• The Almost Promised Land: The Opposition to and Veto of the Agricultural College Act of 1857

      Harpool, Robert L.
      In 1857, Representative Justin Morrill put forth before the House of Representatives an act “Donating public lands to the several States and Territories which may provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts”. A different iteration of the bill would pass 5 years later, in 1862, under President Lincoln. The latter version would incubate what would become known as land-grant universities whose members would occupy significant positions in the landscape of higher education. The bill in 1857, however, barely passed through both houses of Congress though, and President Buchanan, a supporter of higher education, soundly vetoed it. Many scholars state the defeat of the bill was rooted in Southern opposition on the grounds of constitutionality and states’ rights. This one-dimensional view is an unjust labeling of the South as obstructionists for the sake of convenient curriculum. By making the conclusion the premise, numerous inherent issues such as why an agrarian South would oppose an agricultural bill are overlooked. In reality the veto of the agricultural college land act of 1857 was a result of a competitive interaction between numerous complex interests unbounded by the sectional rivalries of the time. If there is a common theme amongst the interests in opposition to the bill it is not sectionalism or ideology, it is finance.
    • Ethical Considerations for Sedation of Terminal Wean Patients

      Livingston, Laura
      The purpose of this paper is to examine the ethical concerns involved with the sedation of a terminal wean patient. Terminal weaning is the process of removing a patient from a ventilator (a form of life support) by removing the endotracheal tube. Prior to this procedure, the determination has been made that the patient has either a terminal illness and will not recover or will have to remain on life support to sustain life (Keene, Samples, Masini, & Byington, 2006). The determination to remove a patient from the ventilator is usually one made between the health care team, family member or surrogate, and ideally the patient themselves. Treatment focus switches from the cure of disease to comfort care at the end of life. Death can cause unbearable distress and suffering for a patient. Dyspnea, feelings of suffocation, severe fatigue, nausea, vomiting, anxiety, delirium, intractable pain, and incontinence are several of the issues a dying patient may experience (Tomko & Maxwell, 1999). Despite all efforts to comfort the patient with analgesics, anxiolytics, family support or spiritual services, the patient may continue to suffer. Palliative sedation is used to decrease the level of consciousness in these patients and to help relieve their distress and suffering (Van Wijlick, 2011). Prior to the removal of the endotracheal tube for a terminal weaning process, a patient who has been living on ventilator support may already be receiving sedatives to keep him or her comfortable. A major ethical consideration in using palliative sedation is the determination that it is different from physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia (Belgrave & Requena, 2012).
    • Alban Berg's Violin Concerto: A Short History of its Reception

      Canfield, Nathan
      Since its world premiere in 1936, Alban Berg's Violin Conce1io has retained a stable place in the repertoire, an unusual feat for a work based on twelve-tone principles. It is all the more remarkable to note its early success despite unfavorable conditions surround ing its first performances. Though Berg (1885-1 935) had already been recognized for his compositions internationally, this work (perhaps along with the event of his death before the premiere) accelerated his worldwide recognition as an important contributor and innovator of contemporary music. Today it is viewed as the composer's most popular work, combi ning serialism with Mahlerian romanticism. As a whole, the Violin Concerto deviates from Berg's usual style in a number of areas, including genre, form, and tonal organization, as well as the inspiration and motives for accepting its commission. While its emotionally-charged program and romantic approach assuredly contributed toward its early success, it is d ifficult neve1iheless to justify its popularity as a work that seems to devote itself to pacifying twelve-tone technique. Throughout this essay I will examine various historic critical evaluations of the work and argue why it has been publicly well-received in spite of its predominant, idiosyncratic use of serial techniques. I will focus primarily on its first three performances along with their reception and compare these initial reactions with more recent viewpoints.
    • Singing and its effects on well-being

      Fishburn, Jason
      The purpose is to review the literature on the effects singing has on well-being.It also shows that singing has also been credited as having a positive effect on the treatment of neurological disorders.Group singing is a musical activity that has been used with marginalized populations and has a positive effect on inmate happiness and an improved quality of life with homeless men.
    • Bakerman Student Research Awards 2010 Guidelines

      Indiana State University, Library
      The purpose of the awards is to recognize excellence in undergraduate and graduate research papers that incorporate exceptional skill and creativity in the application of the services, resources, and collections of the ISU Library and that demonstrate information literacy skills on the part of the student researcher.
    • An Examination between Laryngeal Physiology and Parkinson’s Disease: Severity and Treatment

      Pelikan, Jillian
      The purpose of this in-depth literature review is to examine the relationship between laryngeal physiology and Parkinson’s disease in terms of the severity and possible treatment. This research aims to determine the distinct characteristics of Parkinsonian speech and possible causes of these speech deficits. In addition, a specific type of Parkinson’s disease treatment, deep brain stimulation, was explored to determine effectiveness on laryngeal physiological deficits found in Parkinson’s disease patients. Through synthesizing peer reviewed journals and various studies, data was examined in order to take an in-depth look at the unique relationship between laryngeal physiology and Parkinson’s disease. Findings indicated that Parkinsonian speech characteristics include vocal tremors, breathiness, hoarseness, and decreased vocal projection possibly due to bowed vocal folds or incomplete glottal closure. Low frequency deep brain stimulation treatment may serve as a potential resource for mitigating speech and voice deficits, however results are inconclusive.
    • Three distinct mechanisms, Notch instructive, permissive, and independent, regulate the expression of two different pericardial genes to specify cardiac cell subtypes in Drosophila melanogaster

      Manoj, Panta
      The development of a complex organ involves the specification and differentiation of diverse cell types. Two major cell types, contractile cardial cells (CCs) and nephrocytic pericardial cells (PCs), comprise the Drosophila heart, with binding sites for Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)], an integral transcription factor in the Notch signaling pathway, enriched in the enhancers of genes that are specifically expressed in PCs. Here we show three distinct mechanisms regulating the expression of two PC-specific genes, Holes in muscle (Him), and Zn finger homeodomain 1 (zfh1). Him is regulated in a Notch-permissive manner: Su(H) forms a repressor complex with co-repressors that binds to the Him enhancer, repressing transcription in CCs; Notch signaling alleviates this repression in PCs to allow Him transcription. In contrast, zfh1 is transcribed by a Notch-instructive mechanism in most PCs: mere alleviation of repression by preventing the binding of the Su(H) repressor complex to the zfh1 enhancer is not sufficient to activate transcription; zfh1 transcription requires the presence of an activator complex formed by the binding of the Notch intracellular domain to Su(H). A third, Notch-independent pathway activates transcription from the same zfh1 enhancer in the remaining, even skipped-expressing, PCs. Our results illustrate how the same feature, enrichment of Su(H) binding sites in PC-specific gene enhancers, is utilized in two distinct ways to contribute to the same overall goal, the activation of the pericardial gene program, and present an example of a pleiotropic enhancer that is regulated by two independent mechanisms.
    • THE IMMEDIATE SUCCESS OF BARTÓK: RECEPTION AND INFLUENCE OF THE CONCERTO FOR ORCHESTRA ON THE REPERTOIRE

      Bess, Adam
      Written in late 1943 and premiered the following winter in 1944, Concerto for Orchestra, Sz 116, BB 123, of Hungarian composer Béla Bartók was immediately regarded as a success by his critics and contemporaries alike. Presented as an entirely new compositional form, unheard before by audiences of the time, the Concerto for Orchestra brought strident fanfares coupled with delicate virtuosity, demanded of all performers of the orchestra. Though its reception was critically acclaimed, the troublesome events of World War II and rise of Socialism occurring alongside the conception and composition of the piece as well as its ground-breaking formal organization warrant closer analysis of the work as a possible anti-dogmatic composition. Drawing influence from the early concerto form, Bartók sought to emulate composers of the past and their emphases of individual performers in virtuosic solo concertos. Many other composers have been allured to the genre and their respective works across musical periods have entered the standard repertoire. However, arguably none have been so dramatic and contrasting as Bartók’s Concerto for Orchestra, a five-movement quasi-symphonic work in which each movement features one instrumental section over another, complete with the virtuosic demands composers, performers, and critics have all come to know with the concerto genre. This analyses serves to provide examples and reviews which support the view of Bartók’s Concerto for Orchestra as a sans-textbook composition which has since entered the standard orchestral repertoire as a representative of the new compositional attitudes of the 20th century. Additionally, this analyses strives to emphasize the impact of the work on Bartók’s contemporaries, who continue to emulate his techniques in respective compositions. Argumentative support will be garnered by examining personal writings and correspondence of Bartók as well as those of his contemporaries. Additionally, by analyzing score and recording notes as well as performance reviews from contrasting decades, an idea of how receptions and performances of the work have changed can be posited in support of the influence and preeminence of the Concerto for Orchestra as one of the most significant works in the orchestral body literature from the last 100 years.
    • Group Proposal

      McCarthy, Francesca
      Throughout my entire athletic career, spanning from the ages of 6 to 22, I heard coaches talking about mental toughness. Mental toughness was much more than playing your hardest when you were tired or pushing yourself to do extra shooting drills after practice. What I learned was that mental toughness meant avoiding the trainer when you were hurt, hiding injuries that could keep you from playing, and continuing to play no matter how your body was feeling. This attitude permeates athletic culture. Athletes are trained from the beginning of their careers to bury anything that could prevent them from being able to participate. That philosophy bleeds into other parts of their lives, including mental health. Breaking into this population to better understand the variety of difficulties they face can be complicated because of athletes’ tendency to underreport symptoms (Martinsen & Sundgot-Borgen, 2013). Along with the years of physical training, they have also been psychologically trained to mask their pain. Due to this training, it is important for athletes to receive the mental health care that they need. College athletes are especially at risk. There is a tremendous amount of pressure on college athletes to play through any difficulties, because their tuition often relies on their performance. Along with this pressure, their transition out of sports can be incredibly difficult. After retirement from athletics, athletes may experience identity crisis, loss of self-worth, decrease in self-esteem, decline of life satisfaction, emotional problems, alcohol and drug abuse, problems building new relationships, occupational troubles, and physical difficulties such as injuries and dietary problems (Erpic, Wylleman, & Zupancic, 2004). The development of group therapy services for college athletes who have completed their final season of college athletics and who are preparing to graduate from college would be beneficial for athletes in any sport. These services would be available to the athletes throughout their transition out of sports. The group would focus on the difficulties traditionally experienced by athletes going through this challenging transition. Taking advantage of their years of athletic training, the group services would be stylized like a typical athletic practice.
    • Effect of Adolescent Cell Phone Use on Independence

      Mang, Kendra M.
      Although there is research that examines cell phone use and college students, this study investigated high school student cell phone use and its effect on adolescent independence. Fourteen high school students were asked a variety of questions that determined the participants’ characteristics, cell phone usage, contact with parents, and effect of cell phone on curfew, schedule, problem solving, and decision making. Overall, the study concluded that both parents and adolescents preferred to communicate by text messaging. Parents were slightly more likely to initiate contact with their adolescent children. Girls were more likely to contact their parents for advice with a dating or friendship conflict while boys were more likely to contact their parents when a school-related problem arose. Overall, boys considered themselves more independent from their parents than girls. These results both support and extend previous research.
    • The Crayfish Snakes of North America

      Pruett, Jake A.
      One of the greatest feats of evolutionary innovation, the amniotic egg, allowed vertebrate organisms more freedom from the aquatic environment by being able to place their eggs on land. Amniotes became a diverse group occupying a myriad of habitats around the globe. Over time, there have been multiple independent invasions of aquatic systems by terrestrial amniotes from a variety of taxa. Reptiles (the historically recognized group) are a diverse group of organisms with aquatic representative taxa on every continent except Antarctica. Within reptiles, the ophidia (snakes) are found all across the globe and in most aquatic habitats. There have been multiple invasions of both freshwater and marine systems by snakes in several families, and members of the subfamily Natricinae are found in many freshwater systems in North America.
    • Connecting Disease with the Enviornment:what can multidisciplinary science do for Epidemiology?

      Jamison, Amanda
      Movement of viruses and microscopic pathogens into new habitat,through accidental introduction or range expansion is of great interest.Studies have begun to examine the potential applications of geospatial technology,while integrating typical ecological components.
    • Common Bonds

      Curry, Laurie-Ann
      A January 2009 Pew poll shows that from January 2008 to January 2009 there was a decline of our belief in, and concern about, climate change, global warming and their implications. This paper looks at climate change, global warming, environmental degradation and over-population as factors that are inseparable due to the feedback loop that is generated by the common bonds they have and that a change in the balance of one can, and often does, escalate the others in a non-linear fashion. These issues have become so politicized that it is nearly impossible for the science on these four problems to speak for itself with the public. Many of the debates that surround climate change and global warming overlook the glaring reality that there are millions of years of “proof” that climate change has, is and will continue to occur as long as our planet and its sun exist. The arguments disallowing climate change, global warming, environmental degradation and the refugees they are and will continue to engender allows us to shroud the even darker and equally dangerous issue of an over-populated planet that cannot possibly sustain its current population, let alone future growth of that population, with the same robe of disbelief.
    • Swift changes

      Burris, Hannah
      Jonathan swift's most popular book gulliver's travels was rooted in high emotions and took a prodigious amount of work to tame and construct into a satire.
    • William Byrd Covert Catholic Values with anglican anthems comparison of style to catholic Gradualia.

      Mitchell, Shelley
      William Byrd responds to the religious turmoil during his time by showing its influence in his works,along with his personal obstacles to overcome.Much if his life-style during this time depended on the personal friendships that one could develop with minor officials in the hope of avoiding the harsh treatments and heavy fines given to many recusants.
    • Methods of Murder in Maternal Filicide: An Analysis of Weapon Use and Mode of Death

      Möller, Ami
      Maternal filicide, the murder of a child perpetrated by his or her mother, has been studied in an effort to define the causal factors for such behavior. Less information exists on the type of weapons used by mothers. This paper presents a content analysis of twenty maternal filicide cases collected from various newspapers in an effort to determine the common methods of murder and types of weapons used by the mothers. Findings show that blunt objects are the most frequently used weapon by these offenders. A comparison with previous research of the same faction indicates slightly different weapon use even though demographic results, such as offender age and victim gender, are similar.
    • Rehabilitation or Retribution? Labeling Theory and the sex offender

      Beville, Brian
      Sex offenders have to register under sexual notifications laws that list their offenses online.Also,some sex offenders have had to go as far as placing signs in their front lawns,wearing global positioning system tracking devices,or have even had to displace to other living areas.
    • Life-Course Criminology and Desistance from Crime: What Consists of a Good Marriage and are the Effects Gender Specific?

      Hunter, Shawn P.
      Criminology is the science of studying crime on individual and societal levels. The area of life-course criminology seeks to understand how an individual begins in crime, persists, and eventually desists, and how desistance is achieved throughout the entire course of a person's life. Desistance may be accomplished through a number of ways within the confines of a marriage, from the cultivation of a strong marriage environment with strong attachments and commitments between spouses, to marriage simply functioning as the mechanism to replace one‟s previous deviant friends. While there is a large body of knowledge explaining how desistance is achieve through marriage for men, the literature pertaining to women is very small. In addition to these gendered differences in research, the specific properties of what consists of a “good marriage” are missing from the literature to date.
    • Autism Social Skills Group Proposal

      Thames, Anna
      The topic chosen for the group proposal was social skills group interventions for children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epp (2008) defines ASDs as “a broad range of disorders characterized by interference with communication and social interactions and circular patterns of interest, activities, and behaviors” (p. 27). Children with ASDs frequently have deficits in the development of social skills and have significantly fewer social interactions with peers than typically developing children (DeRosier, Swick, Davis, McMillen, & Matthews, 2011). In 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that one in 110 children is affected by an ASD in the United States. The increased prevalence of autism and the impairments in social functioning that characterized this disorder provide the rationale for this group. Social skills play an important role in an individual’s ability to form social relationships and function effectively in daily life (Epp, 2008). Yalom (2005) stated that “the need to be closely related to others is as basic as any biological need” (p. 21). Children with autism suffer from deficits in their interpersonal and social skills, but also need social bonds just as any typical developing child does. As Yalom (2005) discussed, maladaptive interpersonal skills can be identified and corrected through psychoeducation, role-play, and skills training in group settings. The deficits in interpersonal and social relationships that children with autism experience can be augmented through social skills training in a group setting.
    • Spuds! Potatoes and change in the English Language.

      Steele, Hannah
      Languages are dynamic and fluid constructions.Their evolution cannot be stopped unless they die out at most merely slowed.By studying the evolution and adoption of potato-related terms in english,linguists can clearly see the active nature of language change through a variety of influences,the relation of the terminology to standardization,and a demonstration of the principle of linguistic relativity.