Now showing items 1-20 of 31

    • February 25, 1960: Stories of Inspiration, Risk, and the Fight for Freedom

      Harlow, Laura
      The purpose of this paper is to explore the February 25, 1960 sit-in at the Montgomery Courthouse involving students from Alabama State College. Existing literature focuses on the outcome of the sit-in, most notably the Dixon v. Alabama (1960) case establishing due process rights for students in higher education. Research is limited charting the sit-in’s inception, organization and execution from a student lens. Through primary source interviews, this paper tells the story of two crucial leaders involved with the sit-in. Further, it identifies how the climate of the institution and local community influenced the student experience. This paper invites higher education administrators and faculty to think critically about how they can create environments of inclusion for our underrepresented student populations when faced with political power and chaos.
    • An Investigation of Body Image Among NCAA Female Athletes

      Madden, Colleen
      Over the last several decades, body image perceptions of collegiate female athletes have been investigated in the realms of both physical and mental health. The issue has been evaluated from various standpoints including sport type and competition level; however, body image is highly individualized among young women and thus remains an unpredictable challenge with unanswered questions. This comprehensive study includes an extensive literature review of research involving collegiate female athletes and factors that contribute to their body image; additionally, a newly developed survey for female athletes at the NCAA Division I level was administered, and more than 150 responses were analyzed. Four research objectives served as the foundation of this research, targeting the ultimate goal to form conclusions about how body image perceptions function in the lives of collegiate female athletes within the NCAA. The objectives were: first, to define body image as applicable to collegiate female athletes; second, to establish pressures that influence body image; third, to determine how the pressures of collegiate sport differ from the pressures on student non-athletes; and fourth, to assess the relationship between nutritional habits and body image among collegiate female athletes. Upon analysis of literature and the new survey, it was concluded that body image is dependent on many factors such as sport type, division level, and media objectification, but more importantly, the ways that individuals internalize such stimuli. Ultimately, the athletic world contributes to body image concerns and creates a unique pressure that cannot be experienced by non-athletes.
    • Three distinct mechanisms, Notch instructive, permissive, and independent, regulate the expression of two different pericardial genes to specify cardiac cell subtypes in Drosophila melanogaster

      Manoj, Panta
      The development of a complex organ involves the specification and differentiation of diverse cell types. Two major cell types, contractile cardial cells (CCs) and nephrocytic pericardial cells (PCs), comprise the Drosophila heart, with binding sites for Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)], an integral transcription factor in the Notch signaling pathway, enriched in the enhancers of genes that are specifically expressed in PCs. Here we show three distinct mechanisms regulating the expression of two PC-specific genes, Holes in muscle (Him), and Zn finger homeodomain 1 (zfh1). Him is regulated in a Notch-permissive manner: Su(H) forms a repressor complex with co-repressors that binds to the Him enhancer, repressing transcription in CCs; Notch signaling alleviates this repression in PCs to allow Him transcription. In contrast, zfh1 is transcribed by a Notch-instructive mechanism in most PCs: mere alleviation of repression by preventing the binding of the Su(H) repressor complex to the zfh1 enhancer is not sufficient to activate transcription; zfh1 transcription requires the presence of an activator complex formed by the binding of the Notch intracellular domain to Su(H). A third, Notch-independent pathway activates transcription from the same zfh1 enhancer in the remaining, even skipped-expressing, PCs. Our results illustrate how the same feature, enrichment of Su(H) binding sites in PC-specific gene enhancers, is utilized in two distinct ways to contribute to the same overall goal, the activation of the pericardial gene program, and present an example of a pleiotropic enhancer that is regulated by two independent mechanisms.
    • An Examination between Laryngeal Physiology and Parkinson’s Disease: Severity and Treatment

      Pelikan, Jillian
      The purpose of this in-depth literature review is to examine the relationship between laryngeal physiology and Parkinson’s disease in terms of the severity and possible treatment. This research aims to determine the distinct characteristics of Parkinsonian speech and possible causes of these speech deficits. In addition, a specific type of Parkinson’s disease treatment, deep brain stimulation, was explored to determine effectiveness on laryngeal physiological deficits found in Parkinson’s disease patients. Through synthesizing peer reviewed journals and various studies, data was examined in order to take an in-depth look at the unique relationship between laryngeal physiology and Parkinson’s disease. Findings indicated that Parkinsonian speech characteristics include vocal tremors, breathiness, hoarseness, and decreased vocal projection possibly due to bowed vocal folds or incomplete glottal closure. Low frequency deep brain stimulation treatment may serve as a potential resource for mitigating speech and voice deficits, however results are inconclusive.
    • THE IMMEDIATE SUCCESS OF BARTÓK: RECEPTION AND INFLUENCE OF THE CONCERTO FOR ORCHESTRA ON THE REPERTOIRE

      Bess, Adam
      Written in late 1943 and premiered the following winter in 1944, Concerto for Orchestra, Sz 116, BB 123, of Hungarian composer Béla Bartók was immediately regarded as a success by his critics and contemporaries alike. Presented as an entirely new compositional form, unheard before by audiences of the time, the Concerto for Orchestra brought strident fanfares coupled with delicate virtuosity, demanded of all performers of the orchestra. Though its reception was critically acclaimed, the troublesome events of World War II and rise of Socialism occurring alongside the conception and composition of the piece as well as its ground-breaking formal organization warrant closer analysis of the work as a possible anti-dogmatic composition. Drawing influence from the early concerto form, Bartók sought to emulate composers of the past and their emphases of individual performers in virtuosic solo concertos. Many other composers have been allured to the genre and their respective works across musical periods have entered the standard repertoire. However, arguably none have been so dramatic and contrasting as Bartók’s Concerto for Orchestra, a five-movement quasi-symphonic work in which each movement features one instrumental section over another, complete with the virtuosic demands composers, performers, and critics have all come to know with the concerto genre. This analyses serves to provide examples and reviews which support the view of Bartók’s Concerto for Orchestra as a sans-textbook composition which has since entered the standard orchestral repertoire as a representative of the new compositional attitudes of the 20th century. Additionally, this analyses strives to emphasize the impact of the work on Bartók’s contemporaries, who continue to emulate his techniques in respective compositions. Argumentative support will be garnered by examining personal writings and correspondence of Bartók as well as those of his contemporaries. Additionally, by analyzing score and recording notes as well as performance reviews from contrasting decades, an idea of how receptions and performances of the work have changed can be posited in support of the influence and preeminence of the Concerto for Orchestra as one of the most significant works in the orchestral body literature from the last 100 years.
    • Social Media’s Effects on Voting

      Hemmen, Abbey
      Technology such as the internet become integral aspects of people’s lives; it is how they get news, stay in touch with friends, and entertain themselves. Social media is unarguably changing the way many Americans spend their time, but how is it affecting their voting behavior? My hypothesis is that the manner in which people spend time on social media sites will determine whether or not they are likely to vote. Those who are actively engaging in politics online will be more likely to vote than those who do not, regardless of the number of hours they spend on social media. All of the campaign advertisements in the world do not matter if someone is not paying attention to them. According to a small survey of Indiana State University students, this appears to be true. Students who spent more hours on social media were not more likely to vote, but those who reported observing higher levels of political content were.
    • International Education in the U.S. Through the Prism of Fulbright Program: Historical Analysis

      Kaniuka, Polina
      The scale and speed of global change challenge higher education and other national sectors to internationalize, to have an understanding of the relationship of various nations, including the United States, with the rest of the world, and to realize the importance of the latter. International education plays a prominent role in the shaping of a new global society. However, it seems there has not been enough support from the federal government in regards to the efforts promoting international education in the United States. Many studies touched on the role of the federal government when it comes to the higher education; however, there have not been enough efforts on providing a comprehensive analysis of the United States higher education system’s internationalization and the role of the internal and external factors. This study attempts such an analysis from 1944 to 1975 focused on the federal government support in the context of one highly successful program in the international education – Fulbright’s Amendment to the Surplus Property Act of 1946 (or Fulbright Program). The program was identified for its explicit interest in and continuous support for higher education’s international capacity between 1944 and 1975. This study takes a longitudinal approach to provide the context of the implementation and development of the program under examination during the period of time identified. The study seeks to answer the following questions: 1) how did major historical external and internal events affect the federal support of international education in the USA on the example of the successful program – Fulbright Program? 2) what are the factors that have determined the success of the program? In order to answer those research questions, it was important to research the context of the time and circumstances in which the program was implemented. That is why at first, I attempted to describe internal and external events taking place that shaped the environment of the program under examination. Then, it was imperative to discuss what the program entailed and to show its development overtime in regards to its capacity and scope. Finally, I attempted to analyze the factors that determined its success.
    • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Preschool-Aged Children: A Critical Review

      Anastasiadis, Will
      Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). ADHD is a fairly common psychopathology diagnosed in childhood (Kooij et al., 2010; Perou et al., 2013). For instance, a recent study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that approximately 6.1 million (9.4%) U.S. children and adolescents between the ages of 2 and 17 have received an ADHD diagnosis; these prevalence estimates were acquired from a collection of 2016 parent-reported ADHD diagnoses (Danielson et al., 2018). Of those patients diagnosed with ADHD, a weighted estimate of 2.4% (388,000) were between the ages of 2 and 5 (i.e., toddlers and preschool-aged children). Although ADHD was found to be proportionally greater in older school-aged children, there is ongoing controversy surrounding the contemporary diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in preschool-aged children (e.g., Harpin, 2005; Layton, Barnett, Hicks, & Jena, 2018), generating various economic, mental and public health concerns (Zhao et al., 2019). Misdiagnosis and undertreatment of ADHD are serious burdens for young children at risk, as lack of preventive treatment may ensue long-lasting effects (Harpin, 2005; Upshur, Wenz-Gross, & Reed 2009). Regrettably, prior research also suggests that differentiating ADHD from normative behavior in preschool-aged children is challenging for clinicians (Ford-Jones, 2015). Thus, the purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent research regarding ADHD, with a particular emphasis on the etiology and treatment of preschool-aged children. In writing this review, the author hopes to provide practitioners and clinical scientists clarity in this fairly contentious area in the ADHD literature.
    • The Bare Minimum: A Shift Leader’s Perspective on Minimum Wage in the Fast-Food Industry

      Ford, Carey
      Despite growing evidence that the recession has ended and the economic recovery has started, over 50 percent of fast-food workers have to rely on government assistance in order to survive. This is influenced by several factors: a stagnant minimum wage, a workforce that is both older and more skilled than before, and the low-wage employers’ reliance on a flawed system in order to bring more profit. Reviewing research both before (1970 to 2007) and after (2009 to October 2013) the recession of 2008 has yielded two different views of the low-wage industries, and despite some obvious differences, both data sets agree that the minimum wage is not enough to support a family alone. I will be discussing several theories presented in my research on how to help the “working poor” attain a satisfying “living wage,” including “indexing” the minimum wage, wage as a percentage of average wage, and the use of a program known as the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC).
    • A Critical Issue: Academic Advising with Attention to Intention

      Mrozinske, Elena
      Student needs in higher education institutions continue to increase each year with intersecting dynamics that are influenced by gender, age, race, external student obligations, financial needs and responsibilities, as well as their varied levels of preparedness upon enrollment (Calderon & Mathies, 2013). In an effort to meet these students’ needs, higher educational institutions are faced with a critical task in determining how to best support students during their educational experiences to increase persistence and timely graduation. In systems of shrinking resources, institutions often use advising as a mode of support for students. How advising is delivered is dependent on how advising is defined structurally, characteristics used in discussions, modality of delivery, and training for all those involved in an effort to meet the purposes as defined by each higher education institution. The structure and implementation of advising often takes a one size fits all approach which falls short of adequately meeting students’ needs. Failure to create an advising system that navigates students through their higher education experience with support and clear benchmarks of measureable success will contribute to attrition, students with excess credits en route to graduation, and student financial risk which in turn leaves higher education institutions vulnerable. This paper explores the emergence of academic advising in higher education as a critical issue including its historical development, an example of advising perceptions at Indiana University Northwest, a review of the current literature that discusses the structural approaches of academic advising from multiple points of view, and what the research supports as necessary for a successful advising approach. Finally, steps that can be taken to address the critical issue of advising at a regional campus will be provided including cost implications.
    • The Mau Mau Rebellion

      Miller, Christle
      The colonialization of Africa was long underway by the time the British moved into Kenya in the late 1800s. Rather Africa was opened for colonialization for some time, “the story of pacification and effective occupation of Kenya was no different from what happened all over Britain’s empire at the close of the nineteenth century.” Indeed the occupation of African states had transformed the continent into a hodgepodge of differing colonies. The occupation of spaces as defined by European imperialist created conflict between the indigenous peoples and those sent in to occupy the space and such conflicts were plentiful. The anti-colonial rebellion of the Mau Mau led the British to engage in torture in order to suppress the rebellion. What is not as well known or perhaps what is not well discussed is whether the use of torture was an effective strategy in suppressing the complicated trajectory of this anti-colonial rebellion. This paper will lay the foundation for the conflict between the British and the Mau Mau and will be followed by a discussion of the torture practices employed by the British and whether or not said torture practices were effective.
    • Group Proposal

      McCarthy, Francesca
      Throughout my entire athletic career, spanning from the ages of 6 to 22, I heard coaches talking about mental toughness. Mental toughness was much more than playing your hardest when you were tired or pushing yourself to do extra shooting drills after practice. What I learned was that mental toughness meant avoiding the trainer when you were hurt, hiding injuries that could keep you from playing, and continuing to play no matter how your body was feeling. This attitude permeates athletic culture. Athletes are trained from the beginning of their careers to bury anything that could prevent them from being able to participate. That philosophy bleeds into other parts of their lives, including mental health. Breaking into this population to better understand the variety of difficulties they face can be complicated because of athletes’ tendency to underreport symptoms (Martinsen & Sundgot-Borgen, 2013). Along with the years of physical training, they have also been psychologically trained to mask their pain. Due to this training, it is important for athletes to receive the mental health care that they need. College athletes are especially at risk. There is a tremendous amount of pressure on college athletes to play through any difficulties, because their tuition often relies on their performance. Along with this pressure, their transition out of sports can be incredibly difficult. After retirement from athletics, athletes may experience identity crisis, loss of self-worth, decrease in self-esteem, decline of life satisfaction, emotional problems, alcohol and drug abuse, problems building new relationships, occupational troubles, and physical difficulties such as injuries and dietary problems (Erpic, Wylleman, & Zupancic, 2004). The development of group therapy services for college athletes who have completed their final season of college athletics and who are preparing to graduate from college would be beneficial for athletes in any sport. These services would be available to the athletes throughout their transition out of sports. The group would focus on the difficulties traditionally experienced by athletes going through this challenging transition. Taking advantage of their years of athletic training, the group services would be stylized like a typical athletic practice.
    • Women’s First Vocational Advisers: Marion Talbot and the Early Deans of Women

      Yordy, Kelly
      In her progressive pamphlet, “After College, What?,” Helen Ekin Starrett (1896) recounted the story of a father whose four daughters, all Vassar College graduates, were living at home and were unsure of their purpose and what they were to do next. “I’m not so certain about this higher education for girls and women,” said the father, “for the reason that I don’t see what they are going to do with it” (pp. 5-6). Such uncertainties surrounding the vocational opportunities and aspirations of the early women college students were commonplace in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the vocational guidance philosophies and practices of deans of women at colleges and universities in the early twentieth century. Specifically, this study will examine the work and legacy of Marion Talbot, long-serving Dean of Women at the University of Chicago, and it will seek to explore the question: how were women college students advised in determining their future vocations in the early twentieth century? A succinct outline of the research methodology will be provided, followed by a thorough presentation of the relevant findings. This outline includes a brief history of women in higher education, the role of the dean of women and Marion Talbot, the need for vocational guidance, and how vocational guidance was conducted on college and university campuses—particularly at the University of Chicago. A discussion of the findings pertaining to its immediate and longterm impact on higher education will follow. Finally, the study will conclude with recommendations for future research.
    • Alban Berg's Violin Concerto: A Short History of its Reception

      Canfield, Nathan
      Since its world premiere in 1936, Alban Berg's Violin Conce1io has retained a stable place in the repertoire, an unusual feat for a work based on twelve-tone principles. It is all the more remarkable to note its early success despite unfavorable conditions surround ing its first performances. Though Berg (1885-1 935) had already been recognized for his compositions internationally, this work (perhaps along with the event of his death before the premiere) accelerated his worldwide recognition as an important contributor and innovator of contemporary music. Today it is viewed as the composer's most popular work, combi ning serialism with Mahlerian romanticism. As a whole, the Violin Concerto deviates from Berg's usual style in a number of areas, including genre, form, and tonal organization, as well as the inspiration and motives for accepting its commission. While its emotionally-charged program and romantic approach assuredly contributed toward its early success, it is d ifficult neve1iheless to justify its popularity as a work that seems to devote itself to pacifying twelve-tone technique. Throughout this essay I will examine various historic critical evaluations of the work and argue why it has been publicly well-received in spite of its predominant, idiosyncratic use of serial techniques. I will focus primarily on its first three performances along with their reception and compare these initial reactions with more recent viewpoints.
    • Ethical Considerations for Sedation of Terminal Wean Patients

      Livingston, Laura
      The purpose of this paper is to examine the ethical concerns involved with the sedation of a terminal wean patient. Terminal weaning is the process of removing a patient from a ventilator (a form of life support) by removing the endotracheal tube. Prior to this procedure, the determination has been made that the patient has either a terminal illness and will not recover or will have to remain on life support to sustain life (Keene, Samples, Masini, & Byington, 2006). The determination to remove a patient from the ventilator is usually one made between the health care team, family member or surrogate, and ideally the patient themselves. Treatment focus switches from the cure of disease to comfort care at the end of life. Death can cause unbearable distress and suffering for a patient. Dyspnea, feelings of suffocation, severe fatigue, nausea, vomiting, anxiety, delirium, intractable pain, and incontinence are several of the issues a dying patient may experience (Tomko & Maxwell, 1999). Despite all efforts to comfort the patient with analgesics, anxiolytics, family support or spiritual services, the patient may continue to suffer. Palliative sedation is used to decrease the level of consciousness in these patients and to help relieve their distress and suffering (Van Wijlick, 2011). Prior to the removal of the endotracheal tube for a terminal weaning process, a patient who has been living on ventilator support may already be receiving sedatives to keep him or her comfortable. A major ethical consideration in using palliative sedation is the determination that it is different from physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia (Belgrave & Requena, 2012).
    • The Almost Promised Land: The Opposition to and Veto of the Agricultural College Act of 1857

      Harpool, Robert L.
      In 1857, Representative Justin Morrill put forth before the House of Representatives an act “Donating public lands to the several States and Territories which may provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts”. A different iteration of the bill would pass 5 years later, in 1862, under President Lincoln. The latter version would incubate what would become known as land-grant universities whose members would occupy significant positions in the landscape of higher education. The bill in 1857, however, barely passed through both houses of Congress though, and President Buchanan, a supporter of higher education, soundly vetoed it. Many scholars state the defeat of the bill was rooted in Southern opposition on the grounds of constitutionality and states’ rights. This one-dimensional view is an unjust labeling of the South as obstructionists for the sake of convenient curriculum. By making the conclusion the premise, numerous inherent issues such as why an agrarian South would oppose an agricultural bill are overlooked. In reality the veto of the agricultural college land act of 1857 was a result of a competitive interaction between numerous complex interests unbounded by the sectional rivalries of the time. If there is a common theme amongst the interests in opposition to the bill it is not sectionalism or ideology, it is finance.
    • William Byrd Covert Catholic Values with anglican anthems comparison of style to catholic Gradualia.

      Mitchell, Shelley
      William Byrd responds to the religious turmoil during his time by showing its influence in his works,along with his personal obstacles to overcome.Much if his life-style during this time depended on the personal friendships that one could develop with minor officials in the hope of avoiding the harsh treatments and heavy fines given to many recusants.
    • Rehabilitation or Retribution? Labeling Theory and the sex offender

      Beville, Brian
      Sex offenders have to register under sexual notifications laws that list their offenses online.Also,some sex offenders have had to go as far as placing signs in their front lawns,wearing global positioning system tracking devices,or have even had to displace to other living areas.
    • Spuds! Potatoes and change in the English Language.

      Steele, Hannah
      Languages are dynamic and fluid constructions.Their evolution cannot be stopped unless they die out at most merely slowed.By studying the evolution and adoption of potato-related terms in english,linguists can clearly see the active nature of language change through a variety of influences,the relation of the terminology to standardization,and a demonstration of the principle of linguistic relativity.
    • Reading Nature: The world of a Farmer

      Ehrat, Sarah; McEntire, Nan Dr
      Farming is quite possibly one of the oldest professions in the world.The ability to do all of this successfully and run a smoothly functioning farm is not something that everyone can do.It requires a knowledgeable,often peculiar group of people:the farmers themselves.