• The Crayfish Snakes of North America

      Pruett, Jake A.
      One of the greatest feats of evolutionary innovation, the amniotic egg, allowed vertebrate organisms more freedom from the aquatic environment by being able to place their eggs on land. Amniotes became a diverse group occupying a myriad of habitats around the globe. Over time, there have been multiple independent invasions of aquatic systems by terrestrial amniotes from a variety of taxa. Reptiles (the historically recognized group) are a diverse group of organisms with aquatic representative taxa on every continent except Antarctica. Within reptiles, the ophidia (snakes) are found all across the globe and in most aquatic habitats. There have been multiple invasions of both freshwater and marine systems by snakes in several families, and members of the subfamily Natricinae are found in many freshwater systems in North America.
    • The Sacred Fire: Africanisms in "Negro Spirituals"

      Somers, Jacob
      The Africanisms controversy is an age-old debate on the cultural retentions of slaves in the New World. Initially, scholars used inadequate research methods and racist ideologies to justify that slave spirituals were "mere copies of European melodies." With the development of cultural anthropology, these perspectives developed into more well-founded arguments based on fieldwork and the theory of acculturation. After decades of discourse, scholars finally agreed that African American spirituals were grounded in African-derived musical practices shaped by the United States sociocultural experience. Although it took many years to come to the conclusion that spirituals were syncretic, I will argue that African cultural retentions were presented in the earliest writings by explorers in African and colonial figures who observed the religious and secular celebrations of slaves in the New World. By analyzing primary and secondary source readings on African cultural survivals in relation to the sacred music traditions of African American in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries, I have shown the early evidence for African survivals previously overlooked by early scholars. Through an analysis of the qualitative, or non-analytical perspectives of the music and its place in culture, and quantitative, an analysis of an African American religious song, I demonstrate the clear and present evidence for African Survivals.
    • Three distinct mechanisms, Notch instructive, permissive, and independent, regulate the expression of two different pericardial genes to specify cardiac cell subtypes in Drosophila melanogaster

      Manoj, Panta
      The development of a complex organ involves the specification and differentiation of diverse cell types. Two major cell types, contractile cardial cells (CCs) and nephrocytic pericardial cells (PCs), comprise the Drosophila heart, with binding sites for Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)], an integral transcription factor in the Notch signaling pathway, enriched in the enhancers of genes that are specifically expressed in PCs. Here we show three distinct mechanisms regulating the expression of two PC-specific genes, Holes in muscle (Him), and Zn finger homeodomain 1 (zfh1). Him is regulated in a Notch-permissive manner: Su(H) forms a repressor complex with co-repressors that binds to the Him enhancer, repressing transcription in CCs; Notch signaling alleviates this repression in PCs to allow Him transcription. In contrast, zfh1 is transcribed by a Notch-instructive mechanism in most PCs: mere alleviation of repression by preventing the binding of the Su(H) repressor complex to the zfh1 enhancer is not sufficient to activate transcription; zfh1 transcription requires the presence of an activator complex formed by the binding of the Notch intracellular domain to Su(H). A third, Notch-independent pathway activates transcription from the same zfh1 enhancer in the remaining, even skipped-expressing, PCs. Our results illustrate how the same feature, enrichment of Su(H) binding sites in PC-specific gene enhancers, is utilized in two distinct ways to contribute to the same overall goal, the activation of the pericardial gene program, and present an example of a pleiotropic enhancer that is regulated by two independent mechanisms.
    • William Byrd Covert Catholic Values with anglican anthems comparison of style to catholic Gradualia.

      Mitchell, Shelley
      William Byrd responds to the religious turmoil during his time by showing its influence in his works,along with his personal obstacles to overcome.Much if his life-style during this time depended on the personal friendships that one could develop with minor officials in the hope of avoiding the harsh treatments and heavy fines given to many recusants.
    • Women’s First Vocational Advisers: Marion Talbot and the Early Deans of Women

      Yordy, Kelly
      In her progressive pamphlet, “After College, What?,” Helen Ekin Starrett (1896) recounted the story of a father whose four daughters, all Vassar College graduates, were living at home and were unsure of their purpose and what they were to do next. “I’m not so certain about this higher education for girls and women,” said the father, “for the reason that I don’t see what they are going to do with it” (pp. 5-6). Such uncertainties surrounding the vocational opportunities and aspirations of the early women college students were commonplace in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the vocational guidance philosophies and practices of deans of women at colleges and universities in the early twentieth century. Specifically, this study will examine the work and legacy of Marion Talbot, long-serving Dean of Women at the University of Chicago, and it will seek to explore the question: how were women college students advised in determining their future vocations in the early twentieth century? A succinct outline of the research methodology will be provided, followed by a thorough presentation of the relevant findings. This outline includes a brief history of women in higher education, the role of the dean of women and Marion Talbot, the need for vocational guidance, and how vocational guidance was conducted on college and university campuses—particularly at the University of Chicago. A discussion of the findings pertaining to its immediate and longterm impact on higher education will follow. Finally, the study will conclude with recommendations for future research.