• Cognitive,personality and demographic attributes of student change.

      Henry, Jeanne Marie (2012-04-13)
      This study was an examination as to whether cognitive,personality and demographic attributes of students have changed over time.Archival data for 10 coherts of freshman students from a private Midwest engineering institution were used.Data consisted of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI) reults,Learning Enviornment Preferences(LEP) results, and demogrpahics.ANOVA's were performed for all interval data and Chi-Square analysess for all nominal data.Statistical significance was found for MBTI Thinking-Perceiving and Sensing-Intution scales,LEP Cognitive Complexity Index scores, and demographic variables including age,parental education level, and SAT scores.Results are discussed in terms of practical significance,trends evidenced in results,implications for further research and educational service provisions.
    • Male adolescents of divorce:the relationship with their noncustodial father.

      Kerr, Christine.L (2012-04-13)
      Since the divorce rate in the United States began to rise dramatically in the 1970's researchers have studied the impact of divorce on those involved.The research indicates that children whose parents divorce are more likely than children whose parents remain married to suffer from a lower level of well-being and are at greater risk for a myriad of researchers have focused on the impact of divorce on male adolescents specifically,studies of adolescent males in general indicate they are at risk for a variety of problems including poor school performance,accidents and involvement in crime. Recent research also indicates the importance of fathers in the lives of male adolescents.However,divorce frequently results in boys being placed in the custody of their mothers,which may disrupt their relationship with their noncustodial fathers.A modified Stevick-Colaizzi-Keen phenomenological method was used for interviewing and methods of analysis(Moustakes,1994).A qualitative investigation of the perceived experience of eight male adolescents of divorce and their relationships with their noncustodial fathers was conducted.The findings indicate that the experience of male adolescents(in this case all college students) regarding their relationships with their noncustodial father(a)impacts their perceptions of fathering.(b)creates a desire for a closer father-son relationship,(c)affects their definition of self,(d)results in a crossing of generational boundaries,(e)informs their lifetime meanings,(f)requires them to rely on others to meet their needs, and (g)confirms prior research findings that children are resilient and most do not carry debilitating psychological effects of divorce into adulthood.
    • Affective responses to early recollections of prospective secondary teachers.

      Ferreira, Linda Ohlsen (2012-04-13)
      I wish to express my appreciation to Dr.Reece Chaney who directed this study, and to the other members of my committee who supported and encouraged me.
    • Adolescent fears and anxities:a comparitive analysis of parent's and teacher's perceptions of adolescent differences.

      Milner, Carolyn.B (2012-04-13)
      The purpose of the study were 1)to compare parents and teachers and students perceptions of student's fears and anxities and 2)to determine if there were differences in student's fears and anxieties based on grade level or gender.This study was quantitative in nature.Four hundred eighty-six middle school students in a five through eight configuration, and their parents and teachers were included in the sample.Two surveys were given:The Middle Level Survey was created by the researcher, and the Comprehensive Assessment of School Climate is a National Study of School Evaluation(NSSE) product created by kelley,Glover,Keefe,Halderson,Sorenson,and Speth(1986).Statistical analysis of the data included the one-way ANOVA,Tukey's HSD and descriptive statistics.This study investigated the perceptions of parents and teachers about the anxiety and fears of adolescents in grades 5,6,7 and 8 and how parent's and teacher's perceptions are related to the perceptions of adolescents.Grade level and gender were disagreegated.Three areas were adressed:School Environment/Safety,Support for Learning, and Quality/Social Relationships.Parents and teachers held a greater perception of Environment/Safety than did students.Parents and teachers also recognized a more positive climate with Support for Learning than did students, and were more positive than students with their perceptions regarding Quality/Social Relationships(i.e,higher score indicating a more positive perception).Students in Grade 8 noted more concerns in all three areas than students in grade 5,6 or 7.No significance difference was noted between males and females had a more positive perception than did males.
    • Population genetic structure of blanding's turtle(emydiodea blandingii)in New York.

      McCluskey, Eric M (2012-04-25)
      The loss of genetic diversity is a major concern in conservation biology.As wild populations decline and become more isolated from one another overall genetic diversity is influenced by inbreeding,genetic drift and gene flow.Some of the consequences of inbreeding and genetic drift and gene flow are a decrease in a specie's adaptability and accumulation of deleterious alleles.As wetlands vanish,aquatic species can be permanently isolated with no access to adjacent habitat.I investigated how habitat fragmentation and population isolation are affecting gene flow and genetic diversity in Blanding's turtle(Emydoidea blandingii)populations in New York State.Four county populations(Jefferson,St Lawrence,Saratoga,Dutchess)and an adjacent Ontario population were included in this study.These represent populations both peripheral(Jefferson,St Lawrence,Ontario)and disjunct(Saratoga,Dutchess) to the main range.I found evelated genetic diversity in the populations on the periphery of the main range in the northern section of the state compared to the two eastern,disjunct populations.Subpopulations structuring was also evident in the St Lawrence and Dutchess Co populations.
    • Landscape scale and contaminant effects on aquatic assemblage structure.

      Morris, Charles C (2012-05-18)
      Biological surveys are routinely used throughout the United States to identify localized impairments in aquatic ecosystems. This approach however, has had limited acceptance for in situ assessment situations in determining specific sources or causes of observed impairments as required under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act. While the best approach for determining the effect of urban impacts on streams is to directly compare biological data before and after urban impacts this approach is rarely used because of the lack of historical or pre-disturbance data. Traditionally, the source-cause investigation focused on using aquatic life chemical criteria as benchmarks, resulting in a "violation perspective" methodology that emphasizes specific water quality criteria being exceeded. Relying solely on this approach can be problematic since not all environmental stressors will have established criteria (e.g., sediment criteria are lacking) and those having criteria may not be sufficiently protective of portions of the aquatic resource (e.g., ammonia). This violation perspective assumes that intermittent chemical sampling and analysis will eventually discover the variables (contaminants) causing the impairment and emphasizes a select few water quality criteria exemplifying the “pollutant” focused approach as opposed to a broader and more comprehensive pollution focused approach. Furthermore, chemical water quality criteria are further removed from the designated use, which is more directly measured by the biota and minimizes type I and II assessment errors that would otherwise be more frequent. Evaluating aquatic systems using the violation perspective becomes increasingly more problematic due to increasing water samples collection costs, increased analysis costs for possible chemical stressors, and determining the identity among the thousands of possible stressors. Imperative to this discussion is that slightly elevated contaminant concentrations, synergistic effects, or sporadic spikes could adversely affect fish assemblage structure. As a result, these factors can potentially result in a biological impairment without the occurrence of specific chemical criteria violations. Nationally, the perception of causality for biologically impaired systems has shifted from point-source influences to more diffuse non-point source influences. Difficulty in tracking these pervasive non point-source impacts, combined with the lack of pre-determined signatory relationships with biological assemblage patterns creates a more complex problem. One way of increasing our knowledge of signatory relationships is through multivariate analysis utilizing the definable relationships between aquatic assemblage structure and quantifiable environmental stressors. The purpose of this research was multifaceted. We investigated the relationship between stressor response models associated with an urban landscape, multiple assemblage response, and fish assemblage nutrient response. Essentially the study area for this research encompassed data collected from across the State of Indiana. The nature of the analysis performed resulted in this volume of data being compartmentalized into discreet spatially driven subsets that were analyzed independently. To determine the responsiveness of fish assemblages to stressors associated with an urban landscape we targeted the Salt Creek Watershed. Salt Creek is a Lake Michigan tributary in Northwest Indiana, USA, which drains a watershed experiencing rapid urbanization as part of the expansion of the Greater Chicago metropolitan area. The watershed supports a managed coldwater fishery comprised principally of the introduced Skamania strain of the steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The sustainability of this watershed depends on the proper management of warm water tributaries and salmonid water in the Salt Creek mainstem. Twenty-three fish species were collected in the Salt Creek watershed and were numerically dominated by creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) both of which are tolerant to a wide range of environmental conditions. Habitat quality, measured using the Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index (QHEI), showed that the watershed was generally degraded and scores ranged from 12-69. Fourteen parameters were significantly correlated with reach scale ecological health and biological integrity. Factor analysis found three factors explained 69% of the contributed variance in the watershed fish assemblage. The first factor included habitat measures comprised of the QHEI score and three of its metrics (i.e., channel, riparian and instream cover scores) and explained 36 percent of data variability. The second factor was comprised of two contaminants (i.e., TDS and Chloride) and one local-scale land-use variable (Agriculture) that explained an additional 20 percent of the variability. The third factor was comprised of two local scale land-use variables (i.e., riparian zone and water) explaining 13percent of the variability. To evaluate the responsiveness of multiple aquatic assembles to watershed stress we target the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge. The Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge encompasses the northern 51,000 acres of the former Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) which was used from 1940-1995 as a munitions testing facility. Since 2000 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has utilized the northern 51,000 acres of JPG for ecosystem-based management in conjunction with continued use by the U.S. Department of Army and Indiana Air National Guard for air-to-ground training. An investigation of factors that explained the variance in fish, crayfish, and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure and function was based on catchment and reach-scale land use, habitat, contaminants, and water quality. Habitat quality, measured using the Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index (QHEI), showed that scores ranged from 25 to 85 (average 61.36 + 10.08). The substrate score, instream cover, riffle-run score, and channel score were the primary factors contributing to declining QHEI scores. Factor analysis found four factors explained 69 percent of the contributed variance in the fish assemblage, two factors accounted for 56 percent of the total variance in macroinvertebrate assemblages, and two factors explained 49 percent of the cumulative variance in crayfish assemblages. Overall drivers of assemblage structure were associated with broad scale issues of wastewater treatment, ground water, and land-use. Our results show that fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish assemblages respond to similar broad scale stimulus; however, the specific physical/chemical constituent responsible for the stress may vary, and the realized magnitude of the overall stress on the system may be expressed by each organismal group differently. Our data suggest that varying organismal groups can respond independently and stress reflected in one assemblage may not necessarily be observed in another.Finally, we evaluated nutrient response in fish assemblages targeting a large data set collected from the Indiana portion of the Corn Belt Plain Ecoregion. Due to the complex interactions between the various forms of Nitrogen and Phosphorus within respective cycles, Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) cycling interactions can no longer be accepted as sole limiting factors in either marine or freshwaters. This study is conducted as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) desire to development regional nutrient thresholds. The first objective of this study is to develop a biotic model capable of determining the contributions of various nutrients, including Nitrogen components and TP, in streams using fish assemblages. The second objective is to establish an approach for designating defensible nutrient biotic index (NBI) score thresholds and corresponding nutrient concentrations, above which fish assemblages show alterations due to increasing nutrient concentrations. Sampling within Indiana’s portion of the Corn Belt and Northern Great Plain Nutrient Ecoregion occurred from 1996-2007 at 1274 sites. Nutrient data were reviewed for outliers and then sorted into three groups relative to drainage class. Each group was arranged into 15 ranges or “bins” using the Jenks optimization method in Arc GIS 9.3. Next, sites were assigned to each bin relative to observed concentrations. These bin assignments were used to populate the species occurrence model for nutrient optima calculation. Nutrient optima were calculated by dividing the sum of the weighted proportion of times a species occurred in each bin by the un-weighted proportion of times a species occurred in each bin. The derived nutrient optima were divided into eleven equal ranges, by nutrient, and tolerance scores (0-10) assigned with respect to each species derived optima. Nutrient tolerance scores were used to calculate Nutrient Biotic Index (NBI) scores for each sampling site by summing the number of individuals of a given species at the site and multiplying times that species tolerance value then dividing by the total number of individuals at the site. A single break point was observed for unionized ammonia, which showed an NBIUnionized Ammonia score shift between 0.003 and 0.03 (mg/L). The mean NBIUnionized Ammonia scores were 3.09 and 3.29, respectively. Nutrient Biotic IndexUnionized Ammonia scores were significantly correlated with IBI score and IBI integrity class. Three break points were observed for Nitrogen, Nitrate+Nitrite, demonstrating a significant NBINitrate+Nitrite score shift at mean concentrations of 0.13 mg/L, 1.09 mg/L, 3.15 mg/L and 6.87 mg/L respectively. The mean NBINitrate+Nitrite scores were 5.58, 5.37, 5.82 and 6.25, respectively. The observed relationship produced a convex curve suggesting an enrichment signature. Nutrient Biotic IndexNitrate+Nitrite scores were significantly correlated with IBI score and IBI integrity class. Two break points were observed for Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), which were significant. The mean concentrations of TKN were 0.4 mg/L, 0.68 mg/L, and 1.27 mg/L, respectively. The mean NBITKN scores were 2.73, 3.10, and 3.37, respectively. Nutrient Biotic IndexTKN scores were significantly related to IBI score and IBI integrity class. Two break points observed for TN were significant at concentrations of 0.56 mg/L and 3.30 mg/L. The mean NBITN scores were 4.60 and 4.85, respectively. Nutrient Biotic IndexTN scores were not significantly related to IBI score or IBI integrity class. Two significant break points were observed for TP. The mean concentrations of TP were 0.07 mg/L and 0.32 mg/L, respectively and mean NBITP scores were 3.43 and 3.58, respectively. Nutrient Biotic IndexTP scores were significantly related to IBI score and IBI integrity class. Two break points were observed for Chlorophyll a (periphyton), which were significant. Mean concentrations were 10.15 mg/m2 and 134.14 mg/m2, respectively. Mean NBIPeriphyton scores were 3.75 and 4.20, respectively. Nutrient Biotic IndexPeriphyton scores were not significantly related to IBI score, but were significantly related to IBI integrity class. Four break points were observed for Chlorophyll a (phytoplankton), which occurred at Chlorophyll a (phytoplankton) concentrations of 2.33 μg/L, 10.98 μg/L and 49.13 μg/L, respectively. The mean NBIPhytoplankton scores were 3.43, 3.85 and 5.02, respectively. Nutrient Biotic IndexPhytoplankton scores were significantly related to IBI score and IBI integrity class. Nutrient criteria concentration was interpreted for NBI and IBI integrity class relationships to establish protective nutrient concentration benchmarks. Proposed mean protection values are 3.0 μg/L for Unionized Ammonia, 130 μg/L for Nitrogen, Nitrate+Nitrite, 40 μg/L for TKN, 70 μg/L for TP, and 2.33 μg/L for Chlorophyll a (phytoplankton). Criteria established at or below these benchmarks should protect for both biological integrity of fish assemblages in Indiana as well as nutrient loadings into the Gulf of Mexico.
    • Effect of Tai Chi on Cardiac Autonomic Function and Salivary Cortisol Level in Healthy Adults.

      Kalsaria, Pratik (2012-05-21)
      Introduction: An estimated 8.2 million American adults (1 in 3) have 1 or more types of cardiovascular disease. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is considered a non-invasive procedure for analyzing cardiovascular autonomic influence. Depressed HRV has been linked to stress and abnormal cardiovascular autonomic modulation. Purpose: This study evaluated the acute effects of tai chi on cardiac autonomic function and cortisol level in healthy adults. Design: 10 healthy adults, 7 females and 3 males, with an average age of 54 ± 2.04 were included in this study. They were asked not to consume any alcoholic or caffeinated beverages at least 24 hours before the study. Each subject practiced tai chi for 1 hour. HRV measurements were obtained at supine rest using Nexus biofeedback device before and after 10 min, 20 min and 30 min post tai chi exercise. Saliva samples were collected before tai chi and after 45 min post tai chi practice. Results: The cardiac autonomic function was assessed using frequency domain HRV analyses. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that there is significant difference in means of HR, SDNN, nLF and nHF between the pre tai chi and post tai chi groups. Using student’s T-test, we found that the nHF increased significantly from 42.79 ± 4.12 to 52.82 ± 4.39 after 30 min post tai chi exercise (p<0.05). In contrast, nLF decreased significantly from 57.21 ± 4.12 to 52.82 ± 4.39 after 30 min post tai chi exercise (p<0.05). HR significantly decreased from 73 ± 2 to 67.79 ± 2.94 after 30 min post tai chi exercise. Also, SDNN increased significantly from 34 ± 5.26 to 41.38 ± 6.42 after 30 min post tai chi exercise. No significant changes in cortisol level were observed between pre tai chi and post tai chi groups. Conclusion: Tai chi exercise can modulate cardiac autonomic tone by enhancing the vagal activity and reducing the sympathetic activity. Long-term beneficial effects of tai chi on cardiac autonomic function need further investigation.
    • Using MyPlan as a tool for college students in maing their career decisions.

      Lamichhane, Reema (2012-05-21)
      Making a right career choice and preparing accordingly to achieve that career goal is a key to success for every individual. In this study, the researcher evaluated the effectiveness of students using MyPlan, a career assessment tool, to help them make career related decisions. The pretest-posttest analysis showed that MyPlan helped students make an informed career decision to some extent. Chi-squared and correlation analysis of students’ responses before and after taking MyPlan suggested a positive correlation between students taking MyPlan and choosing a college degree major. Also, students agreed strongly when they were asked if MyPlan was helpful in deciding their college major. Collectively, this study derived a strong suggestion that MyPlan is fairly effective and students find it helpful to guide them in making career choices. However, this study was limited as there was a time restraint, subject disparity, and small sample sizes. Therefore, a subsequent study is recommended with a larger sample size and a longer study period. Regardless, this study provided some preliminary data to indicate MyPlan can be an effective tool for college students to guide them in their career decision making process.
    • Raising African American student graduation rates:A best practices study of predominantly white liberals arts college.

      Pool, Robert W (2012-05-21)
      This qualitative study sought to explore best practices at small, private liberal arts institutions that experienced large increases in African American graduation rates. Particular focus was on institutions that enrolled less than 17% minority students whose overall enrollment fell within the middle 50% of all SAT scores and the middle 50% of institutional full time equivalent (FTE) spending. Two colleges were selected for study via one-on-one interviews of key personnel, focus groups of students, and institutional document analyses. Themes from the data which participants felt contributed to the unusually large African American graduation rate increases are discussed.
    • Sex-instruction as the core of a high school biology course

      Woodrow, Walter H. (2012-06-28)
      Not Available.
    • An objective test in biology

      Dixon, Napoleon (2012-07-30)
      Not Available.
    • An analysis of eight high school biology textbooks

      McNiel, Forest (2012-08-16)
      Not Available.
    • Manipulation of Angiogenesis by Cyclosporine-A and Extracellular Matrix Molecules

      Pandey, Raghav (2012-10-19)
      Angiogenesis is the formation of new capillaries from pre-existing capillaries. Angiogenesis plays an important role in the blood vessel formation required during embryonic development, tissue injury, wound healing, and menstruation. It also plays a major role in tumor progression. We propose a mechanism that links the developmental pathways to a therapeutic pathway. Moreover, we show anti-angiogenic nature of an FDA approved immunosuppressant. Extra cellular matrix (ECM) has an important role in maintaining the shape and structure of organisms and in signaling mechanisms. Two major components of ECM are lumican and Magp2. Investigating their role might help us further link angiogenesis to tumor progression in cancer. We show the pro-angiogenic nature of Magp2 in an in-vivo model. Although this project is in early stages, it would provide a good foundation for future study. The aim of this thesis was to check the effect of blocking angiogenesis on tumor growth through different ECM proteins (Lumican and Magp2) and therapeutics (cyclosporine-A). Studying the progression of tumor links the chapters together.