Now showing items 1-20 of 134


      Rauchfuss, Julia (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University, 2004-12)
      Spiral grain, the alignment of wood fibers (trachejds) to the longitudinal axis of h·ees, is thought to be an indicator of old age and is a phenomenon that has been only stndied with destrnctive sampling methods (cutting down trees). In this study, the usefulness of non-fatal sampling methods and existing methods to quantify spiral grain patterns in Jiving and dead deciduous trees are examined, particularly in white oaks (Qi1ercus alba). 111e overall goal is to detem1ine if spiral grain growth is a reasonable indicator of h·ee age. Methods that were tested included the use of a 12 mm increment borer (non-fatal sampling method) and Brazier's method ( 1965) of analyzing grain angles along just one diagonal to get a representative grain angle for the whole circumference at a certain height on a tree. The 12 mm increment borer did not produce consistent results in this study; therefore, . destructive sampling is necessary to study spiral grain in white oaks. Brazier's method (1965) should not be used in white oaks and should not be applied universally to all tree species. Samples from living and dead trees vary in severity and direction of spiral grain. The climatic factors that are roost limiting to tree growth do not influence spiral grain growth in white oaks in this stand. Severe spiral grain does in general seem to be an indicator of age in white oaks, although most trees have severe left spiral grain and not right spiral grain. However, a tree without severe spiral grain is not necessarily young. To judge the severity of spiral grain, grain angles have to be examined in the outermost layer of the wood and not in the bark.

      Foxx, Heather A. (2015-01-07)
      Terre Haute, Indiana, is similar to many older cities throughout the United States with a history of manufacturing and industry that relied on extensive road and rail networks. This industrial history has resulted in the presence of over 20 brownfields and even a Superfund Site within the city today. Historic neighborhoods and abundance of pre-1950’s homes is another characteristic of the city. Unfortunately, improper removal and deterioration of lead (Pb) paints, as well as high Pb solder used in gutters, appear to be significant sources of soil Pb in Terre Haute. Despite the fact that most new environmental sources of Pb pollution have been eradicated, many areas of the city still have elevated soil Pb concentrations and the city continues to have children with elevated blood Pb levels. With the Center for Disease Control’s recent reduction in screening levels for blood Pb from 10 μg/dL to 5 μg/dL, the occurrence of children with childhood Pb poisoning could be greater than previously recognized. The goal of this study was to better understand the modern-day spatial distribution of Pb in surface soils across the city of Terre Haute. To achieve this goal, surface soil samples were collected across the city. New data were collected from city-owned properties (i.e. parks, cemeteries, and abandoned lots), Indiana State University land holdings within the city, residential properties, and community gardens. Data collected from residential areas included samples near the road, from beneath the gutter dripline of the house, in the backyard, in the garden, and other areas of importance to the homeowner. Samples were analyzed via handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer on site to provide homeowner with immediate feedback with the ultimate goal of increasing the use of safer urban gardening practices. Samples were then dried and crushed to re-analyze with the portable XRF, and samples with values >200 ppm Pb were processed and analyzed with the ICP-OES to verify the results. Results produced a wide range of Pb concentrations, from <5 ppm to >30,000 ppm for the residential areas. The spatial distribution of Pb was determined using a simple ordinary kriging method and Empirical Bayesian Kriging method by analyzing the total sample set, samples collected near the road, samples from yards and gardens, and under the gutter driplines of homes were also kriged. Samples collected near the gutter dripline had the highest Pb concentrations, while overall spatial trends depict higher Pb concentrations in the historic portion of the city, with concentrations decreasing with distance from the older part of the city. The predicted Pb concentrations generated from the total sample set was then compared to demographic, environmental, and infrastructure characteristics for Terre Haute. OLS regressions using both maximum and average Pb concentrations indicate a statistically significant (p=0.000) positive correlation between high Pb concentrations and percentage of vacant homes. Maximum and average Pb concentrations were then linked to individual U.S. Census block groups with associated demographic attributes. Bivariate local indicator of spatial association (Bi-LISA) analysis indicates populations of low socio-economic status are regularly being exposed to higher Pb concentrations in their neighborhoods, while populations with higher socio-economic status are exposed to lower Pb concentrations. The higher Pb concentrations and populations with lower socio-economic status both occur in the central portion of the city where historic development occurred representing environmental injustice.
    • Using Analogues to Simulate Intensity, Trajectory, and Dynamical Changes in Alberta Clippers with Global Climate Change

      Ward, Jamie L. (2015-01-07)
      Alberta Clippers are extratropical cyclones that form in the lee of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and traverse through the Great Plains and Midwest regions of the United States. With the imminent threat of global climate change and its effects on regional teleconnection patterns like El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), properties of Alberta Clipper could be altered as a result of changing atmospheric circulation patterns. Since the Great Plains and Midwest regions both support a large portion of the national population and agricultural activity, the effects of global climate change on Alberta Clippers could affect these areas in a variety of ways. Despite this reasoning, relatively few studies have addressed Alberta Clippers, especially in comparison to the other North American storm tracks. In this study, the effects of global climate change on Alberta Clippers are examined by using atmospheric analogues chosen from 1950-2012 based on temperature and ENSO characteristics. Composite maps of regional MSLP at 12-hr intervals, 300mb vector wind and geopotential height at the time of cyclogenesis, and 850mb temperature and geopotential height patterns 36 hours after Clipper formation are constructed. Difference maps of 300mb geopotential height patterns between each of the analogues are also constructed. One-way ANOVA tests are also used to analyze Alberta Clipper latitude and longitude values at t=0, Clipper trajectory azimuths from t=0 to t=60, central MSLP values for these storms twelve hours after formation, and MSLP pressure gradients at t=24. The results from these tests indicate that, of the four analogues, the Cold and El Niño years are the most dissimilar, maintaining statistically significant differences in upper-level wind magnitude and starting longitude values. MSLP at t=12 is lower in the Cold storms than the El Niño storms, but statistical significance between these values is not quite achieved. Furthermore, geopotential height differences and their associated rate of change with respect to map distance indicate that the 300mb geopotential height patterns of the El Niño and Cold analogues are quite different from one another. The La Niña and Warm analogue years are different from one another with respect to latitude and longitude values of Alberta Clippers at cyclogenesis. Based on these results, the effects of temperature increase alone will not influence the properties of Alberta Clippers as much as changes in ENSO that could be caused by global climate change.
    • Acoustic Communication in the Temperate Treefrogs Pseudacris Crucifer and Acris Crepitans

      Keating, John (2015-01-07)
      Spring peepers and cricket frogs produce advertisement calls to attract females. As ectotherms their body temperatures are greatly affected by ambient air temperature. Some characteristics of their advertisement calls are correlated with temperature. I analyzed advertisement calls of both species recorded in western-central Indiana. I compared call characteristic correlations with temperature found in our populations to those in populations in other geographic areas and found similar trends throughout the range of both species. Secondly, I examined aggressive calls in the spring peepers. Aggressive calls are used in male-male interactions, and in the spring peeper are a distinct call type different from advertisement calls in two characteristics. I used a habituation-discrimination protocol to test which of the two call characteristics, that differ between advertisement and aggressive calls, males use to distinguish advertisement and aggressive calls. I found that males responded with intermediate aggression to calls that only differ from advertisement in one of the two characteristics and responded with the most aggression to calls that differed from advertisement calls in both characteristics.
    • …To TOC A Dendrochronological Analysis of Insect Outbreaks and Climate Effects on Tamarack from Indiana and Michigan

      Flinner, Nicholas Lorin (2015-01-07)
      Disturbances have a strong impact on tree stand dynamics across the world. In North America, the larch sawfly (Pristiphora erichsonii) and larch casebearer (Cleophora laricella) are two non-native species of insects affecting tamarack across much of their native range. The majority of research on the effects of larch sawfly on tamarack (Larix laricina) has been conducted in Canada with very little dendrochronological work in the United States along the geographical boundary of tamarack or on the effects of larch casebearer on radial growth. As a consequence, very little is known about the relationship between tamarack and these insects’ outbreaks in the United States. The traditional model of Ecological Amplitude in biogeography explains that species are limited along their southern border by species interaction, so it is very important to start to understand the relationship between predator and prey. At the Pigeon River State Fish and Wildlife Area in northern Indiana, tamarack are stressed and dying out on the landscape and local naturalists believe insect outbreaks are a potential factor. I use the traditional dendrochronological methods to develop and compare host and non-host chronologies from northern Indiana and central Michigan. I then compared these chronologies to each other, local climate variables, and insect outbreak information to better understand climate and outbreak signals in radial growth. I found that tamarack in Indiana showed a stronger negative response to temperature in Indiana than in Michigan which indicates warmer temperature play a role in limiting the southern margin of the species’ range. Tamarack also provided a good record of local insect outbreak events. Using outbreak information collected from local naturalists, I developed a tree ring outbreak signature for larch casebearer. Continued work along the southern boundary of the species will determine the combined impacts of multiple species specific predators as climate changes.
    • Multi-Timescale Dynamics of Land Surface Temperature

      Fu, Peng (2015-01-07)
      Spatial and temporal patterns of land surface temperature (LST) have been used in studies of surface energy balance, landscape thermal patterns and water management. An effective way to investigate the landscape thermal dynamics is to utilize the Landsat legacy and consistent records of the thermal state of earth’s surface since 1982. However, only a small proportion of studies emphasize the importance of historical Landsat TIR data for investigating the relationship between the urbanization process and surface thermal properties. This occurred due to the lack of standardized LST product from Landsat and the unevenly distributed remote sensing datasets caused by poor atmospheric effects and/or clouds. Despite the characterization of annual temperature cycles using remote sensing data in previous studies, yet the statistical evidence to confirm the existence of the annual temperature cycle is still lacking. The objectives of the research are to provide statistical evidence for the existence of the annual temperature cycle and to develop decomposition technique to explore the impact of urbanization on surface thermal property changes. The study area is located in Los Angeles County, the corresponding remotely sensed TIR data from Landsat TM over a decadal year (2000-2010) was selected, and eventually a series of 82 cloud-free images were acquired for the computation of LST. The hypothesis technique, Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis was proposed to confirm whether decadal years’s LSTs showed the annual temperature cycle. Furthermore, the simulated LSTs comprised of seasonality, trend, and noise components are generated to test the robustness of the decomposition scheme. The periodogram analysis revealed that the annual temperature cycle was confirmed statistically with p-value less than 0.01 and the identified periodic time at 362 days. The sensitivity analysis based on the simulated LSTs suggested that the decomposition technique was very robustness and able to retrieve the seasonality and trend components with errors up to 0.6 K. The application of the decomposition technique into the real 82 remote sensing data decomposed the original LSTs into seasonality, trend, and noise components. Estimated seasonality component by land cover showed an agreement with previous studies in Weng & Fu (2014). The derived trend component revealed that the impact of urbanization on land surface temperature ranged from 0.2 K to 0.8 K based on the comparison between urban and non-urban land covers. Further applications of the proposed Lomb-Scargle technique and the developed decomposition technique can also be directed to data from other satellite sensors.
    • Urban Flash Flood Risk Assessment and Inundation Model Utilizing GIS for Terre Haute, Indiana

      Ishman, Zachary Scott (2015-01-07)
      Use of ArcGIS to examine flash flooding variables and produce a flash flood risk assessment and inundation model for Terre Haute, Indiana. Risk assessment, produced within ArcGIS, indicates that an increase in developed area leads to an increase in very high flash flood risk area and majority of very high risk area resides in developed areas of Terre Haute. Inundation model, produced using ArcGIS and Python, indicates that the proposed model can determine locations of flash flooding, but spatial extent of model predicted flooding is not reliable based on field validation.
    • Using Stable Isotope Analysis to Study Altitudinal and Latitudinal Bat Migration

      Arias, Lily (2014-10-03)
      The general lack of knowledge on basic aspects of the biology of temperate and tropical bats, their low reproductive rates, and threats such as white nose syndrome, wind farms, and habitat loss, make them very susceptible to population declines.My research uses an innovative technique, the analysis of stable isotopes, to study the ecology of bat migration with the main goals of contributing significantly to the understanding of bat biology and assessing the conservation status and susceptibility of bats. In the first chapter,I measured the content of hydrogen isotopes in fur samples of migratory bat species killed at a wind farm in northern Indiana to determine their geographic origin.North American tree bats ( Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus,and Lasionycteris noctivagans)are considered long distance migrants. In North America, peaks in bat mortality at wind farms occur between mid-July and mid-September. This period is associated with fall migration of bats from their summer (breeding) grounds to their wintering grounds. Thus, wind turbines may have serious negative effects on a strategic event in the life of bats by interrupting migratory connectivity and thereby imperiling the long-term persistence of migratory bat species at large scales.The analysis accurately predicted the known origin of control samples and estimated that non-control bats killed at the wind farm originated from several populations in the United States as well as in Canada. My results highlighted the threat of wind farms to local bat populations as well as to bats originating far from those farms, and emphasized the need for conservation policies across borders.High variation in stable hydrogen isotopes in migrant individuals of all 3 species was observed, suggesting that individuals or populations from a variety of regions pass through the wind farm. In the second chapter,I evaluated the triple-isotopic (hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen) composition of the tissues of 7 bat species collected at 3 altitudes in the Central Andes of Peru,and the variation of these isotopes across an altitudinal gradient,the application of isotope analysis to migration studies, and trophic effect. Previous studies had demonstrated that iv hydrogen isotopes were a reliable tool to track altitudinal movements of birds, and there was evidence from soil and plant studies that nitrogen and carbon isotopes could serve the same purpose. However, studies focused on bats were lacking. Hydrogen and nitrogen isotopes in the sanguinivorous control were found to be enriched relative to those of the syntopic frugivores.Carbon isotopes in the sanguinivorous bat were depleted when compared to frugivores.Differences in hydrogen found between trophic groups are the first reported for the species studied and support results found elsewhere in the Neotropics.My results demonstrated that, in spite of the wide array of physiological and environmental factors producing temporal and spatial variation, the analysis of hydrogen isotopes is a promising tool to study altitudinal movements of bats when used over long distances. Neither stable isotopes of nitrogen or carbon appear to be reliable to track movements along short gradients such as those along mountains. The contrast of these findings with the results of previous studies suggests that isotopic gradients may be specific to given taxon and localities.My results contributed to the understanding of bat movement patterns and therefore to assessing their sensitivity to potential threats such as habitat loss and connectivity.
    • Place names of Parke County, Indiana

      Seits, Laurence (2014-08-12)
      Not Available
    • Diurnal and nocturnal avian antipredator behavior in thermally challenging conditions

      Carr, Jennie M. (2014-03-18)
      Diurnal avian antipredator behavior has been the focus of much past research, yet the influence of the thermal environment on such behaviors is often overlooked. Far less is known about nocturnal avian antipredator behavior, including how these behaviors are influenced by challenging thermal environments. The first portion of my research focused on how the thermal environment influences the diurnal antipredator behavior of wintering birds while (i) exposed to high wind speeds, (ii) foraging in sunlit and shaded microhabitats, and (iii) when using thermoregulatory postures to conserve body heat. In addition to increasing convective heat loss, high wind speeds increase the prevalence of background movements in the environment. My research demonstrated that wintering sparrows exposed to a moving stimulus are less likely to flush to cover on windy days than on calm days, suggesting that wind-driven visual noise may interfere with predator detection. Predator detection may also vary when feeding in sunlight and shade, and the thermal benefits of foraging in direct sunlight on cold winter days may also play an important role in dictating microhabitat choice. Regardless of the thermal benefits of foraging in sunlight, wintering sparrows preferred to feed in shaded microhabitats even at ambient temperatures well below thermoneutrality. However, these birds foraged in sunlight more frequently as ambient temperatures fell, suggesting a trade-off between thermoregulation (solar input) and predation risk. Additional evidence of such a thermoregulation-predation trade-off was evident in the use of heat-conserving thermoregulatory postures by wintering sparrows. Fluffing the feathers or standing on one foot will reduce the amount of heat lost to the environment. However, such postures slow take-off time and likely result in an increase in predation risk. As such, these risky postures were only used when feeding at relatively low ambient temperatures and when near protective cover. In general, these results indicate that characteristics of the thermal environment play an important role in dictating diurnal antipredator behavior. To address how the thermal environment influences nocturnal avian antipredator behavior, I examined the predation-related costs of using energy-saving nocturnal hypothermia. Many species of birds reduce their nighttime body temperature, thus reducing metabolic rate and conserving energy. Such drops in body temperature may be quite substantial and likely influence a bird’s ability to respond to a potential threat during the night. To examine the potential costs of hypothermia, I conducted nocturnal flight tests on hypothermic mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). In general, doves that cooled by more than 5 °C flew poorly or were unable to fly, but were able to fly well once re-warmed to near their normal daytime body temperatures. Thus, low body temperatures during energy-saving hypothermia likely result in an increase in the risk of nocturnal predation. Nocturnal antipredator behavior was also examined in ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris). These hummingbirds frequently use nocturnal torpor (i.e., deep hypothermia), with significant reductions in body temperature and corresponding inability to respond behaviorally to external stimuli. Although hummingbirds altered torpor use seasonally and over the course of the observation period, hummingbirds did not consistently reduce their use of torpor following an experimental increase in perceived predation risk. Thus, although hypothermia is behaviorally costly, further studies are needed to clarify the role of predation on nocturnal behavior in birds.
    • Evaluation of an Avian Radar System

      Gerringer, Michael B. (2014-03-18)
      The problem of bird strikes in aviation is becoming an increasing threat, both to aircraft and to human safety. Management efforts have reduced wildlife hazards below 500 feet and within the immediate airport environment, but traditional methods of monitoring bird activity are limited to an observer’s field of view. Avian radar systems could potentially be useful in monitoring bird activity at great distances from the airport, at higher altitudes, and at night (Dolbeer 2006), but little work has been done to validate the tracking capabilities of avian radar systems. Thus, the goal of this research is to evaluate the detection and tracking abilities of the Merlin Avian Radar System provided by DeTect Inc. Radio-controlled (RC) aircraft flights were used to systematically test the tracking abilities of the Merlin System with respect to distance and altitude. Transits by free-flying birds provided an equally important test of the Merlin System, allowing for the assessment of tracking performance as influenced by flock size, altitude, and distance from the radar unit. Overall tracking performance regarding the RC aircraft and single large bird targets was poor across all study distances and altitudes. However, flocks of large birds such as geese and cranes were tracked well, even those several miles away from the radar unit. Given these results, avian radar could be a useful tool for monitoring bird flock activity at airports, but less so for single large bird targets such as thermalling raptors.
    • Summer Indiana Bat Ecology in the Southern Appalachians: An Investigation of Thermoregulation Strategies and Landscape Scale Roost Selection

      Hammond, Kristina (2014-03-18)
      In the southern Appalachians there are few data on the roost ecology of the federally endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). During 2008-2012, we investigated roosting ecology of the Indiana bat in ~280,000 ha in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Cherokee National Forest, and Nantahala National Forest in the southern Appalachians Mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina. We investigated 2 aspects of the Indiana bat’s roosting ecology: thermoregulation and the extrinsic factors that influence body temperature, and landscape-scale roost selection. To investigate thermoregulation of bats at roost, we used data gathered in 2012 from 6 female Indiana bats (5 adults and 1 juvenile) to examine how reproductive condition, group size, roost characteristics, air temperature, and barometric pressure related to body temperature of roosting bats. We found that air temperature was the primary factor correlated with bats’ body temperatures while at roost (P < 0.01), with few differences detected among reproductive classes in terms of thermoregulatory strategies. To understand how Indiana bats select roosts on a landscape-scale, we created a presence-only model through the program MaxENT using 76 known roost locations to identify areas important to summer roosting habitat within our study area and to identify important landscape-scale factors in habitat selection. The final model showed that Indiana bats selected roosts on the upper portion of ridges on south facing slopes in mixed pine-hardwood forests at elevations of 260-700 meters. Unfortunately, due to small sample size and the large effort required to fully investigate thermoregulation of Indiana bats in the southern Appalachians, we only were able run correlations with temperature data, and further investigation is needed to make concrete conclusions. However, the new advancements in resolution of landscape cover data and new programs in spatial modeling have enabled us to produce a large scale spatial model for identifying Indiana bat summer roosting habitat within our study area. Our findings have added to our understanding of Indiana bat roosting ecology, particularly in the southern Appalachian Mountains, and will aid land managers in effective management for this federally endangered species.
    • A Fourier series synthesizer

      Alman, David Herbert (2013-11-14)
      Not available
    • Levels of Selection in a Polymorphic Species

      Korody, Marisa L. (2013-09-05)
      Phenotype is affected by many factors, including but not limited to environment, conspecifics, and genetics. Evidence of phenotypic variation is everywhere, some of which is controlled solely by environment, and others that are fixed by genetics. Genetic polymorphisms are rare, but very useful for the study of selection and genetics. These genetic polymorphisms provide a phenotypic link to the underlying genetics and are even more useful when there are associated behavioral differences. I examine multiple levels of selection that are acting upon a polymorphic passerine, the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis). Males and females of this species occur in two morphs, white or tan, based upon the color of their crown strips. This plumage polymorphism is absolutely correlated with a complex chromosomal rearrangement on the second largest autosome. Within this dissertation I explore how climate needs to be addressed in ecological studies to fully understand the mechanisms behind variation. I explore whether sexual selection is acting within this species and the differences between the morphs through the use of Bateman Gradients. Darwin suggested that sex ratios influence sexual selection, but what about morph ratios? I examine the frequency variation of morphs within this species. Variation in morph production may be favored by a potential tradeoff between the number of males and the number of white offspring produced in a clutch that suggests greater costs associated with producing white morph individuals. Mendelian segregation is inconsistent in this species, and transmission distortion may contribute to morph ratio variation. I show that white male sperm varies in production from 0% - 100% white sperm/individual consistent with transmission distortion. Finally, candidate gene mapping was used to identify the genes sequestered in this rearrangement that may be responsible for the polymorphism and the evolution behind the rearrangement.
    • The polarographic determination of cobalt in potassium iodide

      Kiser, Donald Lee (2013-05-03)
      Not available.
    • A study of place names in Lawrence County, Indiana

      Gratzer, Florence Elise (2013-04-09)
      Not Available.