• A self improvement sheet for biology teachers in the secondary schools

      Roberts, Ernestine Winifred (2013-01-22)
      Not available
    • Acoustic Communication in the Temperate Treefrogs Pseudacris Crucifer and Acris Crepitans

      Keating, John (2015-01-07)
      Spring peepers and cricket frogs produce advertisement calls to attract females. As ectotherms their body temperatures are greatly affected by ambient air temperature. Some characteristics of their advertisement calls are correlated with temperature. I analyzed advertisement calls of both species recorded in western-central Indiana. I compared call characteristic correlations with temperature found in our populations to those in populations in other geographic areas and found similar trends throughout the range of both species. Secondly, I examined aggressive calls in the spring peepers. Aggressive calls are used in male-male interactions, and in the spring peeper are a distinct call type different from advertisement calls in two characteristics. I used a habituation-discrimination protocol to test which of the two call characteristics, that differ between advertisement and aggressive calls, males use to distinguish advertisement and aggressive calls. I found that males responded with intermediate aggression to calls that only differ from advertisement in one of the two characteristics and responded with the most aggression to calls that differed from advertisement calls in both characteristics.
    • ACOUSTIC COMMUNICATION IN THE TEMPERATE TREEFROGS PSEUDACRIS CRUCIFER AND ACRIS CREPITANS

      Keating, John (Indiana State University, 2014-08)
      Spring peepers and cricket frogs produce advertisement calls to attract females. As ectotherms their body temperatures are greatly affected by ambient air temperature. Some characteristics of their advertisement calls are correlated with temperature. I analyzed advertisement calls of both species recorded in western-central Indiana. I compared call characteristic correlations with temperature found in our populations to those in populations in other geographic areas and found similar trends throughout the range of both species. Secondly, I examined aggressive calls in the spring peepers. Aggressive calls are used in male-male interactions, and in the spring peeper are a distinct call type different from advertisement calls in two characteristics. I used a habituation-discrimination protocol to test which of the two call characteristics, that differ between advertisement and aggressive calls, males use to distinguish advertisement and aggressive calls. I found that males responded with intermediate aggression to calls that only differ from advertisement in one of the two characteristics and responded with the most aggression to calls that differed from advertisement calls in both characteristics.
    • Adolescent fears and anxities:a comparitive analysis of parent's and teacher's perceptions of adolescent differences.

      Milner, Carolyn.B (2012-04-13)
      The purpose of the study were 1)to compare parents and teachers and students perceptions of student's fears and anxities and 2)to determine if there were differences in student's fears and anxieties based on grade level or gender.This study was quantitative in nature.Four hundred eighty-six middle school students in a five through eight configuration, and their parents and teachers were included in the sample.Two surveys were given:The Middle Level Survey was created by the researcher, and the Comprehensive Assessment of School Climate is a National Study of School Evaluation(NSSE) product created by kelley,Glover,Keefe,Halderson,Sorenson,and Speth(1986).Statistical analysis of the data included the one-way ANOVA,Tukey's HSD and descriptive statistics.This study investigated the perceptions of parents and teachers about the anxiety and fears of adolescents in grades 5,6,7 and 8 and how parent's and teacher's perceptions are related to the perceptions of adolescents.Grade level and gender were disagreegated.Three areas were adressed:School Environment/Safety,Support for Learning, and Quality/Social Relationships.Parents and teachers held a greater perception of Environment/Safety than did students.Parents and teachers also recognized a more positive climate with Support for Learning than did students, and were more positive than students with their perceptions regarding Quality/Social Relationships(i.e,higher score indicating a more positive perception).Students in Grade 8 noted more concerns in all three areas than students in grade 5,6 or 7.No significance difference was noted between males and females had a more positive perception than did males.
    • Adult Survivorship and Juvenile Recruitment in Populations of Crawfish Frogs (Lithobates Areolatus), with Additional Consideration of the Population Sizes of Associated Pond Breeding Species

      Kinney, Vanessa C. (2011-07-19)
      Crawfish Frog populations have declined significantly in both the northeastern and southwestern portions of their range, and are listed as state endangered in both Iowa and Indiana. They are animals with a secretive nature, and comparatively little is know about their basic life history and natural history. To address this gap, and to obtain the information necessary to manage for this species in areas of decline, I studied the breeding biology of two Crawfish Frog populations during 2009 and 2010. Using data collected from drift fence and pitfall trap arrays around breeding wetlands, I estimated breeding population sizes, operational sex ratios, breeding adult size ranges, egg and larval survivorship, juvenile recruitment, and adult within-season and between-year survivorship. I also documented the timing of breeding and metamorphosis, spatial patterns of immigration and emigration from breeding sites by adults and recently metamorphosed juveniles, and the diversity and abundance of associated pond breeding species. Crawfish Frog sex ratios were approximately 1:1 (M:F), with male-biased operational sex ratios. Adult sizes were comparatively larger than those reported in other areas of their range, as were sizes of newly metamorphosed juveniles. Breeding occurred from March through May during both years, and metamorphosis occurred from June through August. The number of eggs deposited per wetland ranged from 45,000 to 189,000. Thirteen associated amphibian species (18,109 individuals) and 14 reptile species (435 individuals) were captured at the breeding wetlands. Crawfish Frog survivorship estimates suggest that mortality is high during the larval stage and relatively low during the egg, juvenile and adult stages. Thus, the adult population is likely regulated by larval survivorship. To help manage for declining populations, captive rearing of larvae could be used to help offset the high mortality experienced during the larval stage and be used to help restore and/or repatriate populations at suitable sites.
    • Affective responses to early recollections of prospective secondary teachers.

      Ferreira, Linda Ohlsen (2012-04-13)
      I wish to express my appreciation to Dr.Reece Chaney who directed this study, and to the other members of my committee who supported and encouraged me.
    • An analysis of eight high school biology textbooks

      McNiel, Forest (2012-08-16)
      Not Available.
    • An objective test in biology

      Dixon, Napoleon (2012-07-30)
      Not Available.
    • Bat Species Diversity at an Urban-Rural Interface: Dominance by One Species in an Urban Area

      Damm, Jason Philip (2012-01-13)
      The growth of urban areas is known to affect different species of wildlife in varying ways. Many organisms have exhibited declines in abundance due to habitat loss, while overall species diversity decreases. Bats can serve as reliable indicators of habitat quality and level of anthropogenic disturbance. To investigate urbanization impacts on a Midwestern bat community, I analyzed nine years of mist-net captures from a study area on the edge of Indianapolis, Indiana, where the percentage of urbanized ground cover ranged from zero to 26%, within 1.3-km of a net site. I used Pearson correlation statistics to examine the effect of urban ground cover on each species’ abundance, and the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was used to quantify species diversity at the study area. To test the effect of urbanization on diversity, linear mixed models were constructed using percentage of urban ground cover and year. A total of 10 species were captured over nine years, seven of them annually. The big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) was the dominant species at all urbanized sites and at five of six rural sites. Most species were more common at rural sites than at urbanized sites. Urbanization was significantly and negatively related to bat species diversity, although one species, the northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis), showed a significant positive correlation with urban ground cover. Two bat species, the eastern pipistrelle (Perimyotis subflavus) and the little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) both displayed significant negative correlations with the percentage of urban ground cover. The Indiana myotis (Myotis sodalis) had a marginal negative correlation, but not significant.
    • Breeding Migrations, Survivorship, and Obligate Crayfish Burrow Use by Adult Crawfish Frogs (Lithobates Areolatus)

      Heemeyer, Jennifer L (2011-07-19)
      Movements are risky behaviors to animals, and amphibians are no exception. Being unable to cover long distances quickly, amphibians may find migrations challenging, yet many if not most species exhibit cyclic annual migrations. Crawfish Frogs (Lithobates areolatus), are a relatively understudied species of North American amphibian listed as endangered in Indiana and Iowa, and considered a species of conservation concern throughout much of their range. To better understand the biology of this species, and in particular, to assess the role that movements play in affecting survivorship, I radio tracked 48 Crawfish Frog adults, in 2009 and 2010. My study encompassed a total of 7,898 telemetered-frog days; single frogs were tracked for up to 606 days. These data demonstrate two behaviors previously undocumented in this species: 1) migration distances that averaged nearly ½ km, and for one frog was > 1,187 m; and 2) fidelity to upland burrows excavated by crayfish. Together, these findings indicate that Crawfish Frogs have a remarkable ability to home to distant upland burrow sites. Burrow fidelity in Crawfish Frogs involves, in part, frogs following similar migration routes to and from breeding wetlands. Burrow fidelity also occurs after ranging movements, and often involves individual frogs following the same circuit across years. Further, I demonstrate that movements are risky for Crawfish Frogs (about 12 times riskier than burrow dwelling), and therefore have survival consequences. My data also suggest that adult Crawfish Frogs are likely not dispersing to colonize new sites; instead, it seems more likely that juveniles represent the dispersing stage. To ensure the least impact to Crawfish Frog populations several conservation measures should be taken. First, core habitat and buffers should be established that exclude or limit roads for at least a 1.1-km radius around breeding wetlands. Secondly, burrow destruction should be minimized by limiting new cultivation and other ground disturbance within the core habitat and buffer. Thirdly, prescribed burns should be avoided from mid-March to mid-May, when frogs are out of their burrows migrating to and from wetlands.
    • CHARACTERIZATION OF HYPOTHETICAL PROTEINS SAS0760 AND SAS1738 FROM “COMMUNITY ASSOCIATED STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS” MSSA476

      Ramalinga, Anupama B. (Indiana State University, 2013-12)
      Staphylococcus aureus is known to cause a wide range of infections from simple, curable skin infections like carbuncles, furuncles, and impetigo to deadly infections such as bacteremia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis and post-operative infections. Recently, the emergence of multiple antibiotic resistances has posed a great challenge to therapeutics and infection management. Very early in therapeutics of Staphylococcus aureus infections, it acquired resistance to the penicillin, including methicillin [1], that was designed specifically for the penicillin resistant strains. These strains were designated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Originally, MRSA was only seen in hospital-associated infections (HA MRSA) [2-4], but recently, MRSA found in community settings (CA MRSA) are more invasive infections [5, 6] with greater genetic diversity and hence different antibiotic resistance patterns [4, 7]. MSSA476 is a CA MRSA, though evolutionarily, it is closely related to MRSA252, a HA MRSA [2, 8]. Hence we decided to identify hypothetical proteins from MSSA476. Disease management involves understanding the properties of bacteria in order to tackle the infection efficiently and finding new effective drugs to kill the pathogen. Further understanding of such unique, unexplored hypothetical proteins and their characterization with relation to virulence will help understand the increased virulence of CA MRSA.
    • Characterization of Novel Extracellular Matrix (Ecm) Proteins (Mgp and Lumican) and Their Implications in Vascular Development, Angiogenesis, and Cancer

      Sharma, Bikram (2013-01-30)
      Extracellular matrix (ECM) constitutes a large component of our tissue structure. Primarily, ECM provides structural and adhesive support to our cells, but it also controls cellular signaling and behavior. Homeostasis of extracellular matrix composition and function is maintained by our body through a balanced synthesis, degradation and remodeling of ECM. However, under pathological conditions and genetic mutations, ECM homeostasis is disrupted due to deregulation in ECM synthesis, assembly, remodeling, and degradation. A number of diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer, are found to occur due to alterations in ECM. Therefore, targeting ECM can be an attractive therapeutic approach to treat these diseases, and it requires our complete understanding of the ECM molecules and the molecular mechanism it employs in controlling cellular functions. To this end, this study is aimed at the characterization of two ECM proteins—Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) and Lumican—for their roles in vascular development, angiogenesis, and cancer. Findings from this study show that MGP is a critical ECM regulator that promotes angiogenic resolution by suppressing endothelial sprouting and stabilizing vascular lumen formation. In addition, MGP also inhibits tumor growth by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. On the other hand, our findings show Lumican suppresses tumor growth and has anti-angiogenic activity in a context specific manner.
    • Cloning and Characterization of Hypothetical Exported Proteins from Community Associated Staphylococcus Aureus

      Kaur, Haninder (2013-01-30)
      Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a major cause of nosocomial infections, has acquired resistance to beta-lactam and other antibiotics. Recently, community associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) has developed independent of hospital associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). One of the major differences between the hospital and community strains is that the former is multi-resistant to antibiotics while the latter is not as resistant but is significantly more invasive. This increased invasiveness and the ability to cause life-threatening infections, even in immunocompetent individuals, makes CA-MRSA critically important as a public health problem. CA-MRSA is known to cause skin and soft tissue infections; bacteria interact with host skin cells and gain access to deeper tissues causing invasive infections. During this process the bacteria may secrete proteins that aid in the interaction with the host by adhering, invading or causing host cell death and lysis. To understand the virulence mechanisms involved in invasion, we investigated genes described as hypothetical proteins in MSSA476. The bioinformatics-selected proteins showed high probability of being secreted and most were unique to CA-MRSA. Our analysis showed 24 such genes. This study shows primer design for 15 of the genes (7 of the 24 had already been cloned in our laboratory). Using gateway cloning, the 15 genes were cloned into BL-21 expression clones. CA-MRSA’s are known for causing invasive skin infections. To further understand the involvement of our proteins of interest in invasion, human keratinocyte cell lines were used in a study of virulence and interaction with skin. To understand the involvement of our hypothetical secreted proteins, we investigated the mRNA expression level, using RT-qPCR and Livak method, of 20 hypothetical exported proteins in presence of human dermal keratinocyte cell line. Our investigation revealed two genes that showed increased mRNA expression in the presence of keratinocytes, which may be due to factors associated with keratinocytes that may have triggered increased mRNA expression. Keratinocytes are capable of forming cell-cell junctions and producing antimicrobial peptides and cytokines in response to microbes. The increased mRNA expression of two genes may be towards binding to junctions for invasion or may be expressed in response to antimicrobial peptides or cytokines.
    • Cloning and Characterization of SAS1738, a Hypothetical Exported Protein from Community-Associated Strain of Staphylococcus Aureus

      Vijaya Kumar, Deepak Kumar (2010-09-22)
      Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a group of S. aureus strains that has acquired resistance to a class of beta lactam antibiotics and is the major cause of hospital associated infections. Their discovery goes back to 1960 when the first cases were identified. Recently community associated MRSA infections have emerged and are caused by strains that are independent of those from the hospital environment, related only because they carry some of the same antibiotic resistance genes. Community associated infections (CA) are more severe, producing pus filled lesions that are painful and capable of invasion of deep tissues. Virulence factors comprised of exported proteins are associated with the invasiveness of CA strains. Most of these proteins are hypothetical in nature with unknown function. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize potential virulence factor proteins that may be involved in the infection pathway of CA-MRSA. This study focuses on a unique gene that encodes an exported protein, SAS1738, found on the chromosome of the CA strain MSSA476. The protein SAS1738 was chosen because it is unique to CA strains and has homology to some proteins identified in other S. aureus strains known for their virulence and host immune evasion. The goal of this work is to characterize SAS1738 and to determine its role in the infection pathway of the organism. The gene of interest has been successfully cloned, expressed, and tested for toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans, a nematode. The toxicity tests showed that SAS1738 is inhibitory to the growth and development of C. elegans. The actual mode of action of this protein in C. elegans is yet to be established. However, location of SAS1738 using a GFP fusion showed that the highest concentration of the fusion protein was in the gut of the worms. The purified protein when tested in a killing assay against C. elegans, resulted in the death of the worms at an average time point of 8 min after treatment. Microbiological assay results showed that the purified SAS1738 possessed antibacterial activity towards Micrococcus luteus and Proteus vulgaris. This suggests that SAS1738 may play a dual role of antagonizing the commensal flora of the human skin such as Micrococcus luteus and also induce a toxic effect on the human cells as suggested by its toxic effect on C. elegans. Determination of the role of this protein in the infection cycle of CA-MRSA will lead to a better understanding of the pathogenicity of the organism and possible development of new treatment strategies.
    • Cognitive,personality and demographic attributes of student change.

      Henry, Jeanne Marie (2012-04-13)
      This study was an examination as to whether cognitive,personality and demographic attributes of students have changed over time.Archival data for 10 coherts of freshman students from a private Midwest engineering institution were used.Data consisted of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI) reults,Learning Enviornment Preferences(LEP) results, and demogrpahics.ANOVA's were performed for all interval data and Chi-Square analysess for all nominal data.Statistical significance was found for MBTI Thinking-Perceiving and Sensing-Intution scales,LEP Cognitive Complexity Index scores, and demographic variables including age,parental education level, and SAT scores.Results are discussed in terms of practical significance,trends evidenced in results,implications for further research and educational service provisions.