• Environmental Conditions of Green Valley Lake

      Bellamy, Jennifer (2011-03-16)
      Green Valley Lake, western Indiana, has experienced periodic inputs of acid mine drainage (AMD) from the abandoned Green Valley Coal Mine. The lake serves as a state fishing area, and AMD inputs may affect the aquatic ecosystem and human health. The purpose of this research is to determine to what extent the sediments in Green Valley Lake are acting as sinks for metals and if they may impact water quality. Water and bottom sediment samples were taken throughout the lake to evaluate spatial variability of contamination and to determine how the metal concentrations compared to Post Archean Average Shale (PAAS) background values and sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) values. Three cores were taken from the Northwest portion of the lake, where AMD enters via surface flow to evaluate temporal changes in contamination. Results indicate that water quality at Green Valley is acceptable, pH is slightly acidic (pH=6.4) near the locations of AMD input and increases to the east (pH=8.30). The northwest portion of Green Valley Lake is an eutrophic lake, based on its nutrient levels and Secchi disk measurements. Organic matter content, based on LOI, is higher in the older portion of the lake (7-33 wt %) due to the influence of vegetation surrounding the lake. Bottom sediment at Green Valley Lake are acting as a sink for metals and nutrients. Ni and Cd concentrations are above the sediment quality guidelines severe effect level, while Zn and Pb were above the probable effect level. Metals over the severe and probably effect levels should continue to be monitored in the sediments at Green Valley Lake to ensure that organisms are not being impacted.
    • Glacial/Interglacial Export Production in the Subantarctic South Pacific

      Adamic, Jessica (2010-07-22)
      Atmospheric CO2 varied considerably in the past; however, the mechanisms that drive this variability are poorly understood. CO2 is linked to marine primary productivity through the biological carbon pump (BCP), leading to hypotheses that past increases in BCP efficiency in areas such as the Southern Ocean may have contributed to glacial CO2 drawdown (Sarmiento & Toggweiler, 1984). Productivity has varied considerably in the past, but the extent, timing, and impacts remain poorly understood. The Subantarctic South Pacific is an area of the ocean that is crucial to the understanding of both glacial climate and paleo-export productivity. Unfortunately, few studies have investigated the central South Pacific because it is so remote. The sediment core MV0502-04JC was recovered from the Subantarctic South Pacific in February-March 2005 at 50°S. The results of this study will be compared with data from ODP Leg 189, Site 1171, also in the Subantarctic South Pacific. Data from these cores will be used to evaluate glacial/interglacial paleo-export production and terrigenous provenance using bulk sediment geochemical proxies, including detailed P geochemistry, P, Ba, and metal elemental ratios, and Baxs. The results of this research suggest each site has variable terrigenous provenance that may have relatively different Fe content. Export production at MV0502-4JC is invariant down core; however, Site 1171 does exhibit glacial/interglacial variations in export production.
    • Holocene Landscape Evolution of the Ohio River Valley from Knob Creek to Rosewood Bottom

      De Rego, Kathryn G. (2012-10-19)
      Rivers and floodplain environments have provided human settlements with resources for thousands of years. By understanding how rivers shape the land around them, we can use landforms to reconstruct ancient fluvial processes and to examine how they have conditioned the way humans interact with their environment. This study investigates the Lower Ohio River during the Holocene. During this period, Midwestern landscapes were adjusting to a variety of processes, including millennial-scale climate change involving the transition from a glacial to an interglacial environment. At the same time, Archaic hunter-gatherers adopted a settlement strategy that favored large river valleys. The cause of this shift has not been resolved. This study examined floodplain sedimentation and change along the Lower Ohio from Knob Creek to Rosewood Bottom through two different scales of analysis: the regional (geologic) scale and within local bottoms. A model of floodplain structure from Madison to Tell City, Indiana was created using a GIS and used to examine differences between geologic regions and Early and Late Holocene sediment. Swales were identified using a DEM, and depth, area, and perimeter-area ratio were used as proxies of their characteristics, which are correlated with backwater environments. Subsurface soil and sediment data were collected from a transect across Rosewood Bottom and within a paleochannel common to the study reach and used to reconstruct floodplain production within an individual bottom. Radiocarbon dates from geologic and archaeological contexts were used to examine Early and Late Holocene sedimentation rates. The Ohio River was active during the Early Holocene. It migrated rapidly and constructed most of the modern floodplain. In some areas, it was anabranching because resistant Pleistocene braid bars formed obstructions to flow that became islands. During the Late Holocene, deposition has been mainly characterized by overbank backwater/slackwater deposition in swales. There is not enough evidence to assign an exogenic cause to this phenomenon. Significant differences in floodplain structure between individual bottoms and regions, the influence of underlying Pleistocene gravels on river migration, and different dates for paleochannel abandonment are indicators of autogenic controls on the Ohio’s behavior and show that bottoms have independent histories. This study complements current models of environmental change for river basins in the Midwest, but it suggests that the stability of the floodplain be given more consideration when analyzing Archaic settlement strategy.
    • Multi-Timescale Dynamics of Land Surface Temperature

      Fu, Peng (2015-01-07)
      Spatial and temporal patterns of land surface temperature (LST) have been used in studies of surface energy balance, landscape thermal patterns and water management. An effective way to investigate the landscape thermal dynamics is to utilize the Landsat legacy and consistent records of the thermal state of earth’s surface since 1982. However, only a small proportion of studies emphasize the importance of historical Landsat TIR data for investigating the relationship between the urbanization process and surface thermal properties. This occurred due to the lack of standardized LST product from Landsat and the unevenly distributed remote sensing datasets caused by poor atmospheric effects and/or clouds. Despite the characterization of annual temperature cycles using remote sensing data in previous studies, yet the statistical evidence to confirm the existence of the annual temperature cycle is still lacking. The objectives of the research are to provide statistical evidence for the existence of the annual temperature cycle and to develop decomposition technique to explore the impact of urbanization on surface thermal property changes. The study area is located in Los Angeles County, the corresponding remotely sensed TIR data from Landsat TM over a decadal year (2000-2010) was selected, and eventually a series of 82 cloud-free images were acquired for the computation of LST. The hypothesis technique, Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis was proposed to confirm whether decadal years’s LSTs showed the annual temperature cycle. Furthermore, the simulated LSTs comprised of seasonality, trend, and noise components are generated to test the robustness of the decomposition scheme. The periodogram analysis revealed that the annual temperature cycle was confirmed statistically with p-value less than 0.01 and the identified periodic time at 362 days. The sensitivity analysis based on the simulated LSTs suggested that the decomposition technique was very robustness and able to retrieve the seasonality and trend components with errors up to 0.6 K. The application of the decomposition technique into the real 82 remote sensing data decomposed the original LSTs into seasonality, trend, and noise components. Estimated seasonality component by land cover showed an agreement with previous studies in Weng & Fu (2014). The derived trend component revealed that the impact of urbanization on land surface temperature ranged from 0.2 K to 0.8 K based on the comparison between urban and non-urban land covers. Further applications of the proposed Lomb-Scargle technique and the developed decomposition technique can also be directed to data from other satellite sensors.
    • Neural Network Classification of Hyperspectral Imagery for Urban Environments: a Case Study

      Lulla, Vijay (2010-09-22)
      Urban environments are complex because many different artificial and natural objects occur in close proximity. Being able to understand the processes and workings of these environments requires the ability to observe and record data with high spatial and spectral resolution. Hyperspectral sensors have been gaining popularity for this task as they are becoming more affordable. In this research, a commonly used maximum likelihood (ML) classifier and artificial neural network (ANN) classifier have been compared for classifying urban land use and land cover (LULC) using AISA+ hyperspectral data. Further, the best set of bands were identified for classification of urban areas for use in ANN classification. Optimum bands based on a spectral separability measure were used with a neural network classifier to compare its performance with maximum likelihood classifier. It was found that both the classifiers had an overall classification accuracy of more than 80% and the neural network classifier with optimum band selection performed better in all of the study sites.
    • Place Construction, Identity, and Capital Investment: An investigation of two tourist landscapes in Michigan

      Stawarski, Andrew (2011-07-20)
      Tourist communities exist all over the world. They are areas that are focused on tourism and are often tailored to resemble specific regions or themes to better achieve capital gain. In this study, two cities in Michigan are examined to better understand how the cultural landscapes are experienced and what practices are employed throughout the landscape. Specifically, this thesis investigates the spatial practices that are involved in re-creating and re-presenting ―themed‖ landscapes. Another question analyzed is whether the ―themed‖ landscapes reflect the resident‘s daily lives and/or their histories. This thesis examines the two Michigan cities of Gaylord and Frankenmuth, re-presenting and re-creating Alpenfest and Frankenmuth, respectively, and their emphasis on tourism within their respective communities. To better understand the cultural environment and themed landscapes, digital images are used throughout this thesis of both cities. The data for these themed landscapes were geocoded and analyzed. Also, photographs of both cities were used to demonstrate that only modifications to the façade and additions to the structures were merely aesthetic in nature, and are not realistic but stereotypes of the regions they were representing.
    • Place names of Parke County, Indiana

      Seits, Laurence (2014-08-12)
      Not Available
    • Remote Sensing of Tanzanian Volcano Oldoinyo Lengai: Verifying Detection Methods of Flow Activity

      Frystak, Scott Richard (2013-01-30)
      Every day volcanoes erupt with varying magnitudes across the globe, and remote sensing used to keep track of volcanic activity would be a useful application. One promising use of remote sensing to understand volcanoes at a distance is to distinguish gaseous or lava flow activity. Current methods for differentiating volcanic activity with remote sensing have only been applied at Mt. Etna, and research is still needed to verify that the detection of gaseous or lava flow activity is possible at volcanoes with different compositions. The subject of this study, the Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, is a natrocarbonatite stratovolcano with drastically different chemical composition from Mt. Etna. These composition differences allow for the verification of gaseous or lava flow activity remotely over time. Furthermore, looking closely at how volcano composition affects detection will allow us to understand the variables required to detect gaseous or lava flow activity. The results of the research are inconclusive, but provide useful information for this application of remote sensing. For Oldoinyo Lengai, the Landsat TM data were unable to resolve lava flows or degassing activity, due to a combination of the volcano’s small size, the lack of lava flows, and/or pixel saturation. Superior sensors such as hyperspectral sensors are needed to adequately perform the analysis, and would likely result in the capability to differentiate volcanic activity. Further applicability of the study is prudent due to the varying nature of volcanoes and sensors. Gathering additional detailed information should be at the forefront of volcanic monitoring research.
    • Spatial decision support system for abandoned coal mine reclamation.

      Liu, Qian (2012-05-16)
      Abandoned coal mines and mining activities typically cause severe environmental problems related to erosion and pollutant transportation.Because of the lack of data integration,traditional methods and procedures of reclamation plan design must go through a time-consuming process.As new technologies from a variety of fields have been revolutionizing the way in which planning is conducted,it is practical to find a more efficient approach to deal with complex reclamation planning.In this research,a Geographic Information System(GIS),remotely sensed data,erosion modeling,and Multi-Criteria Decision Making(MCDM)methods were integrated to implement a Spatial Decision Support System(SDSS)for better reclamation planning.The newly developed Open Development Environment(ODE)and GIS componentware technology were adopted to provide GIS functions and to build the interface.The system was designed to facilitate the prioritizing of specific areas for reclamation within a region of abandoned coal mines.
    • The Locational Determinants of Internet Usage in Asia and Nepal

      Chand, Smriti (2011-06-17)
      This study examines the relationship between internet development and various socio- economic factors that are assumed to affect internet infrastructure development decision. The data collected for 35 Asian countries is secondary data collected from various sources. This study tests six hypotheses about the impact of various socio-economic factors and economic freedom indicators on Internet Penetration Rate (IPR) and Internet Service Providers (ISP). The findings show that the IPR can be statistically explained by one independent variable: GDP (Gross Domestic Product). The study models also include Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), literacy rate, fertility rate, the percentage of urban population, the country's status as a former European Colony, Business Freedom, Freedom from Corruption, and Property Rights.
    • …To TOC A Dendrochronological Analysis of Insect Outbreaks and Climate Effects on Tamarack from Indiana and Michigan

      Flinner, Nicholas Lorin (2015-01-07)
      Disturbances have a strong impact on tree stand dynamics across the world. In North America, the larch sawfly (Pristiphora erichsonii) and larch casebearer (Cleophora laricella) are two non-native species of insects affecting tamarack across much of their native range. The majority of research on the effects of larch sawfly on tamarack (Larix laricina) has been conducted in Canada with very little dendrochronological work in the United States along the geographical boundary of tamarack or on the effects of larch casebearer on radial growth. As a consequence, very little is known about the relationship between tamarack and these insects’ outbreaks in the United States. The traditional model of Ecological Amplitude in biogeography explains that species are limited along their southern border by species interaction, so it is very important to start to understand the relationship between predator and prey. At the Pigeon River State Fish and Wildlife Area in northern Indiana, tamarack are stressed and dying out on the landscape and local naturalists believe insect outbreaks are a potential factor. I use the traditional dendrochronological methods to develop and compare host and non-host chronologies from northern Indiana and central Michigan. I then compared these chronologies to each other, local climate variables, and insect outbreak information to better understand climate and outbreak signals in radial growth. I found that tamarack in Indiana showed a stronger negative response to temperature in Indiana than in Michigan which indicates warmer temperature play a role in limiting the southern margin of the species’ range. Tamarack also provided a good record of local insect outbreak events. Using outbreak information collected from local naturalists, I developed a tree ring outbreak signature for larch casebearer. Continued work along the southern boundary of the species will determine the combined impacts of multiple species specific predators as climate changes.
    • Tree-Ring Analysis of Outbreak Dynamics across an Insect’s Entire Range: The Pandora Moth System

      de Graauw, Kristen (2012-10-22)
      In montane forests of the western United States, pandora moth (Coloradia pandora Blake) defoliates local pines, primarily ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex Laws.) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.). This defoliation stresses the tree, leaving a distinct outbreak signature in the tree-rings. The occurrence of pandora moth outbreaks has been recorded in ponderosa pine tree rings in Oregon as far back as 1500 years, however little is known of the outbreak history throughout the rest of the pandora moth range. To gain a better understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics of pandora moth I have reconstructed outbreaks across the entire range of the insect using 121 tree-ring chronologies from the International Tree-Ring Databank (ITRDB) and 19 chronologies from sites sampled for this study using dendrochronological techniques. I then created a fine resolution habitat model for pandora moth and a gridded tree-ring network of non-host chronologies, which was used to validate statistically confirmed outbreak events across the entire range of the insect. Sites with confirmed outbreaks were then tested against the habitat model for accuracy of model parameters. ArcMap 10 was used to create an animated map of the spatial and temporal distribution of pandora moth across its range. One of my most notable findings is the record of outbreak events further north than previously documented, and the agreement between those northern sites with my habitat model. In my research I have demonstrated the use of dendrochronology to study outbreaks across an insect’s range. The methods I have used here can be applied to other range-wide analyses.
    • Under the Influence of Large Woody Debris: A Survey of the La Crosse River In the Upper Midwest Driftless Area

      Prise, Adam (2012-10-19)
      Streams are dynamic environments driven by the force of gravity and shaped by local climate, geology, and vegetation. Large woody debris (LWD) can have important influences on stream processes. The main influence of LWD on these systems is a resistance to flow; this added roughness induces a multitude of channel adjustments. Despite the importance of LWD, streams have been heavily managed by humankind, often involving the removal of debris to improve flow. Recent studies have highlighted the significance of large woody debris in mountain streams, particularly in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada. However, there has been little research on the influence of LWD on streams in the Upper Midwest. This study will specifically investigate a stream (the La Crosse River) in southwestern Wisconsin’s Driftless Area. This area remained untouched by glaciers during the Last Glacial Maximum, but outwash from melting glaciers was deposited here, making the main bed material coarse sand. Combining stream survey methods (channel cross-sections) and a wood census, the influence of LWD was determined through statistical analysis of measurements of stream (velocity, depth, and width) and LWD (total counts, length, DBH, and volume) characteristics, in conjunction with qualitative analysis of detailed cross-sections. LWD are present in the study reach, but few relationships proved statistically significant, while local influences (initiation of scour and deposition) are clearly seen. Explanations of human, regional, historical, and bed form influences are explored.
    • Urban Flash Flood Risk Assessment and Inundation Model Utilizing GIS for Terre Haute, Indiana

      Ishman, Zachary Scott (2015-01-07)
      Use of ArcGIS to examine flash flooding variables and produce a flash flood risk assessment and inundation model for Terre Haute, Indiana. Risk assessment, produced within ArcGIS, indicates that an increase in developed area leads to an increase in very high flash flood risk area and majority of very high risk area resides in developed areas of Terre Haute. Inundation model, produced using ArcGIS and Python, indicates that the proposed model can determine locations of flash flooding, but spatial extent of model predicted flooding is not reliable based on field validation.
    • Using Analogues to Simulate Intensity, Trajectory, and Dynamical Changes in Alberta Clippers with Global Climate Change

      Ward, Jamie L. (2015-01-07)
      Alberta Clippers are extratropical cyclones that form in the lee of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and traverse through the Great Plains and Midwest regions of the United States. With the imminent threat of global climate change and its effects on regional teleconnection patterns like El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), properties of Alberta Clipper could be altered as a result of changing atmospheric circulation patterns. Since the Great Plains and Midwest regions both support a large portion of the national population and agricultural activity, the effects of global climate change on Alberta Clippers could affect these areas in a variety of ways. Despite this reasoning, relatively few studies have addressed Alberta Clippers, especially in comparison to the other North American storm tracks. In this study, the effects of global climate change on Alberta Clippers are examined by using atmospheric analogues chosen from 1950-2012 based on temperature and ENSO characteristics. Composite maps of regional MSLP at 12-hr intervals, 300mb vector wind and geopotential height at the time of cyclogenesis, and 850mb temperature and geopotential height patterns 36 hours after Clipper formation are constructed. Difference maps of 300mb geopotential height patterns between each of the analogues are also constructed. One-way ANOVA tests are also used to analyze Alberta Clipper latitude and longitude values at t=0, Clipper trajectory azimuths from t=0 to t=60, central MSLP values for these storms twelve hours after formation, and MSLP pressure gradients at t=24. The results from these tests indicate that, of the four analogues, the Cold and El Niño years are the most dissimilar, maintaining statistically significant differences in upper-level wind magnitude and starting longitude values. MSLP at t=12 is lower in the Cold storms than the El Niño storms, but statistical significance between these values is not quite achieved. Furthermore, geopotential height differences and their associated rate of change with respect to map distance indicate that the 300mb geopotential height patterns of the El Niño and Cold analogues are quite different from one another. The La Niña and Warm analogue years are different from one another with respect to latitude and longitude values of Alberta Clippers at cyclogenesis. Based on these results, the effects of temperature increase alone will not influence the properties of Alberta Clippers as much as changes in ENSO that could be caused by global climate change.
    • USING THE SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF LEAD IN URBAN SOILS AND DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES TO PREDICT EXPOSURE RISKS: AN ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE ANALYSIS IN TERRE HAUTE, INDIANA

      Foxx, Heather A. (2015-01-07)
      Terre Haute, Indiana, is similar to many older cities throughout the United States with a history of manufacturing and industry that relied on extensive road and rail networks. This industrial history has resulted in the presence of over 20 brownfields and even a Superfund Site within the city today. Historic neighborhoods and abundance of pre-1950’s homes is another characteristic of the city. Unfortunately, improper removal and deterioration of lead (Pb) paints, as well as high Pb solder used in gutters, appear to be significant sources of soil Pb in Terre Haute. Despite the fact that most new environmental sources of Pb pollution have been eradicated, many areas of the city still have elevated soil Pb concentrations and the city continues to have children with elevated blood Pb levels. With the Center for Disease Control’s recent reduction in screening levels for blood Pb from 10 μg/dL to 5 μg/dL, the occurrence of children with childhood Pb poisoning could be greater than previously recognized. The goal of this study was to better understand the modern-day spatial distribution of Pb in surface soils across the city of Terre Haute. To achieve this goal, surface soil samples were collected across the city. New data were collected from city-owned properties (i.e. parks, cemeteries, and abandoned lots), Indiana State University land holdings within the city, residential properties, and community gardens. Data collected from residential areas included samples near the road, from beneath the gutter dripline of the house, in the backyard, in the garden, and other areas of importance to the homeowner. Samples were analyzed via handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer on site to provide homeowner with immediate feedback with the ultimate goal of increasing the use of safer urban gardening practices. Samples were then dried and crushed to re-analyze with the portable XRF, and samples with values >200 ppm Pb were processed and analyzed with the ICP-OES to verify the results. Results produced a wide range of Pb concentrations, from <5 ppm to >30,000 ppm for the residential areas. The spatial distribution of Pb was determined using a simple ordinary kriging method and Empirical Bayesian Kriging method by analyzing the total sample set, samples collected near the road, samples from yards and gardens, and under the gutter driplines of homes were also kriged. Samples collected near the gutter dripline had the highest Pb concentrations, while overall spatial trends depict higher Pb concentrations in the historic portion of the city, with concentrations decreasing with distance from the older part of the city. The predicted Pb concentrations generated from the total sample set was then compared to demographic, environmental, and infrastructure characteristics for Terre Haute. OLS regressions using both maximum and average Pb concentrations indicate a statistically significant (p=0.000) positive correlation between high Pb concentrations and percentage of vacant homes. Maximum and average Pb concentrations were then linked to individual U.S. Census block groups with associated demographic attributes. Bivariate local indicator of spatial association (Bi-LISA) analysis indicates populations of low socio-economic status are regularly being exposed to higher Pb concentrations in their neighborhoods, while populations with higher socio-economic status are exposed to lower Pb concentrations. The higher Pb concentrations and populations with lower socio-economic status both occur in the central portion of the city where historic development occurred representing environmental injustice.