• AGE DEPENDENCE OF SPIRAL GRAIN IN WHITE OAKS (QUERCUS ALBA) IN SOUTHCENTRAL ILLINOIS

      Rauchfuss, Julia (Cunningham Memorial library, Terre Haute, Indiana State University, 2004-12)
      Spiral grain, the alignment of wood fibers (trachejds) to the longitudinal axis of h·ees, is thought to be an indicator of old age and is a phenomenon that has been only stndied with destrnctive sampling methods (cutting down trees). In this study, the usefulness of non-fatal sampling methods and existing methods to quantify spiral grain patterns in Jiving and dead deciduous trees are examined, particularly in white oaks (Qi1ercus alba). 111e overall goal is to detem1ine if spiral grain growth is a reasonable indicator of h·ee age. Methods that were tested included the use of a 12 mm increment borer (non-fatal sampling method) and Brazier's method ( 1965) of analyzing grain angles along just one diagonal to get a representative grain angle for the whole circumference at a certain height on a tree. The 12 mm increment borer did not produce consistent results in this study; therefore, . destructive sampling is necessary to study spiral grain in white oaks. Brazier's method (1965) should not be used in white oaks and should not be applied universally to all tree species. Samples from living and dead trees vary in severity and direction of spiral grain. The climatic factors that are roost limiting to tree growth do not influence spiral grain growth in white oaks in this stand. Severe spiral grain does in general seem to be an indicator of age in white oaks, although most trees have severe left spiral grain and not right spiral grain. However, a tree without severe spiral grain is not necessarily young. To judge the severity of spiral grain, grain angles have to be examined in the outermost layer of the wood and not in the bark.
    • Classification of Urban features using Airborne Hyperspectral Data

      Babu, Bharath Ganesh (2010-05-11)
      Accurate mapping and modeling of urban environments are critical for their efficient and successful management. Superior understanding of complex urban environments is made possible by using modern geospatial technologies. This research focuses on thematic classification of urban land use and land cover (LULC) using 248 bands of 2.0 meter resolution hyperspectral data acquired from an airborne imaging spectrometer (AISA+) on 24th July 2006 in and near Terre Haute, Indiana. Three distinct study areas including two commercial classes, two residential classes, and two urban parks/recreational classes were selected for classification and analysis. Four commonly used classification methods – maximum likelihood (ML), extraction and classification of homogeneous objects (ECHO), spectral angle mapper (SAM), and iterative self organizing data analysis (ISODATA) - were applied to each data set. Accuracy assessment was conducted and overall accuracies were compared between the twenty four resulting thematic maps. With the exception of SAM and ISODATA in a complex commercial area, all methods employed classified the designated urban features with more than 80% accuracy. The thematic classification from ECHO showed the best agreement with ground reference samples. The residential area with relatively homogeneous composition was classified consistently with highest accuracy by all four of the classification methods used. The average accuracy amongst the classifiers was 93.60% for this area. When individually observed, the complex recreational area (Deming Park) was classified with the highest accuracy by ECHO, with an accuracy of 96.80% and 96.10% Kappa. The average accuracy amongst all the classifiers was 92.07%. The commercial area with relatively high complexity was classified with the least accuracy by all classifiers. The lowest accuracy was achieved by SAM at 63.90% with 59.20% Kappa. This was also the lowest accuracy in the entire analysis. This study demonstrates the potential for using the visible and near infrared (VNIR) bands from AISA+ hyperspectral data in urban LULC classification. Based on their performance, the need for further research using ECHO and SAM is underscored. The importance incorporating imaging spectrometer data in high resolution urban feature mapping is emphasized.
    • Glacial/Interglacial Export Production in the Subantarctic South Pacific

      Adamic, Jessica (2010-07-22)
      Atmospheric CO2 varied considerably in the past; however, the mechanisms that drive this variability are poorly understood. CO2 is linked to marine primary productivity through the biological carbon pump (BCP), leading to hypotheses that past increases in BCP efficiency in areas such as the Southern Ocean may have contributed to glacial CO2 drawdown (Sarmiento & Toggweiler, 1984). Productivity has varied considerably in the past, but the extent, timing, and impacts remain poorly understood. The Subantarctic South Pacific is an area of the ocean that is crucial to the understanding of both glacial climate and paleo-export productivity. Unfortunately, few studies have investigated the central South Pacific because it is so remote. The sediment core MV0502-04JC was recovered from the Subantarctic South Pacific in February-March 2005 at 50°S. The results of this study will be compared with data from ODP Leg 189, Site 1171, also in the Subantarctic South Pacific. Data from these cores will be used to evaluate glacial/interglacial paleo-export production and terrigenous provenance using bulk sediment geochemical proxies, including detailed P geochemistry, P, Ba, and metal elemental ratios, and Baxs. The results of this research suggest each site has variable terrigenous provenance that may have relatively different Fe content. Export production at MV0502-4JC is invariant down core; however, Site 1171 does exhibit glacial/interglacial variations in export production.
    • Neural Network Classification of Hyperspectral Imagery for Urban Environments: a Case Study

      Lulla, Vijay (2010-09-22)
      Urban environments are complex because many different artificial and natural objects occur in close proximity. Being able to understand the processes and workings of these environments requires the ability to observe and record data with high spatial and spectral resolution. Hyperspectral sensors have been gaining popularity for this task as they are becoming more affordable. In this research, a commonly used maximum likelihood (ML) classifier and artificial neural network (ANN) classifier have been compared for classifying urban land use and land cover (LULC) using AISA+ hyperspectral data. Further, the best set of bands were identified for classification of urban areas for use in ANN classification. Optimum bands based on a spectral separability measure were used with a neural network classifier to compare its performance with maximum likelihood classifier. It was found that both the classifiers had an overall classification accuracy of more than 80% and the neural network classifier with optimum band selection performed better in all of the study sites.
    • Environmental Conditions of Green Valley Lake

      Bellamy, Jennifer (2011-03-16)
      Green Valley Lake, western Indiana, has experienced periodic inputs of acid mine drainage (AMD) from the abandoned Green Valley Coal Mine. The lake serves as a state fishing area, and AMD inputs may affect the aquatic ecosystem and human health. The purpose of this research is to determine to what extent the sediments in Green Valley Lake are acting as sinks for metals and if they may impact water quality. Water and bottom sediment samples were taken throughout the lake to evaluate spatial variability of contamination and to determine how the metal concentrations compared to Post Archean Average Shale (PAAS) background values and sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) values. Three cores were taken from the Northwest portion of the lake, where AMD enters via surface flow to evaluate temporal changes in contamination. Results indicate that water quality at Green Valley is acceptable, pH is slightly acidic (pH=6.4) near the locations of AMD input and increases to the east (pH=8.30). The northwest portion of Green Valley Lake is an eutrophic lake, based on its nutrient levels and Secchi disk measurements. Organic matter content, based on LOI, is higher in the older portion of the lake (7-33 wt %) due to the influence of vegetation surrounding the lake. Bottom sediment at Green Valley Lake are acting as a sink for metals and nutrients. Ni and Cd concentrations are above the sediment quality guidelines severe effect level, while Zn and Pb were above the probable effect level. Metals over the severe and probably effect levels should continue to be monitored in the sediments at Green Valley Lake to ensure that organisms are not being impacted.
    • Comparisons of Distributions and Isotopic Geochemistry of Benthic Foraminifera from Seep and Non-seep Environments, Offshore of Costa Rica

      Burkett, Ashley M. (2011-06-17)
      Vertical distribution patterns and stable isotopic geochemistry of benthic foraminifera labeled with CellTracker Green and stained with Rose Bengal were compared at sites of active methane seepage and adjacent non-seep habitats off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Sediment cores of bacterial mats from Costa Rica revealed vertical distribution patterns more similar to those seen previously in clam beds, suggesting increased levels of bioturbation compared to nonseep sites. Similar taxa were found at both seep and non-seep sites including: Chilostomella oolina, Uvigerina peregrina and hispida, Cibicides mckannai, and Cassidulina braziliensis. Within active methane seep habitats, elevated substrate such as carbonate rocks, and vestimentiferan tubeworms were examined for living foraminifera. Vestimentiferan tubeworms had highly variable numbers of attached epibenthic foraminifera, dominated by Cibicides wuellerstorfi and Carpenteria monticularis. Stable carbon isotopic comparisons between epibenthic foraminiferal species of Cibicides wuellerstorfi and the vestimentiferan tubeworms on which they reside revealed 10‰ to 30‰ differences between the foraminiferal carbonate and substrate, suggesting that the geochemical signatures of elevated epibenthics were not significantly influenced by the geochemical signature of the substrate on which they reside. This study finds no apparent methane influence on the foraminiferal calcite of elevated epibenthic foraminifera from the three active seep sites studied (Mound 11, Mound 12, and Jaco Scar). This may be because the elevated epibenthics were not exposed to seep-influenced fluids by inhabiting raised substrates. This study also provides a quantitative analysis of coiling directions in elevated epibenthic species at seeps, which has never previously been reported. Statistical analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in isotopic composition between sinstral (left)and dextral (right) coiling Cibicides wuellerstorfi. The results of this study suggest that coiling direction of elevated epibenthic oraminifera, such as Cibicides wuellerstorfi and Carpenteriamonticularis, is a result of biologic factors rather than environmental influences.
    • The Locational Determinants of Internet Usage in Asia and Nepal

      Chand, Smriti (2011-06-17)
      This study examines the relationship between internet development and various socio- economic factors that are assumed to affect internet infrastructure development decision. The data collected for 35 Asian countries is secondary data collected from various sources. This study tests six hypotheses about the impact of various socio-economic factors and economic freedom indicators on Internet Penetration Rate (IPR) and Internet Service Providers (ISP). The findings show that the IPR can be statistically explained by one independent variable: GDP (Gross Domestic Product). The study models also include Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), literacy rate, fertility rate, the percentage of urban population, the country's status as a former European Colony, Business Freedom, Freedom from Corruption, and Property Rights.
    • Place Construction, Identity, and Capital Investment: An investigation of two tourist landscapes in Michigan

      Stawarski, Andrew (2011-07-20)
      Tourist communities exist all over the world. They are areas that are focused on tourism and are often tailored to resemble specific regions or themes to better achieve capital gain. In this study, two cities in Michigan are examined to better understand how the cultural landscapes are experienced and what practices are employed throughout the landscape. Specifically, this thesis investigates the spatial practices that are involved in re-creating and re-presenting ―themed‖ landscapes. Another question analyzed is whether the ―themed‖ landscapes reflect the resident‘s daily lives and/or their histories. This thesis examines the two Michigan cities of Gaylord and Frankenmuth, re-presenting and re-creating Alpenfest and Frankenmuth, respectively, and their emphasis on tourism within their respective communities. To better understand the cultural environment and themed landscapes, digital images are used throughout this thesis of both cities. The data for these themed landscapes were geocoded and analyzed. Also, photographs of both cities were used to demonstrate that only modifications to the façade and additions to the structures were merely aesthetic in nature, and are not realistic but stereotypes of the regions they were representing.
    • An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship between Teleconnections and Selected Pollution Parameters

      Hardin, Steven (2011-09-09)
      The relationship between atmospheric circulation patterns, as represented by teleconnection indices, and selected air pollutants was investigated. Correlations were run for levels of three air pollutants: particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10), ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2); and three atmospheric teleconnection indices: the Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index (MEI), the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Pollutant levels were observed at stations in or near 15 North American cities between 1970 and 2004. Significant correlations as strong as .386 were found for selected individual cities and counties when dates were restricted to the months with the highest pollution levels. Correlation strength generally declined as coverage areas and date ranges were expanded. Still, statistically significant, albeit weak, correlations were found in many cases.
    • Dendroclimatic Reconstruction from Bald Cypress in Southwestern Indiana

      Van De Veer, Robin Lyn (2011-09-20)
      In the United States, bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) is generally recognized as an important component of the forested wetlands found in the Southwestern Coastal Plain and the Mississippi River Valley (which extends to the southern Midwest). The lifespan of this deciduous species is important not only commercially, but also in an ecological capacity. This study focuses mainly upon the role the tree plays in its environment and how it can be used as an indicator of climate through drought/flood signals in the rings. Bald cypress is a long-lived tree that can be over 1000 years old and is sensitive to climate and ground water hydrology. Because of these factors it is a favorable choice for dendrochronological study in the region. According to the International Tree-Ring Database, a chronology of the species is not well defined for southwestern Indiana. This research provides this missing information and creates the northern most bald cypress chronology in the Midwest. The study site is located in the extreme southwest of Indiana around Hovey Lake (a backwater lake of the Ohio River) about 10 miles south of Mount Vernon, Indiana. Samples were taken from trees near the shore, both on land and in the water.This study dated some trees to 1855. Analysis of the tree rings, climate data, and river discharge data revealed that bald cypress are not declining in southwestern Indiana. The rate of tree ring growth increases as PDSI does and the rate of river discharge does not seem to affect growth much at all. Even though this is the northernmost bald cypress chronology in the midwest and therefore should be stressed according to the theory of ecological amplitude, this chronology does not fall in the category with the highest series intercorrelation or mean sensitivity. The construction of the dam in 1975 has overwhelmed the climate signal in these trees and the trees continue to be suppressed due to the current water level.
    • Assessment and Impact of Gentrified Public Housing Neighborhoods in The United States: A Case Study of Chicago

      Sink, Todd W. (2011-09-20)
      Social-mix housing policies play a unique role in shaping the geography of gentrification in cities throughout the U.S. and Europe. The HOPE VI program in the U.S. is one popular example. Since its inception in 1992, HOPE VI has simultaneously displaced thousands of urban poor from their homes and neighborhoods, reduced their housing opportunities, and created and encouraged housing development for a more affluent population. Yet over the years, very few empirical studies have emerged that examine the place-based outcomes of HOPE VI within the context of gentrification. As such, important empirical questions remain unanswered. This study focuses on the geography of HOPE VI policy and gentrification in Chicago. The purpose of the study is to examine when, in what way, and to what magnitude the gentrification process has unfolded in public housing neighborhoods targeted by the HOPE VI program during the period 1990-2007. Socio-economic data from the U.S. Census and Geolytics; mortgage financing data from the FFIEC; building permits from the City of Chicago; and field surveys are utilized to create an assessment of gentrification. The findings show that the relationship between HOPE VI and gentrification is different in different areas of Chicago. HOPE VI is driving the gentrification process directly in some areas and indirectly in others. HOPE VI is the foundation that has made gentrification possible in public housing neighborhoods in Chicago. But HOPE VI is not the only driving force, as some areas have experienced gentrification even though they have not been cited for new housing and commercial development under HOPE VI. Latent market demand, incredibly profitable rent-gaps, excellent locations near shopping districts, and weakening insecurities among mortgage lenders are also solid forces working to expand the gentrification frontier in public housing neighborhoods.
    • Analysis of Urban Heat Islands by Using Multi-Sensor and Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Images

      Umamaheshwaran, Rajasekar (2011-09-20)
      This doctoral dissertation research has developed models to facilitate in characterization,analysis and monitoring of urban heat islands (UHI). Over the past few years there has been evidence of mass migration of the population towards urban areas which has led to the increase in the number of mega cities (cities with more than 10 million in population) around the world. According to the UN in 2007 around 60% (from 40% in 2000) of world populations was living in urban areas. This increase in population density in and around cities has lead to several problems related to environment such as air quality, water quality, development of Urban Heat Islands (UHI), etc. The purpose of this doctoral dissertation research was to develop a synergetic merger of remote sensing with advancements in data mining techniques to address modeling and monitoring of UHI in space and in time. The effect of urban heat islands in space and over time was analyzed within this research using exploratory and quantitative models. Visualization techniques including animation were experimented with developing a mechanism to view and understand the UHI over a city. Association rule mining models were implemented to analyze the relationship between remote sensing images and geographic information system (GIS) data. This model was implemented using three different remote sensing images i.e., Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The effect of the spatial resolution on the model and the phenomenon were analyzed in detail to determine variables which strongly associate with land use land cover (LULC) in space and in time.A non-parametric process convolution model was developed and was used to characterize UHI from MODIS time series images. The resulting characterized images were used to study the relationship between LULC and UHI. The behavior of UHI including its movement and magnitude was analyzed in space and time.The intellectual merits of these methods are two-fold; first, they will be a forerunner in the development and implementation of association rule mining algorithm within remote sensing image analysis framework. Second, since most of the existing UHI models are parametric in nature; the non-parametric approach is expected to overcome the existing problems within characterization and analysis. Parametric models pose problems (in terms of efficiency, since the implementation of such models are time consuming and need human intervention) while analyzing UHI effect from multiple imageries. These proposed models are expected to aid in effective spatial characterization and facilitate in temporal analysis and monitoring of UHI phenomenon.
    • Assessing Environmental Conditions at the Friar Tuck Mining Complex, Dugger, Indiana

      McBride, Windy Jo (2011-09-20)
      Many abandoned mine lands (AML) continue to present significant environmental concerns. The abandoned Friar Tuck Mining Complex in Greene and Sullivan counties, Indiana, continues to impair local water quality despite closing in 1952 for operations and multiple remediation attempts. Most areas within the Friar Tuck Mining Complex have been successfully remediated; however, the area of research interest requires additional treatment and continues to be impacted by runoff from gob piles. Subsequently, areas characterized by a loss of vegetation where mine seeps occur behave unpredictably and are characterized by the exposure of bare soil. These mine seep areas are of particular concern because contaminated soil may leave the site during summer months as aerosols due to soil desiccation. The primary goal of this project was to evaluate spatial variability in the distribution of metals in surface soils. In May 2010, 258 soil samples were collected at the Friar Tuck Mining Complex to evaluate metal accumulation and bioavailability using several different geochemical techniques, including bulk geochemistry following reaction with water and acid and a sequential extraction technique. Results indicate that surface soils at the Friar Tuck Mining Complex continue to be degraded, pH is moderately to highly acid (pH=4-1) in areas of mine seeps, surface flow, and where the slurry pond narrows and begins to discharge into Mud creek. Surface soils also have elevated concentrations of bioavailable metals due to the persistent influence of AMD, such as Zn, Cu, Cr and Pb, especially in areas of mine seeps, surface flow, and water ponding.
    • Spatial decision support system for abandoned coal mine reclamation.

      Liu, Qian (2012-05-16)
      Abandoned coal mines and mining activities typically cause severe environmental problems related to erosion and pollutant transportation.Because of the lack of data integration,traditional methods and procedures of reclamation plan design must go through a time-consuming process.As new technologies from a variety of fields have been revolutionizing the way in which planning is conducted,it is practical to find a more efficient approach to deal with complex reclamation planning.In this research,a Geographic Information System(GIS),remotely sensed data,erosion modeling,and Multi-Criteria Decision Making(MCDM)methods were integrated to implement a Spatial Decision Support System(SDSS)for better reclamation planning.The newly developed Open Development Environment(ODE)and GIS componentware technology were adopted to provide GIS functions and to build the interface.The system was designed to facilitate the prioritizing of specific areas for reclamation within a region of abandoned coal mines.
    • Analyses of seven high school geography textbooks

      Walters, Lee (2012-08-14)
      Not Available.