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  • Social Inflation: Rising Tides in the Insurance Markets

    Heim, Noah (2021-12)
    Social inflation, despite its relative recency, has been a strong concern for some of the largest insurance carriers in the world. With claims costs increasing across broad markets, especially in casualty markets, insurers are racing to find the reason why. Increased claims costs can result in a number of negative effects on both insurance carriers as well as insurances buyers. Social inflation seems to be a key driver of these increased costs. Doing a deep dive into the validity of this claim and studying some potential causes as well as markets in which social inflation is occurring has led to the discovery of some significant effects on the insurance marketplace as well as some potential solutions to help curb the problem and move past this issue.
  • An Examination between Laryngeal Physiology and Parkinson’s Disease: Severity and Treatment

    Pelikan, Jillian (2020-12)
    The purpose of this in-depth literature review is to examine the relationship between laryngeal physiology and Parkinson’s disease in terms of the severity and possible treatment. This research aims to determine the distinct characteristics of Parkinsonian speech and possible causes of these speech deficits. In addition, a specific type of Parkinson’s disease treatment, deep brain stimulation, was explored to determine effectiveness on laryngeal physiological deficits found in Parkinson’s disease patients. Through synthesizing peer reviewed journals and various studies, data was examined in order to take an in-depth look at the unique relationship between laryngeal physiology and Parkinson’s disease. Findings indicated that Parkinsonian speech characteristics include vocal tremors, breathiness, hoarseness, and decreased vocal projection possibly due to bowed vocal folds or incomplete glottal closure. Low frequency deep brain stimulation treatment may serve as a potential resource for mitigating speech and voice deficits, however results are inconclusive.
  • COVID-19 Investigated in Terms of Disparities: An Analysis of the Past, Present, and Future of Public Health in Illinois

    DeBlock, Hannah (2020-12)
    As a relatively new topic, previous literature fails to address the relation of social determinants of health to COVID-19. By combining existing knowledge on previous epidemics, information on the role of social determinants of health, and data on COVID-19, conclusions can be made about the path going forward. Historically, nonpharmacologic interventions such as quarantine periods, face coverings, and social distancing have been used in epidemics such as the Spanish Influenza of 1918-19. In terms of social determinants of health, geographical location, educational level, and income level all play a part in the health of an individual. Rather than emphasizing personal decisions, health policy can be utilized to address social determinants of health and improve healthcare infrastructure across the country. By directing focus towards proactive, public healthcare rather than reactive, medical healthcare – a healthier society can be formed in a post-COVID world.
  • Determining the Optimal Healthcare System for America: Comparing the Current American and Universal Healthcare Systems

    Kandharkar, Tejas (2021-12)
    U.S. citizens ranked healthcare as the most important issue when it comes to voting (Zieff, 2020). The healthcare system’s importance is evident which is why it is important to determine what healthcare system is optimal for America. I used core indicators to compare the current American healthcare system and universal healthcare system and evaluated them for four key parameters. Based on my analysis, I conclusively determined that the universal healthcare system (Score: 8.23/10) is more optimal than the current American healthcare system (Score: 5.10/10). The American system had a somewhat better quality of care but the universal healthcare system was vastly better at limiting disparities in healthcare. I support research into further optimizing the universal healthcare system specifically for America to eventually adopt universal healthcare in the USA.
  • Cost Structures in American Commercial Banks Under $10 Billion: Trend Analysis with Policy Considerations

    Stucker, Thomas (2021-12)
    Cost structures in the banking have historically been a point of study for economists, but many existing economies of scale studies use highly restricted samples. I compiled quarterly data from 2002-2020 from the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council’s Uniform Bank Performance Report to estimate the relationship between bank size (measured by total assets) and bank overhead (noninterest) expense for US banks under $10 billion in total assets. I included a continuous time trend as well as binary time variables for the 2008 recession period and the post-Dodd-Frank era in a multiple linear regression model. My estimation found statistically significant evidence for economies of scale in banking under asset levels of $1.45 billion, and that overhead costs trended downwards over time with exceptions during the recession and the Dodd-Frank era. Synthesizing these results with contemporary literature reveals how an understanding of bank cost structures can aid regulators in assessing the potential costs and benefits of new banking regulations.
  • Nos Non Abolere Ordo Lectionum: The History of the Historic Lectionary as Retained by the Lutheran Church

    Walts, Conner (2021-12)
    The history of the Historic Lectionary from a Lutheran perspective provided great insight into its development and retention in the 21st century. This paper reviews the long history of the Historic Lectionary, previously the lectionary of the Western church, and compares its value in light of recent lectionary developments. This study reveals a Lutheran perspective in light of the lectionary debate in the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and succinctly sets forth centuries of lectionary history in the West.
  • Higher Education Graduation Rates: Problems, Solutions, and History

    Bowen, Anne (2021-05)
    This thesis explores how higher education graduation rates and student matriculation have affected stakeholders such as donors, students, taxpayers, and both government and nongovernment organization as well as the overall education rate in America. The ongoing implication of higher education graduation barriers is critical and impacting students across the United States. This thesis examines multiple higher education graduation disparities, including socio-economic status, academic preparation, and students’ sense of belong. Additionally, this thesis reflects on how specific predisposed risk factors, educational history, and admissions processes affect the overall student matriculation through end-phase graduation. Throughout history, higher education has used academic undermatching, defined as students’ ability to attend colleges that are less academically selective than those, for which they are academically prepared, and affirmative action or better known as the procedures to try to eliminate discrimination. These actions are unjust and lead to declining graduation rates in the United States. The history behind declining graduation rates includes influence from higher education learning commissions, institutional leadership, and stakeholders, resulting in lack of student success and inadequate understanding. Educational outcomes in the United States have been negatively impacted from the results of declining graduation rates, thus advancing studies to discover the significant 4-year graduation rate gap risk factors and how students’ sense of belonging play a role in earning a higher education degree. This thesis also presents the solutions that institutions, government officials, and researchers are working towards and how students themselves are focusing on participating in activities to advance the graduation rate in the United States
  • Bridging the Gap of Age and Awkwardness: Improving Geriatric Sex Education

    Watson, Anne (2018-05)
    Improving geriatric sex education is not a common thought for many Americans, but with a quickly growing population it may soon become a common topic for discussion. Discomfort, awkwardness, and lack of communication often keep health care providers and physicians from discussing sexual health with their elderly patients. These limitations are significantly impairing physicians and health care providers from educating their patients about their sexual health and addressing any concern the patient might have about their sexuality. Sexual health in geriatrics is a growing concern among many health care fields today as the elderly are participating in risky sexual behaviors but are not using safe sex practices. After collecting research from 28 sources, I have concluded that there are many inadequacies that are preventing quality sexual health education for the elderly by examining the history of sex education, discussing the limitations and barriers of adequate sexual health education, and analyzing the training and education methods being used to improve this elderly sexual health education. There are many ways in which improvement for geriatric sexual health education can occur; from enhanced communication to quality training for geriatric health care providers; but in the end the overall change needed will have to come from our society as a whole. The geriatric population is the fastest growing population in today’s society and soon this population will have new needs and concerns that will have to be addressed by us and future generations.
  • Comparison of Data Protection Laws in the United States vs. the European Union

    Decker, Trey
    Data protection legislation is an area that has become more talked about in the current times in the United States. With the advent of the secret documents leaked by former intelligence analyst Edward Snowden, and the quick-to-follow data breaches of two major corporations, potentially affecting around 160 million Americans, the time to discuss and understand this topic is now. The in-depth understanding of US data protection laws present significant issues therein. There lie holes and fissures, as a matter of speaking, the framework that results in the lack of user protection. How then can these holes be mended, and what are the proposed solutions? In order to resolve this case, this research first understands another framework by which to compare the current US framework. When compared to the US framework, which pieces appear to be missing from the US? By analyzing the results and research of law professionals, the discovery is that the US could benefit from a cohesive law, which would protect the fundamental right of citizens to have private data protection and the proper representation. Additionally, there needs to exist, in the least, one organization which holds authority over individuals who breach this right; the EU refers to these as Independent Supervisory Authorities (ISAs). The implications of these findings highlight the urgency to provide this fundamental right to US citizens. Where the right to privacy fails is to say that there is a fundamental right to have that right protected.
  • The United States and Canadian System of Healthcare: A Comparative Study

    Akinlaja, Mopelola O.
    There is a lot to be said about the world of healthcare. The significance of the role our health plays in our lives cannot be overemphasized. The idea of this paper is to explore two of the largest and functional healthcare systems in the world. The purpose of this is because of some key differences between the systems of healthcare that are very important as they relate to the accessibility and availability of healthcare and also the quality of care that is received. The two countries being compared in this paper are the United States and Canada. These countries utilize systems of healthcare that were founded on similar principles, but that have diverged over time. The major conversation going on around the world is the fact that healthcare system in the United States needs some major adjustments. On this premise, I decided to investigate and conduct a comparative study between these two systems of healthcare. I am comparing these systems using three major criteria; the cost, the quality and the amount of funding and research these countries are involved in. After some research was conducted on my part, I came to the conclusions that healthcare is more expensive in the United States than in Canada, the quality of care produced in the United States is not necessarily better than in Canada but the United States is more advanced in technology and research and finally that the United States should consider adjusting their method of approaching healthcare to make it available to the entire population.
  • Rising Readmission Rates: A national issue

    Anderson, Elaine
    Recently there has been a rise in hospital readmission rates. As a result of this increase in readmissions, the Affordable Healthcare Act (ACA) was implemented to assist in reducing hospital readmissions. This was done by penalizing hospitals for readmissions associated with the Medicare population. Prior to this research, the effect of this legislation on the readmission rate was unknown. Additionally, the different aspects or factors that contributed to an individual’s risk for being readmitted were unclear. Also it was uncertain how a high verses low nurse-to-patient ratio would affect patient outcomes and the readmission rate. Finally, the effects of being hospitalized on the patient were unknown. Both subjective and objective data were evaluated for this research. After extensive research it was found that the readmission rate was declining slightly, but it was still unclear whether the ACA was the cause for this decline. Additionally, it was uncovered that the main factors that contributed to being readmitted included: age, disease, literacy barriers, community support, medication and quality of care. Furthermore, high nurse-to-patient ratios contributed to an increase in a hospital’s readmission rate as a result of a decrease in the quality of care given by the nurse. Finally it was concluded that patients that experience high stress levels are at a greater risk for being readmitted and post invasive care syndrome often occurs post-discharge. In order to prevent readmission it is necessary to collaborate with other health professions to meet the unique needs of each patient.
  • Issues and Challenges of Adapting a Creative Work

    Axe, Joshua Q.
    This paper presents an overview of the process of adapting a creative work (i.e., books, films, works of art, etc.) focusing on the unique issues and challenges of bringing two distinctive types of media and persons from different disciplines together to create a successful adaptation. While the nature of adaptation is change, the process to accomplish that transition is complex. This research discusses the media involved, some of the key people involved in the process (and their expectations of the end product), and other factors upon which the success or failure of an adaptation depends. Three main areas examined include how the skill and choices made by the adapter can impact the original work and the adaptation (both positively and negatively), how creative visions can mesh or clash, and whether some creative works should not be changed from their original form. This research study includes numerous articles on the Internet, on-line resources, Library resources, books, television, movies, as well as personal observations of the subject matter. This research can assist a potential adapter or creator of a work in making informed decisions about the viability of undertaking an adaptation project. Further in-depth study should be conducted prior to beginning any project of adaptation, since while some of the issues and challenges are evident and concrete, others are subjective in nature.
  • Disney’s Female Gender Roles: The Change of Modern Culture

    Barber, McKenzie
    Disney Animation and their films are a huge part of the entertainment industry in America. They influence and reach children through many avenues, not just with movies, but through clothing, games, and toys. Disney has been around for over 80 years, and during that time, they have played a role in how society displays gender roles. As modern culture goes through changes, Disney can also be seen making changes in the way they represent their characters, especially females. While looking specifically at Disney princesses, the depiction of females and their gender roles can be described in at least one of three ways. One, the original portrayal of Disney princesses is the stereotypical damsel-in-distress, and very domestic. This can be seen through Snow White, Cinderella, and Sleeping Beauty. A second portrayal arose and shifted the roles of female characters to be seen as rebellious and ambitious. This picture can be seen through the characters of Ariel, Mulan, and Rapunzel. Lastly, a final shift has taken place and the female characters are portrayed as independent and free spirited. This type of depiction can be seen through seen through Merida, Anna and Elsa. Through different researches and literature reviews, including the movies themselves, Disney can be seen slowly making strides along with the surrounding culture and changing times in America.
  • Creating Environmental Education for Children: Focusing on the Vigo County/Terre Haute Community

    Bilyeu, Jordanna
    This study is an attempt to create an action plan to improve environmental education for children within a community. It evaluates the reach and sophistication of this type of education that currently exists in the Vigo County/Terre Haute community, diagnoses weaknesses in the system, and finds ways to develop it. Data was collected through surveys given to elementary school teachers in Vigo County Public schools, interviewing community educators, making on-site visits to educational locations, online research, and speaking with political figures. Environmental education lacks sophistication in schools and can be improved through hands-on, sustainability standards and resources. Community sources outside of schools are limited to university organizations, city and county parks, and museums. The reach of these entities can be improved through advertisement, accessibility, and collaboration. Lastly, initiatives to change legislation can improve the reach and sophistication of environmental education through government-funded environmental programming.
  • American Culture’s Impact on Gender and The Perpetuation of a Gender Binary

    Blaho, Anna
    This thesis explores the origins of American culture’s fixation on gender being a dichotomous concept. Through the analysis of previous research surrounding the subject of gender roles, expectations, and stereotypes, contributors to this restrictive mind frame as well as reinforcing agents were recognized. Historical trends have demonstrated the assignment of clear and separate tasks to the genders, which in turn created differentiated experiences and opportunities presented to each gender. Facilitated by the historical basis, American culture emulated similar patterns that instilled inflexible conceptions about gender to the point where it has created a discriminate workplace environment. As a consequence of the culture, the American economy uses these gender ideals to increase revenue, disregarding of ethics. These factors combined produce negative effects on American citizens, regardless of how they identify. Comprehensively, the results have established that a rigid format of gender has the ability to limit the opportunities accessible to all genders.
  • Pursuing Legislative Authority for Clinical Social Workers to Provide Private Independent Mental Health Services: What is the Status and What are the Issues?

    Blower, Caroline
    The scope of clinical social work practice differs among the various US states as defined by legislative codes. Understanding these differences is challenging because legislative codes are difficult to read, sometimes requires advanced knowledge to interpret, or do not provide the sufficient breadth and/or depth of information to enable a full understanding of practice limits. The study utilized an electronic survey and asked social workers throughout the US five questions about providing private independent mental health services. These questions addressed the ability of licensed clinical social workers (LCSWs) to (1) provide diagnosis, (2) create treatment plans, (3) bill third party insurance, (4) bill Medicaid, and (5) bill Medicare. Results indicated that LCSWs in at least 32 states reported ability to provide all five services independently and privately; 17 states whose respondents reported conflictual or uncertain ability to provide one or more of the services; and two states whose respondents reported inability to provide one or more of the services. Fortunately, respondents from no states reported inability to provide all the services. The conflictual or uncertain responses likely arise from complications or restrictions in scope of practice in some states and in understanding evolving definitions of private and independent practice.
  • Euthanasia: Is it Ethically and Morally Acceptable?

    Carmichael, Hannah
    All over the world, there is discussion being made about euthanasia and if it is ethically and morally acceptable. The opinions are different from state to state and country to country. These differences in opinions evolve from different religions, political forces, generations, genders, and social classes. Through literature review, an overview of euthanasia, along with the ethical dilemmas, the laws regarding euthanasia, and the financial outcomes of euthanasia will be presented. Findings suggest that there may never be a definitive answer to the ethics of euthanasia, but more discussion and research can lead to a more understanding of the positive and negative outcomes of euthanasia, which can ultimately lead to the legalization of euthanasia and allowing the terminally ill patients to decide their fate.
  • Benefits of Air Transportation vs Ground Transportation in the Medical Field

    Carpenter, Mackenzie
    The risks and benefits of air ambulance transportation is compared yearly to see if the benefits outweigh the risks for patients and healthcare workers. Lifeline, specifically, is the only flight service with no helicopter crashes. They have successfully stabilized and transported the patients to the best hospital where they receive life-saving care. The Indiana State Trauma Care Committee continues to collect data throughout the year to go over certain patient situations and how to better the outcomes or their overall performance. While both air and ground ambulance services are used to transport patients, the patients deemed most critical based on the scene, are flown to the respective hospital. Each of the specific transportation services, they are equipped with the proper tools and equipment to save the patient’s life when necessary. Overall, the statistics are being looked at to improve patient transfers and better the outcomes of survival rates. Physicians and other medical personnel are working to improve their skills and learn from each patient’s case.
  • The Health Benefits of the Mediterranean Diet

    Cleek, Kathryn
    This thesis is over the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet, what causes these increase in health benefits. In the introduction of this paper I discuss what the Mediterranean diet is, the history of the Mediterranean diet, who first demonstrated the diet, the physical activity differences in America and Europe, the portion size differences and the Ten Commandments of the diet. Each component of diet is important for understand how the diet works when comparing it to the health of those who demonstrate the diet.
  • Global Competency Teaching Intercultural Communication and Creativity in Universities to Prepare Graduates For the Global Workforce

    Crawford, Cassidy
    Universities are leaving students vastly unprepared to succeed in the globalized workforce upon graduation, due to a lack of global competency. This article examines the use of intercultural communication and creativity as necessary resources for students to gain global competency. First, global competency is defined. Next, the need for intercultural communication and how this need can be met by universities is discussed in depth. Lastly, the same is done for creativity in the context of the real-world and education. Surveys and statics of employers, professors, and students are applied to this examination. Additionally, methods to integrate intercultural communication and creativity are discussed as well. Major findings reveal that, although challenging, implementing intercultural communication and creativity in universities is desirable and necessary for global competency and student preparedness.

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