• The Sacred Fire: Africanisms in "Negro Spirituals"

      Somers, Jacob
      The Africanisms controversy is an age-old debate on the cultural retentions of slaves in the New World. Initially, scholars used inadequate research methods and racist ideologies to justify that slave spirituals were "mere copies of European melodies." With the development of cultural anthropology, these perspectives developed into more well-founded arguments based on fieldwork and the theory of acculturation. After decades of discourse, scholars finally agreed that African American spirituals were grounded in African-derived musical practices shaped by the United States sociocultural experience. Although it took many years to come to the conclusion that spirituals were syncretic, I will argue that African cultural retentions were presented in the earliest writings by explorers in African and colonial figures who observed the religious and secular celebrations of slaves in the New World. By analyzing primary and secondary source readings on African cultural survivals in relation to the sacred music traditions of African American in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries, I have shown the early evidence for African survivals previously overlooked by early scholars. Through an analysis of the qualitative, or non-analytical perspectives of the music and its place in culture, and quantitative, an analysis of an African American religious song, I demonstrate the clear and present evidence for African Survivals.
    • A Critical Issue: Academic Advising with Attention to Intention

      Mrozinske, Elena
      Student needs in higher education institutions continue to increase each year with intersecting dynamics that are influenced by gender, age, race, external student obligations, financial needs and responsibilities, as well as their varied levels of preparedness upon enrollment (Calderon & Mathies, 2013). In an effort to meet these students’ needs, higher educational institutions are faced with a critical task in determining how to best support students during their educational experiences to increase persistence and timely graduation. In systems of shrinking resources, institutions often use advising as a mode of support for students. How advising is delivered is dependent on how advising is defined structurally, characteristics used in discussions, modality of delivery, and training for all those involved in an effort to meet the purposes as defined by each higher education institution. The structure and implementation of advising often takes a one size fits all approach which falls short of adequately meeting students’ needs. Failure to create an advising system that navigates students through their higher education experience with support and clear benchmarks of measureable success will contribute to attrition, students with excess credits en route to graduation, and student financial risk which in turn leaves higher education institutions vulnerable. This paper explores the emergence of academic advising in higher education as a critical issue including its historical development, an example of advising perceptions at Indiana University Northwest, a review of the current literature that discusses the structural approaches of academic advising from multiple points of view, and what the research supports as necessary for a successful advising approach. Finally, steps that can be taken to address the critical issue of advising at a regional campus will be provided including cost implications.
    • The Bare Minimum: A Shift Leader’s Perspective on Minimum Wage in the Fast-Food Industry

      Ford, Carey
      Despite growing evidence that the recession has ended and the economic recovery has started, over 50 percent of fast-food workers have to rely on government assistance in order to survive. This is influenced by several factors: a stagnant minimum wage, a workforce that is both older and more skilled than before, and the low-wage employers’ reliance on a flawed system in order to bring more profit. Reviewing research both before (1970 to 2007) and after (2009 to October 2013) the recession of 2008 has yielded two different views of the low-wage industries, and despite some obvious differences, both data sets agree that the minimum wage is not enough to support a family alone. I will be discussing several theories presented in my research on how to help the “working poor” attain a satisfying “living wage,” including “indexing” the minimum wage, wage as a percentage of average wage, and the use of a program known as the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC).
    • The Mau Mau Rebellion

      Miller, Christle
      The colonialization of Africa was long underway by the time the British moved into Kenya in the late 1800s. Rather Africa was opened for colonialization for some time, “the story of pacification and effective occupation of Kenya was no different from what happened all over Britain’s empire at the close of the nineteenth century.” Indeed the occupation of African states had transformed the continent into a hodgepodge of differing colonies. The occupation of spaces as defined by European imperialist created conflict between the indigenous peoples and those sent in to occupy the space and such conflicts were plentiful. The anti-colonial rebellion of the Mau Mau led the British to engage in torture in order to suppress the rebellion. What is not as well known or perhaps what is not well discussed is whether the use of torture was an effective strategy in suppressing the complicated trajectory of this anti-colonial rebellion. This paper will lay the foundation for the conflict between the British and the Mau Mau and will be followed by a discussion of the torture practices employed by the British and whether or not said torture practices were effective.
    • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Preschool-Aged Children: A Critical Review

      Anastasiadis, Will
      Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). ADHD is a fairly common psychopathology diagnosed in childhood (Kooij et al., 2010; Perou et al., 2013). For instance, a recent study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that approximately 6.1 million (9.4%) U.S. children and adolescents between the ages of 2 and 17 have received an ADHD diagnosis; these prevalence estimates were acquired from a collection of 2016 parent-reported ADHD diagnoses (Danielson et al., 2018). Of those patients diagnosed with ADHD, a weighted estimate of 2.4% (388,000) were between the ages of 2 and 5 (i.e., toddlers and preschool-aged children). Although ADHD was found to be proportionally greater in older school-aged children, there is ongoing controversy surrounding the contemporary diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in preschool-aged children (e.g., Harpin, 2005; Layton, Barnett, Hicks, & Jena, 2018), generating various economic, mental and public health concerns (Zhao et al., 2019). Misdiagnosis and undertreatment of ADHD are serious burdens for young children at risk, as lack of preventive treatment may ensue long-lasting effects (Harpin, 2005; Upshur, Wenz-Gross, & Reed 2009). Regrettably, prior research also suggests that differentiating ADHD from normative behavior in preschool-aged children is challenging for clinicians (Ford-Jones, 2015). Thus, the purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent research regarding ADHD, with a particular emphasis on the etiology and treatment of preschool-aged children. In writing this review, the author hopes to provide practitioners and clinical scientists clarity in this fairly contentious area in the ADHD literature.
    • International Education in the U.S. Through the Prism of Fulbright Program: Historical Analysis

      Kaniuka, Polina
      The scale and speed of global change challenge higher education and other national sectors to internationalize, to have an understanding of the relationship of various nations, including the United States, with the rest of the world, and to realize the importance of the latter. International education plays a prominent role in the shaping of a new global society. However, it seems there has not been enough support from the federal government in regards to the efforts promoting international education in the United States. Many studies touched on the role of the federal government when it comes to the higher education; however, there have not been enough efforts on providing a comprehensive analysis of the United States higher education system’s internationalization and the role of the internal and external factors. This study attempts such an analysis from 1944 to 1975 focused on the federal government support in the context of one highly successful program in the international education – Fulbright’s Amendment to the Surplus Property Act of 1946 (or Fulbright Program). The program was identified for its explicit interest in and continuous support for higher education’s international capacity between 1944 and 1975. This study takes a longitudinal approach to provide the context of the implementation and development of the program under examination during the period of time identified. The study seeks to answer the following questions: 1) how did major historical external and internal events affect the federal support of international education in the USA on the example of the successful program – Fulbright Program? 2) what are the factors that have determined the success of the program? In order to answer those research questions, it was important to research the context of the time and circumstances in which the program was implemented. That is why at first, I attempted to describe internal and external events taking place that shaped the environment of the program under examination. Then, it was imperative to discuss what the program entailed and to show its development overtime in regards to its capacity and scope. Finally, I attempted to analyze the factors that determined its success.
    • An Investigation of Body Image Among NCAA Female Athletes

      Madden, Colleen
      Over the last several decades, body image perceptions of collegiate female athletes have been investigated in the realms of both physical and mental health. The issue has been evaluated from various standpoints including sport type and competition level; however, body image is highly individualized among young women and thus remains an unpredictable challenge with unanswered questions. This comprehensive study includes an extensive literature review of research involving collegiate female athletes and factors that contribute to their body image; additionally, a newly developed survey for female athletes at the NCAA Division I level was administered, and more than 150 responses were analyzed. Four research objectives served as the foundation of this research, targeting the ultimate goal to form conclusions about how body image perceptions function in the lives of collegiate female athletes within the NCAA. The objectives were: first, to define body image as applicable to collegiate female athletes; second, to establish pressures that influence body image; third, to determine how the pressures of collegiate sport differ from the pressures on student non-athletes; and fourth, to assess the relationship between nutritional habits and body image among collegiate female athletes. Upon analysis of literature and the new survey, it was concluded that body image is dependent on many factors such as sport type, division level, and media objectification, but more importantly, the ways that individuals internalize such stimuli. Ultimately, the athletic world contributes to body image concerns and creates a unique pressure that cannot be experienced by non-athletes.
    • Women’s First Vocational Advisers: Marion Talbot and the Early Deans of Women

      Yordy, Kelly
      In her progressive pamphlet, “After College, What?,” Helen Ekin Starrett (1896) recounted the story of a father whose four daughters, all Vassar College graduates, were living at home and were unsure of their purpose and what they were to do next. “I’m not so certain about this higher education for girls and women,” said the father, “for the reason that I don’t see what they are going to do with it” (pp. 5-6). Such uncertainties surrounding the vocational opportunities and aspirations of the early women college students were commonplace in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the vocational guidance philosophies and practices of deans of women at colleges and universities in the early twentieth century. Specifically, this study will examine the work and legacy of Marion Talbot, long-serving Dean of Women at the University of Chicago, and it will seek to explore the question: how were women college students advised in determining their future vocations in the early twentieth century? A succinct outline of the research methodology will be provided, followed by a thorough presentation of the relevant findings. This outline includes a brief history of women in higher education, the role of the dean of women and Marion Talbot, the need for vocational guidance, and how vocational guidance was conducted on college and university campuses—particularly at the University of Chicago. A discussion of the findings pertaining to its immediate and longterm impact on higher education will follow. Finally, the study will conclude with recommendations for future research.
    • February 25, 1960: Stories of Inspiration, Risk, and the Fight for Freedom

      Harlow, Laura
      The purpose of this paper is to explore the February 25, 1960 sit-in at the Montgomery Courthouse involving students from Alabama State College. Existing literature focuses on the outcome of the sit-in, most notably the Dixon v. Alabama (1960) case establishing due process rights for students in higher education. Research is limited charting the sit-in’s inception, organization and execution from a student lens. Through primary source interviews, this paper tells the story of two crucial leaders involved with the sit-in. Further, it identifies how the climate of the institution and local community influenced the student experience. This paper invites higher education administrators and faculty to think critically about how they can create environments of inclusion for our underrepresented student populations when faced with political power and chaos.
    • Reading Nature: The world of a Farmer

      Ehrat, Sarah; McEntire, Nan Dr
      Farming is quite possibly one of the oldest professions in the world.The ability to do all of this successfully and run a smoothly functioning farm is not something that everyone can do.It requires a knowledgeable,often peculiar group of people:the farmers themselves.
    • Social Media’s Effects on Voting

      Hemmen, Abbey
      Technology such as the internet become integral aspects of people’s lives; it is how they get news, stay in touch with friends, and entertain themselves. Social media is unarguably changing the way many Americans spend their time, but how is it affecting their voting behavior? My hypothesis is that the manner in which people spend time on social media sites will determine whether or not they are likely to vote. Those who are actively engaging in politics online will be more likely to vote than those who do not, regardless of the number of hours they spend on social media. All of the campaign advertisements in the world do not matter if someone is not paying attention to them. According to a small survey of Indiana State University students, this appears to be true. Students who spent more hours on social media were not more likely to vote, but those who reported observing higher levels of political content were.