• Effect of Adolescent Cell Phone Use on Independence

      Mang, Kendra M.
      Although there is research that examines cell phone use and college students, this study investigated high school student cell phone use and its effect on adolescent independence. Fourteen high school students were asked a variety of questions that determined the participants’ characteristics, cell phone usage, contact with parents, and effect of cell phone on curfew, schedule, problem solving, and decision making. Overall, the study concluded that both parents and adolescents preferred to communicate by text messaging. Parents were slightly more likely to initiate contact with their adolescent children. Girls were more likely to contact their parents for advice with a dating or friendship conflict while boys were more likely to contact their parents when a school-related problem arose. Overall, boys considered themselves more independent from their parents than girls. These results both support and extend previous research.
    • Ethical Considerations for Sedation of Terminal Wean Patients

      Livingston, Laura
      The purpose of this paper is to examine the ethical concerns involved with the sedation of a terminal wean patient. Terminal weaning is the process of removing a patient from a ventilator (a form of life support) by removing the endotracheal tube. Prior to this procedure, the determination has been made that the patient has either a terminal illness and will not recover or will have to remain on life support to sustain life (Keene, Samples, Masini, & Byington, 2006). The determination to remove a patient from the ventilator is usually one made between the health care team, family member or surrogate, and ideally the patient themselves. Treatment focus switches from the cure of disease to comfort care at the end of life. Death can cause unbearable distress and suffering for a patient. Dyspnea, feelings of suffocation, severe fatigue, nausea, vomiting, anxiety, delirium, intractable pain, and incontinence are several of the issues a dying patient may experience (Tomko & Maxwell, 1999). Despite all efforts to comfort the patient with analgesics, anxiolytics, family support or spiritual services, the patient may continue to suffer. Palliative sedation is used to decrease the level of consciousness in these patients and to help relieve their distress and suffering (Van Wijlick, 2011). Prior to the removal of the endotracheal tube for a terminal weaning process, a patient who has been living on ventilator support may already be receiving sedatives to keep him or her comfortable. A major ethical consideration in using palliative sedation is the determination that it is different from physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia (Belgrave & Requena, 2012).
    • An Examination between Laryngeal Physiology and Parkinson’s Disease: Severity and Treatment

      Pelikan, Jillian
      The purpose of this in-depth literature review is to examine the relationship between laryngeal physiology and Parkinson’s disease in terms of the severity and possible treatment. This research aims to determine the distinct characteristics of Parkinsonian speech and possible causes of these speech deficits. In addition, a specific type of Parkinson’s disease treatment, deep brain stimulation, was explored to determine effectiveness on laryngeal physiological deficits found in Parkinson’s disease patients. Through synthesizing peer reviewed journals and various studies, data was examined in order to take an in-depth look at the unique relationship between laryngeal physiology and Parkinson’s disease. Findings indicated that Parkinsonian speech characteristics include vocal tremors, breathiness, hoarseness, and decreased vocal projection possibly due to bowed vocal folds or incomplete glottal closure. Low frequency deep brain stimulation treatment may serve as a potential resource for mitigating speech and voice deficits, however results are inconclusive.
    • February 25, 1960: Stories of Inspiration, Risk, and the Fight for Freedom

      Harlow, Laura
      The purpose of this paper is to explore the February 25, 1960 sit-in at the Montgomery Courthouse involving students from Alabama State College. Existing literature focuses on the outcome of the sit-in, most notably the Dixon v. Alabama (1960) case establishing due process rights for students in higher education. Research is limited charting the sit-in’s inception, organization and execution from a student lens. Through primary source interviews, this paper tells the story of two crucial leaders involved with the sit-in. Further, it identifies how the climate of the institution and local community influenced the student experience. This paper invites higher education administrators and faculty to think critically about how they can create environments of inclusion for our underrepresented student populations when faced with political power and chaos.
    • Group Proposal

      McCarthy, Francesca
      Throughout my entire athletic career, spanning from the ages of 6 to 22, I heard coaches talking about mental toughness. Mental toughness was much more than playing your hardest when you were tired or pushing yourself to do extra shooting drills after practice. What I learned was that mental toughness meant avoiding the trainer when you were hurt, hiding injuries that could keep you from playing, and continuing to play no matter how your body was feeling. This attitude permeates athletic culture. Athletes are trained from the beginning of their careers to bury anything that could prevent them from being able to participate. That philosophy bleeds into other parts of their lives, including mental health. Breaking into this population to better understand the variety of difficulties they face can be complicated because of athletes’ tendency to underreport symptoms (Martinsen & Sundgot-Borgen, 2013). Along with the years of physical training, they have also been psychologically trained to mask their pain. Due to this training, it is important for athletes to receive the mental health care that they need. College athletes are especially at risk. There is a tremendous amount of pressure on college athletes to play through any difficulties, because their tuition often relies on their performance. Along with this pressure, their transition out of sports can be incredibly difficult. After retirement from athletics, athletes may experience identity crisis, loss of self-worth, decrease in self-esteem, decline of life satisfaction, emotional problems, alcohol and drug abuse, problems building new relationships, occupational troubles, and physical difficulties such as injuries and dietary problems (Erpic, Wylleman, & Zupancic, 2004). The development of group therapy services for college athletes who have completed their final season of college athletics and who are preparing to graduate from college would be beneficial for athletes in any sport. These services would be available to the athletes throughout their transition out of sports. The group would focus on the difficulties traditionally experienced by athletes going through this challenging transition. Taking advantage of their years of athletic training, the group services would be stylized like a typical athletic practice.
    • THE IMMEDIATE SUCCESS OF BARTÓK: RECEPTION AND INFLUENCE OF THE CONCERTO FOR ORCHESTRA ON THE REPERTOIRE

      Bess, Adam
      Written in late 1943 and premiered the following winter in 1944, Concerto for Orchestra, Sz 116, BB 123, of Hungarian composer Béla Bartók was immediately regarded as a success by his critics and contemporaries alike. Presented as an entirely new compositional form, unheard before by audiences of the time, the Concerto for Orchestra brought strident fanfares coupled with delicate virtuosity, demanded of all performers of the orchestra. Though its reception was critically acclaimed, the troublesome events of World War II and rise of Socialism occurring alongside the conception and composition of the piece as well as its ground-breaking formal organization warrant closer analysis of the work as a possible anti-dogmatic composition. Drawing influence from the early concerto form, Bartók sought to emulate composers of the past and their emphases of individual performers in virtuosic solo concertos. Many other composers have been allured to the genre and their respective works across musical periods have entered the standard repertoire. However, arguably none have been so dramatic and contrasting as Bartók’s Concerto for Orchestra, a five-movement quasi-symphonic work in which each movement features one instrumental section over another, complete with the virtuosic demands composers, performers, and critics have all come to know with the concerto genre. This analyses serves to provide examples and reviews which support the view of Bartók’s Concerto for Orchestra as a sans-textbook composition which has since entered the standard orchestral repertoire as a representative of the new compositional attitudes of the 20th century. Additionally, this analyses strives to emphasize the impact of the work on Bartók’s contemporaries, who continue to emulate his techniques in respective compositions. Argumentative support will be garnered by examining personal writings and correspondence of Bartók as well as those of his contemporaries. Additionally, by analyzing score and recording notes as well as performance reviews from contrasting decades, an idea of how receptions and performances of the work have changed can be posited in support of the influence and preeminence of the Concerto for Orchestra as one of the most significant works in the orchestral body literature from the last 100 years.
    • International Education in the U.S. Through the Prism of Fulbright Program: Historical Analysis

      Kaniuka, Polina
      The scale and speed of global change challenge higher education and other national sectors to internationalize, to have an understanding of the relationship of various nations, including the United States, with the rest of the world, and to realize the importance of the latter. International education plays a prominent role in the shaping of a new global society. However, it seems there has not been enough support from the federal government in regards to the efforts promoting international education in the United States. Many studies touched on the role of the federal government when it comes to the higher education; however, there have not been enough efforts on providing a comprehensive analysis of the United States higher education system’s internationalization and the role of the internal and external factors. This study attempts such an analysis from 1944 to 1975 focused on the federal government support in the context of one highly successful program in the international education – Fulbright’s Amendment to the Surplus Property Act of 1946 (or Fulbright Program). The program was identified for its explicit interest in and continuous support for higher education’s international capacity between 1944 and 1975. This study takes a longitudinal approach to provide the context of the implementation and development of the program under examination during the period of time identified. The study seeks to answer the following questions: 1) how did major historical external and internal events affect the federal support of international education in the USA on the example of the successful program – Fulbright Program? 2) what are the factors that have determined the success of the program? In order to answer those research questions, it was important to research the context of the time and circumstances in which the program was implemented. That is why at first, I attempted to describe internal and external events taking place that shaped the environment of the program under examination. Then, it was imperative to discuss what the program entailed and to show its development overtime in regards to its capacity and scope. Finally, I attempted to analyze the factors that determined its success.
    • An Investigation of Body Image Among NCAA Female Athletes

      Madden, Colleen
      Over the last several decades, body image perceptions of collegiate female athletes have been investigated in the realms of both physical and mental health. The issue has been evaluated from various standpoints including sport type and competition level; however, body image is highly individualized among young women and thus remains an unpredictable challenge with unanswered questions. This comprehensive study includes an extensive literature review of research involving collegiate female athletes and factors that contribute to their body image; additionally, a newly developed survey for female athletes at the NCAA Division I level was administered, and more than 150 responses were analyzed. Four research objectives served as the foundation of this research, targeting the ultimate goal to form conclusions about how body image perceptions function in the lives of collegiate female athletes within the NCAA. The objectives were: first, to define body image as applicable to collegiate female athletes; second, to establish pressures that influence body image; third, to determine how the pressures of collegiate sport differ from the pressures on student non-athletes; and fourth, to assess the relationship between nutritional habits and body image among collegiate female athletes. Upon analysis of literature and the new survey, it was concluded that body image is dependent on many factors such as sport type, division level, and media objectification, but more importantly, the ways that individuals internalize such stimuli. Ultimately, the athletic world contributes to body image concerns and creates a unique pressure that cannot be experienced by non-athletes.
    • Life-Course Criminology and Desistance from Crime: What Consists of a Good Marriage and are the Effects Gender Specific?

      Hunter, Shawn P.
      Criminology is the science of studying crime on individual and societal levels. The area of life-course criminology seeks to understand how an individual begins in crime, persists, and eventually desists, and how desistance is achieved throughout the entire course of a person's life. Desistance may be accomplished through a number of ways within the confines of a marriage, from the cultivation of a strong marriage environment with strong attachments and commitments between spouses, to marriage simply functioning as the mechanism to replace one‟s previous deviant friends. While there is a large body of knowledge explaining how desistance is achieve through marriage for men, the literature pertaining to women is very small. In addition to these gendered differences in research, the specific properties of what consists of a “good marriage” are missing from the literature to date.
    • The Mau Mau Rebellion

      Miller, Christle
      The colonialization of Africa was long underway by the time the British moved into Kenya in the late 1800s. Rather Africa was opened for colonialization for some time, “the story of pacification and effective occupation of Kenya was no different from what happened all over Britain’s empire at the close of the nineteenth century.” Indeed the occupation of African states had transformed the continent into a hodgepodge of differing colonies. The occupation of spaces as defined by European imperialist created conflict between the indigenous peoples and those sent in to occupy the space and such conflicts were plentiful. The anti-colonial rebellion of the Mau Mau led the British to engage in torture in order to suppress the rebellion. What is not as well known or perhaps what is not well discussed is whether the use of torture was an effective strategy in suppressing the complicated trajectory of this anti-colonial rebellion. This paper will lay the foundation for the conflict between the British and the Mau Mau and will be followed by a discussion of the torture practices employed by the British and whether or not said torture practices were effective.
    • Methods of Murder in Maternal Filicide: An Analysis of Weapon Use and Mode of Death

      Möller, Ami
      Maternal filicide, the murder of a child perpetrated by his or her mother, has been studied in an effort to define the causal factors for such behavior. Less information exists on the type of weapons used by mothers. This paper presents a content analysis of twenty maternal filicide cases collected from various newspapers in an effort to determine the common methods of murder and types of weapons used by the mothers. Findings show that blunt objects are the most frequently used weapon by these offenders. A comparison with previous research of the same faction indicates slightly different weapon use even though demographic results, such as offender age and victim gender, are similar.
    • Reading Nature: The world of a Farmer

      Ehrat, Sarah; McEntire, Nan Dr
      Farming is quite possibly one of the oldest professions in the world.The ability to do all of this successfully and run a smoothly functioning farm is not something that everyone can do.It requires a knowledgeable,often peculiar group of people:the farmers themselves.
    • Rehabilitation or Retribution? Labeling Theory and the sex offender

      Beville, Brian
      Sex offenders have to register under sexual notifications laws that list their offenses online.Also,some sex offenders have had to go as far as placing signs in their front lawns,wearing global positioning system tracking devices,or have even had to displace to other living areas.
    • Singing and its effects on well-being

      Fishburn, Jason
      The purpose is to review the literature on the effects singing has on well-being.It also shows that singing has also been credited as having a positive effect on the treatment of neurological disorders.Group singing is a musical activity that has been used with marginalized populations and has a positive effect on inmate happiness and an improved quality of life with homeless men.
    • Social Media’s Effects on Voting

      Hemmen, Abbey
      Technology such as the internet become integral aspects of people’s lives; it is how they get news, stay in touch with friends, and entertain themselves. Social media is unarguably changing the way many Americans spend their time, but how is it affecting their voting behavior? My hypothesis is that the manner in which people spend time on social media sites will determine whether or not they are likely to vote. Those who are actively engaging in politics online will be more likely to vote than those who do not, regardless of the number of hours they spend on social media. All of the campaign advertisements in the world do not matter if someone is not paying attention to them. According to a small survey of Indiana State University students, this appears to be true. Students who spent more hours on social media were not more likely to vote, but those who reported observing higher levels of political content were.
    • Spuds! Potatoes and change in the English Language.

      Steele, Hannah
      Languages are dynamic and fluid constructions.Their evolution cannot be stopped unless they die out at most merely slowed.By studying the evolution and adoption of potato-related terms in english,linguists can clearly see the active nature of language change through a variety of influences,the relation of the terminology to standardization,and a demonstration of the principle of linguistic relativity.
    • Swift changes

      Burris, Hannah
      Jonathan swift's most popular book gulliver's travels was rooted in high emotions and took a prodigious amount of work to tame and construct into a satire.
    • The Crayfish Snakes of North America

      Pruett, Jake A.
      One of the greatest feats of evolutionary innovation, the amniotic egg, allowed vertebrate organisms more freedom from the aquatic environment by being able to place their eggs on land. Amniotes became a diverse group occupying a myriad of habitats around the globe. Over time, there have been multiple independent invasions of aquatic systems by terrestrial amniotes from a variety of taxa. Reptiles (the historically recognized group) are a diverse group of organisms with aquatic representative taxa on every continent except Antarctica. Within reptiles, the ophidia (snakes) are found all across the globe and in most aquatic habitats. There have been multiple invasions of both freshwater and marine systems by snakes in several families, and members of the subfamily Natricinae are found in many freshwater systems in North America.
    • The Sacred Fire: Africanisms in "Negro Spirituals"

      Somers, Jacob
      The Africanisms controversy is an age-old debate on the cultural retentions of slaves in the New World. Initially, scholars used inadequate research methods and racist ideologies to justify that slave spirituals were "mere copies of European melodies." With the development of cultural anthropology, these perspectives developed into more well-founded arguments based on fieldwork and the theory of acculturation. After decades of discourse, scholars finally agreed that African American spirituals were grounded in African-derived musical practices shaped by the United States sociocultural experience. Although it took many years to come to the conclusion that spirituals were syncretic, I will argue that African cultural retentions were presented in the earliest writings by explorers in African and colonial figures who observed the religious and secular celebrations of slaves in the New World. By analyzing primary and secondary source readings on African cultural survivals in relation to the sacred music traditions of African American in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries, I have shown the early evidence for African survivals previously overlooked by early scholars. Through an analysis of the qualitative, or non-analytical perspectives of the music and its place in culture, and quantitative, an analysis of an African American religious song, I demonstrate the clear and present evidence for African Survivals.
    • Three distinct mechanisms, Notch instructive, permissive, and independent, regulate the expression of two different pericardial genes to specify cardiac cell subtypes in Drosophila melanogaster

      Manoj, Panta
      The development of a complex organ involves the specification and differentiation of diverse cell types. Two major cell types, contractile cardial cells (CCs) and nephrocytic pericardial cells (PCs), comprise the Drosophila heart, with binding sites for Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)], an integral transcription factor in the Notch signaling pathway, enriched in the enhancers of genes that are specifically expressed in PCs. Here we show three distinct mechanisms regulating the expression of two PC-specific genes, Holes in muscle (Him), and Zn finger homeodomain 1 (zfh1). Him is regulated in a Notch-permissive manner: Su(H) forms a repressor complex with co-repressors that binds to the Him enhancer, repressing transcription in CCs; Notch signaling alleviates this repression in PCs to allow Him transcription. In contrast, zfh1 is transcribed by a Notch-instructive mechanism in most PCs: mere alleviation of repression by preventing the binding of the Su(H) repressor complex to the zfh1 enhancer is not sufficient to activate transcription; zfh1 transcription requires the presence of an activator complex formed by the binding of the Notch intracellular domain to Su(H). A third, Notch-independent pathway activates transcription from the same zfh1 enhancer in the remaining, even skipped-expressing, PCs. Our results illustrate how the same feature, enrichment of Su(H) binding sites in PC-specific gene enhancers, is utilized in two distinct ways to contribute to the same overall goal, the activation of the pericardial gene program, and present an example of a pleiotropic enhancer that is regulated by two independent mechanisms.