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  • Assessments of Childhood Apraxia of Speech Disorder

    Teelucksingh, Emily L. (Indiana State University, 2022)
    Speech communication is important for every human being. Whether the communication is verbal or non-verbal, everyone goes through a specific process to formulate speech. The specific process is known as the speech chain model. As the speaker, the speech communication chain consists of six stages. These are intention, meaning, utterance, articulatory planning, articulatory production, and sound. As the listener, the speech communication chain continues with the auditory response, word sequence, meaning, and then understanding the information that was received. To put this in play, an idea or thought is formed first. The brain then assigns meanings to words and the brain categorizes those words through the mental lexicon. After those words have been assigned, the brain starts planning how to produce thoughts. The brain then sends those plans to the articulatory muscles and produces phonetic sounds to form a meaningful sentence (Denes & Pinson, 1993).
  • An Intersection of Computational Biology and Functional Genomics to identify Transcriptional Gene Enhancers and Their Role in Cancer

    Aslam Khattak, Naureen; Gonser, Rusty Allen (Indiana State University, 2022)
    Despite the critical role of gene regulation in cell development and differentiation, the major challenge remains to identify the cis-regulatory modules (CRMs). Mainly, these CRMs include enhancers, promoters and insulators that governs the spatiotemporal gene regulation. The gene regulatory networks are highly dependent on their CRMs and mostly consist of DNA motifs and epigenetic landmarks. The recent advancements in high-throughput sequencing techniques and comparative genomics analysis accelerate the discovery of enhancers, however the major obstacles are to identify the genome-wide location of these CRMs, their dynamic nature of interactions, and cis/trans location which could be hundred to thousands base pairs away from the target gene location. The goal of this literature review is to provide an insight into the CRMs specifically enhancers, how they modulate gene expression, mutations that converts normal cell into a disease-state such as cancer. Also, this embedded review article is focused on the use of computational strategies coupled with the biochemical assays to predict functional gene enhancers. The computational strategies such as window clustering, probabilistic modeling, phylogenetic footprinting and discriminative modeling are briefly discussed to scan and locate the putative gene enhancers. Besides theses, biochemical techniques such as ChIP-seq, DNA footprinting, and deletion mapping are briefly reviewed in Drosophila to predict functional gene enhancers and dissecting gene regulatory networks. In addition, this review article may help bench scientists to incorporate bioinformatics tools with biochemical techniques to scan, locate and verify gene enhancer regions within a cell. With best of our knowledge, this is a first-time effort to combine insilico, in vitro and in vivo techniques to explore the connections between CRMs and gene regulation.
  • American Textbooks 1700-1820

    McGiverin, Rolland (2022-04-12)
    Textbooks published in America 1700-1820
  • February 25, 1960: Stories of Inspiration, Risk, and the Fight for Freedom

    Harlow, Laura
    The purpose of this paper is to explore the February 25, 1960 sit-in at the Montgomery Courthouse involving students from Alabama State College. Existing literature focuses on the outcome of the sit-in, most notably the Dixon v. Alabama (1960) case establishing due process rights for students in higher education. Research is limited charting the sit-in’s inception, organization and execution from a student lens. Through primary source interviews, this paper tells the story of two crucial leaders involved with the sit-in. Further, it identifies how the climate of the institution and local community influenced the student experience. This paper invites higher education administrators and faculty to think critically about how they can create environments of inclusion for our underrepresented student populations when faced with political power and chaos.
  • An Investigation of Body Image Among NCAA Female Athletes

    Madden, Colleen
    Over the last several decades, body image perceptions of collegiate female athletes have been investigated in the realms of both physical and mental health. The issue has been evaluated from various standpoints including sport type and competition level; however, body image is highly individualized among young women and thus remains an unpredictable challenge with unanswered questions. This comprehensive study includes an extensive literature review of research involving collegiate female athletes and factors that contribute to their body image; additionally, a newly developed survey for female athletes at the NCAA Division I level was administered, and more than 150 responses were analyzed. Four research objectives served as the foundation of this research, targeting the ultimate goal to form conclusions about how body image perceptions function in the lives of collegiate female athletes within the NCAA. The objectives were: first, to define body image as applicable to collegiate female athletes; second, to establish pressures that influence body image; third, to determine how the pressures of collegiate sport differ from the pressures on student non-athletes; and fourth, to assess the relationship between nutritional habits and body image among collegiate female athletes. Upon analysis of literature and the new survey, it was concluded that body image is dependent on many factors such as sport type, division level, and media objectification, but more importantly, the ways that individuals internalize such stimuli. Ultimately, the athletic world contributes to body image concerns and creates a unique pressure that cannot be experienced by non-athletes.
  • Three distinct mechanisms, Notch instructive, permissive, and independent, regulate the expression of two different pericardial genes to specify cardiac cell subtypes in Drosophila melanogaster

    Manoj, Panta
    The development of a complex organ involves the specification and differentiation of diverse cell types. Two major cell types, contractile cardial cells (CCs) and nephrocytic pericardial cells (PCs), comprise the Drosophila heart, with binding sites for Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)], an integral transcription factor in the Notch signaling pathway, enriched in the enhancers of genes that are specifically expressed in PCs. Here we show three distinct mechanisms regulating the expression of two PC-specific genes, Holes in muscle (Him), and Zn finger homeodomain 1 (zfh1). Him is regulated in a Notch-permissive manner: Su(H) forms a repressor complex with co-repressors that binds to the Him enhancer, repressing transcription in CCs; Notch signaling alleviates this repression in PCs to allow Him transcription. In contrast, zfh1 is transcribed by a Notch-instructive mechanism in most PCs: mere alleviation of repression by preventing the binding of the Su(H) repressor complex to the zfh1 enhancer is not sufficient to activate transcription; zfh1 transcription requires the presence of an activator complex formed by the binding of the Notch intracellular domain to Su(H). A third, Notch-independent pathway activates transcription from the same zfh1 enhancer in the remaining, even skipped-expressing, PCs. Our results illustrate how the same feature, enrichment of Su(H) binding sites in PC-specific gene enhancers, is utilized in two distinct ways to contribute to the same overall goal, the activation of the pericardial gene program, and present an example of a pleiotropic enhancer that is regulated by two independent mechanisms.
  • An Examination between Laryngeal Physiology and Parkinson’s Disease: Severity and Treatment

    Pelikan, Jillian
    The purpose of this in-depth literature review is to examine the relationship between laryngeal physiology and Parkinson’s disease in terms of the severity and possible treatment. This research aims to determine the distinct characteristics of Parkinsonian speech and possible causes of these speech deficits. In addition, a specific type of Parkinson’s disease treatment, deep brain stimulation, was explored to determine effectiveness on laryngeal physiological deficits found in Parkinson’s disease patients. Through synthesizing peer reviewed journals and various studies, data was examined in order to take an in-depth look at the unique relationship between laryngeal physiology and Parkinson’s disease. Findings indicated that Parkinsonian speech characteristics include vocal tremors, breathiness, hoarseness, and decreased vocal projection possibly due to bowed vocal folds or incomplete glottal closure. Low frequency deep brain stimulation treatment may serve as a potential resource for mitigating speech and voice deficits, however results are inconclusive.

    Bess, Adam
    Written in late 1943 and premiered the following winter in 1944, Concerto for Orchestra, Sz 116, BB 123, of Hungarian composer Béla Bartók was immediately regarded as a success by his critics and contemporaries alike. Presented as an entirely new compositional form, unheard before by audiences of the time, the Concerto for Orchestra brought strident fanfares coupled with delicate virtuosity, demanded of all performers of the orchestra. Though its reception was critically acclaimed, the troublesome events of World War II and rise of Socialism occurring alongside the conception and composition of the piece as well as its ground-breaking formal organization warrant closer analysis of the work as a possible anti-dogmatic composition. Drawing influence from the early concerto form, Bartók sought to emulate composers of the past and their emphases of individual performers in virtuosic solo concertos. Many other composers have been allured to the genre and their respective works across musical periods have entered the standard repertoire. However, arguably none have been so dramatic and contrasting as Bartók’s Concerto for Orchestra, a five-movement quasi-symphonic work in which each movement features one instrumental section over another, complete with the virtuosic demands composers, performers, and critics have all come to know with the concerto genre. This analyses serves to provide examples and reviews which support the view of Bartók’s Concerto for Orchestra as a sans-textbook composition which has since entered the standard orchestral repertoire as a representative of the new compositional attitudes of the 20th century. Additionally, this analyses strives to emphasize the impact of the work on Bartók’s contemporaries, who continue to emulate his techniques in respective compositions. Argumentative support will be garnered by examining personal writings and correspondence of Bartók as well as those of his contemporaries. Additionally, by analyzing score and recording notes as well as performance reviews from contrasting decades, an idea of how receptions and performances of the work have changed can be posited in support of the influence and preeminence of the Concerto for Orchestra as one of the most significant works in the orchestral body literature from the last 100 years.
  • Social Media’s Effects on Voting

    Hemmen, Abbey
    Technology such as the internet become integral aspects of people’s lives; it is how they get news, stay in touch with friends, and entertain themselves. Social media is unarguably changing the way many Americans spend their time, but how is it affecting their voting behavior? My hypothesis is that the manner in which people spend time on social media sites will determine whether or not they are likely to vote. Those who are actively engaging in politics online will be more likely to vote than those who do not, regardless of the number of hours they spend on social media. All of the campaign advertisements in the world do not matter if someone is not paying attention to them. According to a small survey of Indiana State University students, this appears to be true. Students who spent more hours on social media were not more likely to vote, but those who reported observing higher levels of political content were.
  • International Education in the U.S. Through the Prism of Fulbright Program: Historical Analysis

    Kaniuka, Polina
    The scale and speed of global change challenge higher education and other national sectors to internationalize, to have an understanding of the relationship of various nations, including the United States, with the rest of the world, and to realize the importance of the latter. International education plays a prominent role in the shaping of a new global society. However, it seems there has not been enough support from the federal government in regards to the efforts promoting international education in the United States. Many studies touched on the role of the federal government when it comes to the higher education; however, there have not been enough efforts on providing a comprehensive analysis of the United States higher education system’s internationalization and the role of the internal and external factors. This study attempts such an analysis from 1944 to 1975 focused on the federal government support in the context of one highly successful program in the international education – Fulbright’s Amendment to the Surplus Property Act of 1946 (or Fulbright Program). The program was identified for its explicit interest in and continuous support for higher education’s international capacity between 1944 and 1975. This study takes a longitudinal approach to provide the context of the implementation and development of the program under examination during the period of time identified. The study seeks to answer the following questions: 1) how did major historical external and internal events affect the federal support of international education in the USA on the example of the successful program – Fulbright Program? 2) what are the factors that have determined the success of the program? In order to answer those research questions, it was important to research the context of the time and circumstances in which the program was implemented. That is why at first, I attempted to describe internal and external events taking place that shaped the environment of the program under examination. Then, it was imperative to discuss what the program entailed and to show its development overtime in regards to its capacity and scope. Finally, I attempted to analyze the factors that determined its success.
  • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Preschool-Aged Children: A Critical Review

    Anastasiadis, Will
    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). ADHD is a fairly common psychopathology diagnosed in childhood (Kooij et al., 2010; Perou et al., 2013). For instance, a recent study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that approximately 6.1 million (9.4%) U.S. children and adolescents between the ages of 2 and 17 have received an ADHD diagnosis; these prevalence estimates were acquired from a collection of 2016 parent-reported ADHD diagnoses (Danielson et al., 2018). Of those patients diagnosed with ADHD, a weighted estimate of 2.4% (388,000) were between the ages of 2 and 5 (i.e., toddlers and preschool-aged children). Although ADHD was found to be proportionally greater in older school-aged children, there is ongoing controversy surrounding the contemporary diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in preschool-aged children (e.g., Harpin, 2005; Layton, Barnett, Hicks, & Jena, 2018), generating various economic, mental and public health concerns (Zhao et al., 2019). Misdiagnosis and undertreatment of ADHD are serious burdens for young children at risk, as lack of preventive treatment may ensue long-lasting effects (Harpin, 2005; Upshur, Wenz-Gross, & Reed 2009). Regrettably, prior research also suggests that differentiating ADHD from normative behavior in preschool-aged children is challenging for clinicians (Ford-Jones, 2015). Thus, the purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent research regarding ADHD, with a particular emphasis on the etiology and treatment of preschool-aged children. In writing this review, the author hopes to provide practitioners and clinical scientists clarity in this fairly contentious area in the ADHD literature.
  • English Newspapers at Indiana State University

    McGiverin, Rolland (2020-09-01)
    Bibliography of historic English newspapers at ISU.
  • British Collection: Bibliography of Dictionaries and Lexicographic Tools

    McGiverin, Rolland (2020-09-01)
    Bibliography of Dictionaries and Lex9icographic Tools
  • American Newspapers

    McGiverin, Rolland (2020-09-01)
    A bibliography of historic American newspapers in the ISU collection.
  • African American Newspapers: A bibliography

    McGiverin, Rolland (2020-01-01)
    Bibliography of African American newspapers with information to help access the publication.

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