to kill the pathogen. Further understanding of such unique, unexplored hypothetical proteins and their characterization with relation to virulence will help understand the increased virulence of CA MRSA.
    • Characterization of Novel Extracellular Matrix (Ecm) Proteins (Mgp and Lumican) and Their Implications in Vascular Development, Angiogenesis, and Cancer

      Sharma, Bikram (2013-01-30)
      Extracellular matrix (ECM) constitutes a large component of our tissue structure. Primarily, ECM provides structural and adhesive support to our cells, but it also controls cellular signaling and behavior. Homeostasis of extracellular matrix composition and function is maintained by our body through a balanced synthesis, degradation and remodeling of ECM. However, under pathological conditions and genetic mutations, ECM homeostasis is disrupted due to deregulation in ECM synthesis, assembly, remodeling, and degradation. A number of diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer, are found to occur due to alterations in ECM. Therefore, targeting ECM can be an attractive therapeutic approach to treat these diseases, and it requires our complete understanding of the ECM molecules and the molecular mechanism it employs in controlling cellular functions. To this end, this study is aimed at the characterization of two ECM proteins—Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) and Lumican—for their roles in vascular development, angiogenesis, and cancer. Findings from this study show that MGP is a critical ECM regulator that promotes angiogenic resolution by suppressing endothelial sprouting and stabilizing vascular lumen formation. In addition, MGP also inhibits tumor growth by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. On the other hand, our findings show Lumican suppresses tumor growth and has anti-angiogenic activity in a context specific manner.
    • Classification of Urban features using Airborne Hyperspectral Data

      Babu, Bharath Ganesh (2010-05-11)
      Accurate mapping and modeling of urban environments are critical for their efficient and successful management. Superior understanding of complex urban environments is made possible by using modern geospatial technologies. This research focuses on thematic classification of urban land use and land cover (LULC) using 248 bands of 2.0 meter resolution hyperspectral data acquired from an airborne imaging spectrometer (AISA+) on 24th July 2006 in and near Terre Haute, Indiana. Three distinct study areas including two commercial classes, two residential classes, and two urban parks/recreational classes were selected for classification and analysis. Four commonly used classification methods – maximum likelihood (ML), extraction and classification of homogeneous objects (ECHO), spectral angle mapper (SAM), and iterative self organizing data analysis (ISODATA) - were applied to each data set. Accuracy assessment was conducted and overall accuracies were compared between the twenty four resulting thematic maps. With the exception of SAM and ISODATA in a complex commercial area, all methods employed classified the designated urban features with more than 80% accuracy. The thematic classification from ECHO showed the best agreement with ground reference samples. The residential area with relatively homogeneous composition was classified consistently with highest accuracy by all four of the classification methods used. The average accuracy amongst the classifiers was 93.60% for this area. When individually observed, the complex recreational area (Deming Park) was classified with the highest accuracy by ECHO, with an accuracy of 96.80% and 96.10% Kappa. The average accuracy amongst all the classifiers was 92.07%. The commercial area with relatively high complexity was classified with the least accuracy by all classifiers. The lowest accuracy was achieved by SAM at 63.90% with 59.20% Kappa. This was also the lowest accuracy in the entire analysis. This study demonstrates the potential for using the visible and near infrared (VNIR) bands from AISA+ hyperspectral data in urban LULC classification. Based on their performance, the need for further research using ECHO and SAM is underscored. The importance incorporating imaging spectrometer data in high resolution urban feature mapping is emphasized.
    • Cloning and Characterization of Hypothetical Exported Proteins from Community Associated Staphylococcus Aureus

      Kaur, Haninder (2013-01-30)
      Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a major cause of nosocomial infections, has acquired resistance to beta-lactam and other antibiotics. Recently, community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) has developed independent of hospital associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). One of the major differences between the hospital and community strains is that the former is multi-resistant to antibiotics while the latter is not as resistant but is significantly more invasive. This increased invasiveness and the ability to cause life-threatening infections, even in immunocompetent individuals, makes CA-MRSA critically important as a public health problem. CA-MRSA is known to cause skin and soft tissue infections; bacteria interact with host skin cells and gain access to deeper tissues causing invasive infections. During this process the bacteria may secrete proteins that aid in the interaction with the host by adhering, invading or causing host cell death and lysis. To understand the virulence mechanisms involved in invasion, we investigated genes described as hypothetical proteins in MSSA476. The bioinformatics-selected proteins showed high probability of being secreted and most were unique to CA-MRSA. Our analysis showed 24 such genes. This study shows primer design for 15 of the genes (7 of the 24 had already been cloned in our laboratory). Using gateway cloning, the 15 genes were cloned into BL-21 expression clones. CA-MRSA’s are known for causing invasive skin infections. To further understand the involvement of our proteins of interest in invasion, human keratinocyte cell lines were used in a study of virulence and interaction with skin. To understand the involvement of our hypothetical secreted proteins, we investigated the mRNA expression level, using RT-qPCR and Livak method, of 20 hypothetical exported proteins in presence of human dermal keratinocyte cell line. Our investigation revealed two genes that showed increased mRNA expression in the presence of keratinocytes, which may be due to factors associated with keratinocytes that may have triggered increased mRNA expression. Keratinocytes are capable of forming cell-cell junctions and producing antimicrobial peptides and cytokines in response to microbes. The increased mRNA expression of two genes may be towards binding to junctions for invasion or may be expressed in response to antimicrobial peptides or cytokines.
    • Cloning and Characterization of SAS1738, a Hypothetical Exported Protein from Community-Associated Strain of Staphylococcus Aureus

      Vijaya Kumar, Deepak Kumar (2010-09-22)
      Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a group of S. aureus strains that has acquired resistance to a class of beta lactam antibiotics and is the major cause of hospital associated infections. Their discovery goes back to 1960 when the first cases were identified. Recently community associated MRSA infections have emerged and are caused by strains that are independent of those from the hospital environment, related only because they carry some of the same antibiotic resistance genes. Community associated infections (CA) are more severe, producing pus filled lesions that are painful and capable of invasion of deep tissues. Virulence factors comprised of exported proteins are associated with the invasiveness of CA strains. Most of these proteins are hypothetical in nature with unknown function. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize potential virulence factor proteins that may be involved in the infection pathway of CA-MRSA. This study focuses on a unique gene that encodes an exported protein, SAS1738, found on the chromosome of the CA strain MSSA476. The protein SAS1738 was chosen because it is unique to CA strains and has homology to some proteins identified in other S. aureus strains known for their virulence and host immune evasion. The goal of this work is to characterize SAS1738 and to determine its role in the infection pathway of the organism. The gene of interest has been successfully cloned, expressed, and tested for toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans, a nematode. The toxicity tests showed that SAS1738 is inhibitory to the growth and development of C. elegans. The actual mode of action of this protein in C. elegans is yet to be established. However, location of SAS1738 using a GFP fusion showed that the highest concentration of the fusion protein was in the gut of the worms. The purified protein when tested in a killing assay against C. elegans, resulted in the death of the worms at an average time point of 8 min after treatment. Microbiological assay results showed that the purified SAS1738 possessed antibacterial activity towards Micrococcus luteus and Proteus vulgaris. This suggests that SAS1738 may play a dual role of antagonizing the commensal flora of the human skin such as Micrococcus luteus and also induce a toxic effect on the human cells as suggested by its toxic effect on C. elegans. Determination of the role of this protein in the infection cycle of CA-MRSA will lead to a better understanding of the pathogenicity of the organism and possible development of new treatment strategies.
    • Cognitive,personality and demographic attributes of student change.

      Henry, Jeanne Marie (2012-04-13)
      This study was an examination as to whether cognitive,personality and demographic attributes of students have changed over time.Archival data for 10 coherts of freshman students from a private Midwest engineering institution were used.Data consisted of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI) reults,Learning Enviornment Preferences(LEP) results, and demogrpahics.ANOVA's were performed for all interval data and Chi-Square analysess for all nominal data.Statistical significance was found for MBTI Thinking-Perceiving and Sensing-Intution scales,LEP Cognitive Complexity Index scores, and demographic variables including age,parental education level, and SAT scores.Results are discussed in terms of practical significance,trends evidenced in results,implications for further research and educational service provisions.
    • Comparisons of Distributions and Isotopic Geochemistry of Benthic Foraminifera from Seep and Non-seep Environments, Offshore of Costa Rica

      Burkett, Ashley M. (2011-06-17)
      Vertical distribution patterns and stable isotopic geochemistry of benthic foraminifera labeled with CellTracker Green and stained with Rose Bengal were compared at sites of active methane seepage and adjacent non-seep habitats off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Sediment cores of bacterial mats from Costa Rica revealed vertical distribution patterns more similar to those seen previously in clam beds, suggesting increased levels of bioturbation compared to nonseep sites. Similar taxa were found at both seep and non-seep sites including: Chilostomella oolina, Uvigerina peregrina and hispida, Cibicides mckannai, and Cassidulina braziliensis. Within active methane seep habitats, elevated substrate such as carbonate rocks, and vestimentiferan tubeworms were examined for living foraminifera. Vestimentiferan tubeworms had highly variable numbers of attached epibenthic foraminifera, dominated by Cibicides wuellerstorfi and Carpenteria monticularis. Stable carbon isotopic comparisons between epibenthic foraminiferal species of Cibicides wuellerstorfi and the vestimentiferan tubeworms on which they reside revealed 10‰ to 30‰ differences between the foraminiferal carbonate and substrate, suggesting that the geochemical signatures of elevated epibenthics were not significantly influenced by the geochemical signature of the substrate on which they reside. This study finds no apparent methane influence on the foraminiferal calcite of elevated epibenthic foraminifera from the three active seep sites studied (Mound 11, Mound 12, and Jaco Scar). This may be because the elevated epibenthics were not exposed to seep-influenced fluids by inhabiting raised substrates. This study also provides a quantitative analysis of coiling directions in elevated epibenthic species at seeps, which has never previously been reported. Statistical analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in isotopic composition between sinstral (left)and dextral (right) coiling Cibicides wuellerstorfi. The results of this study suggest that coiling direction of elevated epibenthic oraminifera, such as Cibicides wuellerstorfi and Carpenteriamonticularis, is a result of biologic factors rather than environmental influences.