Now showing items 21-40 of 5326


      Burkett, Ashley M. (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
      In an effort to understand the relationships between active methane seep and adjacent non-seep (inactive) populations of the deep-sea foraminifera Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, a common paleo-indicator species, from methane seeps in the Pacific were analyzed and compared to one another for genetic similarities of small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) sequences. Pacific Ocean C. wuellerstorfi were also compared to those collected from other localities around the world (based on 18S gene available on Genbank, e.g., Schweizer et al., 2009). Results from this study revealed that C. wuellerstorfi living in seeps near Costa Rica and Hydrate Ridge are genetically similar to one another at the species level. Individuals collected from the same location that display opposite coiling directions (dextral and sinistral) had no species level genetic differences. Comparisons of specimens with genetic information available from Genbank (SSU rDNA) showed that Pacific individuals, collected for this study, are genetically similar to those previously analyzed from the North Atlantic and Antarctic. These observations provide strong evidence for the true cosmopolitan nature of C. wuellerstorfi and highlight the importance of understanding how these microscopic organisms are able to maintain sufficient genetic exchange to remain within the same species between seep and nonseep habitats and over global distances. Although organic matter degradation rates have been studied for some time, in situ rates of protoplasm degradation in deep-sea foraminiferal tests have been estimated based on laboratory experiments and sediment distribution patterns. Information regarding degradation rates of foraminiferal protoplasm is essential in the use of non-vital stains in identifying the amount and character of protoplasm in tests which remains the most commonly used method to assess living populations of benthic foraminifera (e.g., Murray and Bowser, 2000). In an effort to examine the retention potential of foraminiferal protoplasm on the deep seafloor 36 frozen, protoplasm filled Cibicidoides wuelllerstorfi were placed in natural sediments inside experimental containers and deployed on for 390 to 396 days. Despite oxygen-poor conditions (0.24 mL/L to 0.37 mL/L) that would be expected to promote preservation of organic matter, and experimental container protection from macro- and megafauna, 72% of deployed tests containing protoplasm were destroyed beyond recognition within 396 days. Of the 10 specimens (28%) recovered, 9 retained at least some protoplasm, but only 1 individual had the potential to be identified as living based on Rose Bengal staining techniques. However, in this specimen, protoplasm was clearly altered or missing in some chambers. The results of this study suggest that it is unlikely that many, if any, benthic foraminiferal specimens containing protoplasm terminated by freezing would be conservatively considered as recently living using Rose Bengal as an indicator of the extent and character of protoplasm within the test after 396 days or less exposed to in situ conditions in deep-seafloor habitats. After 390 to 396 days on the seafloor at Hydrate Ridge in the Pacific, eight artificial substrate experiments (hereafter referred to as SEA3 for Seafloor Epibenthic Attachment Cubes) were colonized by 1058 Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi. The presence of this species has been inferred as an indicator of well-oxygenated conditions, and recruitment of such large numbers in bottom-waters with low dissolved oxygen availability (0.24 to 0.37 mL/L) indicates that this taxon is not as limited by oxygen as previously thought. Clues about substrate preferences were also evident from the distribution of individuals on SEA3. For example, the wooden rod attached directly to the plastic mesh that was heavily colonized was devoid of any epibenthic foraminifera. Few studies have examined foraminiferal colonization of hard substrates in the deep-sea (e.g., Mullineaux, 1987), and to our knowledge no previous study has compared foraminiferal colonization of seep with non-seep substrates. Comparisons of abundance, size distribution, and isotopic biogeochemistry of living foraminifera colonizing experimental substrates revealed differences between seep and non-seep environments. SEA3 within active methane seep habitats at Hydrate Ridge contained significantly fewer (406 on four SEA3s a density of 44 #individuals/100 cm2) individuals compared with those in adjacent off-seep sites (594 on three SEA3s a density of 86 #individuals/100 cm2). An additional 58 individuals were on a SEA3 22, which may have experienced seep conditions despite being deployed as a nonseep experiment (density of 25 #individuals/100 cm2). This difference in abundance may be due to active seepage conditions, however, reduced foraminiferal abundances on SEA3s located at seeps resulted from increased predation and displacement by higher abundances of macro- and meiofauna observed at active seep locations. Stable carbon isotope values of benthic foraminifera from seep substrates ranged from 0.26‰ to -0.56‰ with an average of 0.03‰ while δ13C from off-seep substrates range from 0.39‰ to -0.26‰ with an average of 0.15‰. Statistical analyses indicate a significant difference between seep and non-seep δ13C. Stable oxygen isotopes of foraminiferal carbonate from seep substrates range from 2.70‰ to 2.03‰ with an average of 2.41‰ and 2.65‰ to 1.99‰ with an average of 2.39‰ at adjacent off-seep sites. These results provide some of the first information about epifaunal foraminiferal colonization potential at methane seeps and highlight the biogeochemical and ecological influences of seep habitats on C. wuellerstorfi.

      Bell, Christopher (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
      This study sought to determine if and to what extent strategy integration was related to the financial indicators profit margin ratio and inventory turnover for publically traded manufacturing organizations in Oklahoma. Current strategy theory states that the more thoroughly an organization adopts a given strategy the greater the effect will be on these financial indicators. Hence the need to more fully understand the extent and rates at which strategy integration effects these indicators. This study looked at perceived strategy integration scores for publically traded Oklahoma manufacturing organizations taken from June to August 2014 and financial indicators from 2012 and 2013. The perceived strategy integration scores were obtained via survey while the financial indicators were calculated using Section 10-K filings from the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (US SEC or SEC). Reliable financial information is not publically available for many private organizations, so, they were excluded from the study. Summary analysis of the data indicated that strategies were not in use in equal proportions with Niche Differentiation being most popular by far. Market focus appeared to be an indicator of inventory turnover standard deviation with Broad focus and Combination strategy groups having lower standard deviation. While the product focus appeared to indicate profit margin ratio range with Low Cost strategies having lower profit margins. After performing additional analysis it was found that performance enhancing technologies and other complicating factors may have had a larger impact than previously believed. A correlation was unable to be established for most strategies. For the Niche Low Cost Strategy a relationship was found where profit margins decreased 1.634% for each 1 point increase in perceived strategy integration score. It was also found that the Broad Differentiation Strategy it was found that inventory turns increased 0.7006 turns for every 1 point increase in perceived strategy integration score. No other strategies were found to have correlation coefficients that were statistically different from the null hypothesis. However, anecdotal evidence was found in support of several other of Porter’s theories.

      Barge, William C. (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
      Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the United States. Advances in wireless technology have made possible the remote monitoring of a patient’s heart sensors as part of a body area network. Previous studies have suggested that stray wireless transmissions in the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band cause interference resulting in packet loss in Bluetooth piconets. This study investigates the impact that wireless transmissions from residential microwave ovens have on the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) component of the body area network. Using a systematic data collection approach, two variables were manipulated. The distance between the microwave oven and the BLE piconet was varied from 0.5 meter to 5.0 meters at one-half meter increments. At each distance, the power level of the microwave oven was varied from the lowest power setting to the highest power setting. The two variables that were collected were the microwave interference generated by channel and the packet loss by channel. The results suggest more packet loss is due to the microwave oven’s power level than by the distance, the interference caused by the microwave oven affects all BLE channels equally, and the packet loss by channel is a good predictor of microwave oven interference. The significance of this study lies in providing beneficial information to the medical and digital communication industries concerning the causes and solutions to disruptions in the Bluetooth-enabled body area network devices in a very common situation. The results of this study may lend support for improvements and widespread use of body area network medical systems, which may have the benefit of better monitoring, more data, and reduced fatalities due to misdiagnosed heart conditions.

      Afoaku, Oyibo H. (Indiana State University, 2015-05)
      The purpose of this study was to document the experiences of African-born women faculty and administrators at colleges and universities in the United States. The study explored the factors that motivated African-born women to immigrate to and extend their stay in the United States beyond completion of their education; factors they perceive as constraint on their quest for self-empowerment and identity as foreign students, college instructors, and/or administrators, and parents; and factors that have enabled them to adapt to their host culture and achieve their educational and professional goals even though they had to contend with multiple challenges associated with living in America as Black women. Eight women who are currently or previously serving as faculty or administrators were interviewed for this study. Participants were originally from Benin, Cameroun, Congo, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, and Tanzania. Six of them were faculty and three were administrators. Ten themes emerged from the study: family-centered cultural orientation, multicultural perspectives, dealing with transition and culture shock, preservation of cultural heritage, American higher education culture, American higher education structure, American higher education curriculum, American higher education policy, limited leadership opportunity for African-born women, and alumni loyalty. The participants expressed reservations about the status quo and want to see significant improvement in diversity policy and practices on their respective campuses that will yield substantive outcomes for all stake holders, including foreign students, foreign-born faculty and administrators. The study concluded by recommending inclusive dialogue and communication, comprehensive policy process; broad leadership structure, and wide-ranging mentoring programs as steps that can enhance the experiences of African born faculty and administrators at colleges and universities in the United States.

      Slowik, Abigail K. (Indiana State University, 2015-08)
      Although many studies have examined attitudes toward feminism and feminists, very few have been devoted to the study of attitudes toward male feminists. The existing body of literature has shown mixed results; with feminist men being rated more positively in some regards, and more negative in others. In the current study, Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 2004) is used as a framework for understanding factors associated with attitudes towards male feminists, male feminist identification, and gender-self-esteem. Attitudes associated with male feminists were examined in a sample of 466 male and female undergraduate students from Indiana State University. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six vignette conditions in which the sexual orientation and feminist orientation of a male character were manipulated, resulting in two non-feminist (heterosexual-homosexual), two feminist (heterosexual-homosexual), and two anti-feminist (heterosexual-homosexual) conditions. After reading the vignette, the participants were asked to rate the character on the Warmth and Competence scales, which correspond to traditional female and male traits, respectively. Participants then completed several self-report measures, including the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (assesses self-esteem related to gender), Liberal Feminist Attitudes and Ideology Scale (assesses liberal feminist attitudes), and Demographic questionnaire. Participants also completed a measure of social desirability and a measure assessing current sexual orientation. Contrary to hypotheses, results indicated that regardless of sexual orientation, feminist and non-feminist men received the highest Warmth and Competence ratings, while anti-feminists received the lowest. Additionally, gender self-esteem was found to be a sufficient predictor of attitudes toward feminism in women, but not in men. Consistent with other research, participants who were more politically liberal had more positive attitudes toward feminism than those who were more conservative. Finally, higher levels of religiosity were correlated with less positive attitudes toward feminism in women, but not in men. This research will contribute to knowledge and awareness of what factors predict feminist identification in men and what factors affect attitudes toward male feminists. This current research suggests that male feminists are perceived to possess both masculine and feminine traits, regardless of their sexual orientation. Additionally, the results suggest that SIT can be a useful framework to begin to understand both attitudes toward feminism and feminist identification. Furthermore, although there are some similarities in the predictors of attitudes toward feminism and feminist identification in women, there is much less consensus on these predictors in men. Finally, greater awareness regarding the impact of rigid gender roles and stigma against feminism can lead to more effective interventions to reduce gender role strain and potentially harmful compensatory strategies.

      Omahen, Abby (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      Obesity among American Indian young adults is a significant health problem. There is an increase in the prevalence rate of diseases associated with obesity which tend to have high medical costs and high mortality rates. Fruit and vegetable consumption, exercise, gender and education are factors which could affect obesity among American Indians. Therefore, the primary purpose of the current study was to determine if there was an association between certain factors (fruit and vegetable consumption, exercise, gender and education level) and obesity among young American Indian adults in North Dakota. The secondary purpose was to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in obesity prevalence between American Indian young adults and non-American Indian young adults in North Dakota. Secondary data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey was used for the study. Binary logistic regression analysis odds ratio was used to analyze the data in the study. Exercise, education and fruit and vegetable consumption did not show statistical significance. Gender was the only statistically significant factor. Recommendations were made for the specific population and future studies based on the results of the study.
    • College Students’ Perceptions of Barriers to Seeking Health Care

      Medavarapu, Harika (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      Access to health care is important to obtain health equity and improve quality of life (Healthy People, 2012). Various factors such as religion, education, family income, geographic location, and travel constraints act as barriers to access health care (Celeya et al., 2010). On the other hand, the health behaviors of medical students vary from general population of same age (Clair, Wilson, & Clore, 2004). Consequently, the perceived barriers may also vary based on the majors of students. Therefore, the main purpose of this research was to identify the difference in perceived barriers between students with health-based majors and non-health based majors. Collecting these data would help to design interventions to facilitate people’s access to health services (Sharkey, Chopra, Jackson, Winch, & Minkoviyz, 2011). The Health Belief Model (HBM) was used to explain the health behaviors of students. The study participants were 248 undergraduate students in an introductory personal health course, and participants were recruited using census method. An online survey was distributed to all students to obtain information on their perceived barriers to seek health care. The Barriers to Help Seeking Scale (BHSS) was used as a part of the survey to collect data on perceived barriers (Mansfield, Addis, & Courtenay, 2005). A cross-sectional study design was used. The data collection method was quantitative except for one open-ended question. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, a t-test, the Chi-squared test of association, and coding and summarizing of qualitative data. The results show that the mean scores for total score and five subscales’ (Need for Control and Self-reliance, Minimizing Problem and Resignation, Concrete Barriers and Distrust of Caregivers, Privacy, and Emotional Control) scores of the BHSS were significantly higher for non-health based majors compared to health-based majors. Previous studies in literature review supports the study findings indicating that non-health-based majors’ students perceived more barriers to seek health care than students in health-based majors. Also, the HBM was used to discuss the findings and to recommend future steps to public health professionals, student health centers, university administrators and staff to help students to seek health care. Future research was recommended using broader population and more qualitative questions.
    • The Influence of Underlying Factors and the Relationship of HIV/AIDS Among African Americans in Shreveport, Louisiana and Surrounding Areas

      Ellis, Frederick T., Sr. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      The significance of this study was to evaluate multiple underlying factors among African Americans in Shreveport, Louisiana and the influence of those factors on their relationship with HIV/AIDS. This is extremely important for two very reasons. First, in the past 30 years since the initial presentation of HIV/AIDS into society, a shift in the demographic of the infected individuals has resulted in African Americans becoming the new face of HIV/AIDS in the United States. Secondly, African Americans are only 12 to 13% of the United States population, but they represent more than 45% of all new HIV/AIDS cases reported annually. In order to evaluate this significance, this study employed multinomial logistic regression to examine the potential influence of specific underlying factors present among African Americans and the relationship of those factors to HIV/AIDS. Such factors, including incarceration, the influence of drugs or alcohol prior to sex, HIV/AIDS under-recognition, stigma, the number of sexual partners, poverty, and inflammatory sexual transmitted diseases were assessed for their significance. The populations defined in this study were sexually active African American adult men and women, aged 18 to 45, residing in predominantly black urban and rural geographical areas within Shreveport, Louisiana. There were 103 participants included in this study among the population previously mentioned. These cases were selected by a cluster of area probability sampling method. The research was quantitative, utilizing primary data from African American adult subjects who reside in predominantly black urban and rural geographical areas via an anonymous online survey. The statistical measures that were used in this study included descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The results of this study sought to demonstrate an association between the presences of the above mentioned underlying factors and the relationship of HIV/AIDS among African Americans living in Shreveport, Louisiana. Based on the results of this study, it was determined that a relationship between specific underlying factors among African Americans and HIV/AIDS status do exist. More specifically, results indicated that the factors incarceration, substance use prior to sex, and inflammatory sexually transmitted diseases all had statistical influence on the HIV/AIDS status of African Americans in Shreveport, Louisiana.

      Dean, Jason C. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      The focus of this investigation is small financial institutions based in the United States and insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). Without a viable market for community banks individual and small business investors and borrowers, particularly in rural areas, will have less financing options and may be forced to accept the terms dictated by larger financial institutions (Walser & Anderlik, 2004). Additionally, within the literature there is minimal empirical evidence informing community banks of appropriate initiatives that may be implemented to unleash human expertise through training and development interventions related to successful leadership styles. As competition in the banking industry continues to increase, community banks may be compelled to utilize Human Resource Development (HRD) initiatives and interventions, similar to the propositions mentioned herein, to enhance their overall competitiveness and survivability. The primary purpose of this investigation was to identify the leadership styles of branch managers and financial performance outcomes as measured by the ROE framework at both small and medium-sized community banks. Second, this investigation sought to add to previous research by providing HRD scholars and practitioners with new strategies for evaluating the impact of HRD initiatives and interventions within a banking industry context. Third, through this investigation it was determined that particular styles and/or sets of leadership dimensions are common at successful small and medium-sized community banking institutions.
    • How Effective Superintendents Select and Develop Principals

      Willman, Robert W. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine how effective superintendents select and develop principals. Through this qualitative study, the perceptions of four superintendents explored several areas: a) the process by which principals are selected which includes qualities desired, interviewing, education, and internal versus external candidates and b) the professional development that takes place after the principal has been selected. The superintendents in the study were located in the state of Indiana and met the study criteria outlined in Chapter 3. The topics of related literature reviewed included the characteristics of instructional leaders, succession management and studies of professional development. In exploring these four superintendents, several elements emerged: a) the establishment of a clearly defined process of selecting principals, b) superintendents prefer to hire principals from within their districts but value external candidates in the process, and c) professional development for principals should be both global to the needs of the district as well as specific to their strengths and weaknesses. Insight gained from this study should assist superintendents in their efforts to create a selection process and a direction for professional development of principals that will work for their school districts.

      White, Paul Michael (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      The purpose of this study was to discover school- teacher- and student-level factors that describe effective literacy instruction at the secondary level of high-performing schools. A sub-question of the study focused on whether high-performing schools practiced “literacy across the curriculum.” National data suggest only about one-third of secondary-level students in the United States read at a proficient level. A recent trend to improve secondary-level student literacy has been to emphasize literacy development in all content areas. A mixed-method approach was used for this study. A linear regression was executed for all middle and high schools in Indiana for spring 2011, 2012, and 2013 state language arts testing results. This was used to build a predicted language arts scale score based on free and reduced lunch status for all schools. Four schools (two middle schools and two high schools) with three consecutive years of posted language arts testing results above their predicted scores were selected for a qualitative multiple case study. Teachers and administrators were interviewed and surveyed regarding their school literacy practices. This study discovered common themes regarding the literacy practices of all four high-performing schools, which included (a) high levels of teacher collaboration among the language arts teachers, (b) the incorporation of high interest reading materials while working with students on their reading comprehension skills, (c) strong levels of teacher commitment and personal responsibility among the language arts teachers to see student literacy improve, and (d) a lack of a common instructional method to improve student literacy, and none of the four schools in the study presented evidence of a developed across-the-curriculum culture for literacy development. Based on the findings, this study determined that matters of professional teaching culture such as collaboration and personal commitment may be stronger factors in student literacy development than a particular instructional approach. School leaders are reminded that the language arts teachers of a school lay the foundation of effective student literacy development. Before school leaders embark on adopting any across the curriculum approach to literacy development, it is needed to first focus on the professional functioning of the language arts staff in a school, particularly in matters of culture such as collaboration, commitment, and an interest in sharing the challenge of improving student literacy with other colleagues. Finally, each high-performing school’s language arts staff demonstrated that one particular best-practice approach to student literacy development does not work for all. It is more critical for language arts teachers to be well-versed in a variety of best practice approaches to student literacy development, and work collaboratively with teaching colleagues to employ the best-practice approaches our students need at that time to improve their reading and writing skills.

      Voelker, Joseph A. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      The purpose of the study was to determine whether schools that impose more days of out-ofschool suspension as a discipline consequence in Indiana high schools have a relationship with the academic results of the school. The study was conducted by administering a survey to all Indiana public high school principals. Eighty-nine principals responded to the Principal Survey on High School Discipline. The Principal Survey on High School Discipline asked respondents the number of days a student would be suspended out of school for first time offenses to 18 common discipline infractions. The sum of out-of-school suspension days (called the suspension composite score) for each high school was then compared to each high school’s scores for the 2013 sophomore cohort on Indiana’s End of Course Assessments following the completion of English 10 and Algebra I coursework. Also analyzed in the study were whether there was a difference in the suspension composite score and the school’s size; whether there was a difference in the suspension composite score and the school’s location; whether principal demographics of age, years of experience, or years in education affected the suspension composite score; if out of school suspension makes students less likely to misbehave; and if zero-tolerance policies made an impactful contribution in maintaining order at their schools. Data were analyzed through one-way ANOVA and linear regression testing and the null hypotheses were tested at the .05 probability level or better. The data analysis did not display significant findings for any of the research questions. Some of the findings when analyzing the demographic data were urban schools were more likely to suspend but less likely to expel a student for issues such as drug possession or transmission and alcohol possession or transmission. Rural schools were the exact opposite. They were less likely to suspend but more likely to expel a student for those infractions. Small schools versus large schools followed the same pattern, but the data were not as pronounced. The principals were split as to whether zero tolerance policies make an impactful contribution in maintaining order at their schools. When zero tolerance policies were broken down by school size, small schools disagreed that it helped maintain order, but medium- and large-sized high schools had nearly 60% agreeing to 40% disagreeing.

      Stephens, Michael (Indiana State University, 2014-09)
      The role of the principal has never been as multi-faceted or as scrutinized as it is in today’s schools. Principals are looked to for leadership and guidance in the processes, communications, relationships, instructions, and curriculum of today’s schools. Marzano (2013) listed 21 responsibilities of the principal of today. Principals of today wear many hats and are looked to have knowledge and skills beyond the scope of leaders in many other professions. The purpose of the quantitative study was to examine the perceptions of the teachers in Indiana high schools pertaining to their principal’s level of effectiveness as measured by the Audit of Principal Effectiveness. The results of this study can be beneficial to principals of all schools. Regardless of the grade assigned to the school, the study suggests the value of building relationships with administrative colleagues, the interaction with students, and the setting of high professional goals for all involved.

      Winston Sealy, Dominique (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      Additive Manufacturing rapid reproductive systems are gaining popularity within the manufacturing industry. One of the many benefits of such systems has been the exploration of building practical sacrificial patterns for investment casted metals. Methods such as, Castform and Quickcast, has been developed for selective laser sintering and Stereolithography apparatus technologies respectively. Research has demonstrated significant cost savings when Additive manufacturing rapid reproductive systems are utilized for customized or small batch production of sacrificial patterns. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology for evaluating quality characteristics of Fused Deposition Modeling. Since Fused Deposition Modeling have been demonstrated by a number of experimental studies as a viable alternative to wax sacrificial patterns, this study explored the effects of wall thickness and raster resolution on quality characteristics such as, diametric accuracy, cylindricity, and concentricity. The results of the study indicated raster resolution had no effect on the measured quality characteristics, however, the ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests showed statistical significance (α=0.05) for wall thickness of cylindricity of a small diameter (0.5”) and concentricity of two cylindrical features of diameters 0.5” and 1”. Moreover, the main contributions of this study involved the development of an accurate and robust design of experiment methodology. In addition, implications and recommendations for practice were also discussed.

      Ramsey, Jamie (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      This is the first known study to examine the relationship between Native identity and psychological well-being, which is defined by Ryff in positive psychology as existential strengths. It is also the first known study to investigate the relationship between Native identity and blood quantum through quantitative measures. Overall, 199 Natives from two American Indian Centers, three Indiana powwows, and online from Facebook participated by completing the Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-being, Phinney’s Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, and demographic information. The main hypothesis was to explore whether any of the psychological well-being subscales (positive relations, autonomy, mastery of environment, selfacceptance, personal growth, and/or life purpose) was associated with achieved Native identity status. Interestingly, only positive relations was significant in correlation with Native identity. A second hypothesis that diffused Native identity development would be associated with less Native ancestry, based on the negative, internalized socialization of blood quantum, was not supported; Native identity appears to be more complex with its multiple influences. However, the third hypothesis that achieved Native identity status was associated with more Native community involvement was supported. This is understandable in light of its high importance in Native values and identity formation. The discussion reviews the potential reasons for such results, as well as implications for promotion of more traditional community involvement in Native programs and services.

      Pickard, John (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      On February 3rd, 2011, the Internet Addressing and Numbers Authority (IANA) allocated the last five /8 blocks of IPv4 addresses to each of the five Regional Internet Registries (RIRs). Since that event, four of the five RIRs have depleted their IPv4 allocations and began operating under final IPv4 address depletion policies. The exhaustion of the IPv4 address pools maintained by the registries means that IPv4 is now a legacy protocol and that all future Internet growth will be over IPv6. This exhaustion also means that organizations must take action to accommodate IPv6 adoption or risk compromising business agility and continuity – especially those organizations with public-facing content that rely on the Internet. Yet, anecdotal evidence and recent published studies indicate that few organizations have moved to adopt IPv6. The evidence suggests a low sense of urgency and lack of understanding among organizational leaders regarding the potential consequences that IPv4 exhaustion will have on their organization’s business model. An understanding pertaining to the IPv6 adoption readiness within organizations is needed so that programs can be established to raise the awareness of organizational decision makers to risks of not having an IPv6 strategy and to inspire them to take action. This study achieved this objective by investigating the IPv6 readiness of enterprise organizations located in eastern North Carolina through a survey sent to the senior IT decision makers of 463 end-user enterprise organizations. IPv6 readiness was measured across five facets of organizational IPv6 preparedness; training, high-level planning, assessment of the current environment, IPv6 policy, and IPv6 deployment. Statistical analyses identified the significant technology adoption factors associated with IPv6 readiness as measured on a six-stage Guttman scale, ranging from simply “aware” of IPv6, to general IPv6 deployment. Results revealed that the majority of organizations have made little to no preparation toward IPv6 adoption and do not see IPv6 adoption as an urgent issue. Further it was found that the factors most significantly associated with low levels of IPv6 readiness were lack of perceived advantages of IPv6 and lack of perceived pressures from industry partners and customers to adopt IPv6. Based on the findings of this study, a recommended approach to developing an effective IPv6 strategy, as well as, a framework for IPv6 adoption planning is presented for organizational leaders and IT decision makers to use as a guide toward a successful IPv6 transition.

      Bierman Mulvey, Nichole A. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of large-group, explicit, story grammar vocabulary instruction during shared storybook reading on the narrative retell skills of preschoolers. Two preschool classrooms in rural, southeastern Illinois participated in the study. The study examined narrative retell ability via the Test of Narrative Retell-Preschool. Scores were compared for the experimental group, who received instruction from the investigator, to the control group, who received instruction from their regular classroom teacher. The study also explored instructional practices during shared storybook reading through observational checklists of recorded sessions. The results of the study indicated that students who received experimental instruction showed significant gains in scores for character, setting, and emotion on the Test of Narrative Retell-Preschool, but these gains were not significantly higher than the control group students, who also showed significant gains in scores throughout the six-week study.

      Mull, Rhonda J. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      The purpose of this qualitative, multi-site case study was to observe and examine the strategies, techniques, and leadership styles of principals in effective middle schools with high poverty and high achievement. This study focused on defining a core of specific strategies utilized by staff members in these schools. Two high-poverty middle schools in Indiana that have done an exemplary job of attaining high scores on the state's standardized test were examined. Data for this research was collected via interviews of the school's principal, leadership team, and teachers. Classroom observations and teacher department meetings were also conducted. After the staff interviews and observations were completed, all notes and tape recordings reviewed, and all obtained infonnation was processed and analyzed, five themes emerged. These themes included the following: principal leadership, student scheduling, staff scheduling, building culture, and cmTiculum and professional development. Within these themes, some of the detailed strategies and techniques were similar at both schools and some were different. Based on the significant findings of the data analysis within the five themes, the following seven strategies were utilized by both principals and seemed to play a critical role in the high achievement of the students in both schools: (a) there was a strategic system in place to address the academic core; (b) the daily schedule was developed for student needs; (c) collaboration for teaching staff was invaluable and they wanted more time together; (d) teacher-led professional development was utilized; (e) data was used in a meaningful way; (f) though principal leadership styles differed, creating a strong team of teacher leaders was essential; (f) and the staff created a relational learning environment. These five themes and seven strategies appear to be critical and essential components that could hold true value for other schools attempting to make gains in their students' academic achievement.

      Moore, Jill M. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to develop an understanding of factors that nursing education executives in higher education believe are essential to influencing and implementing sound policy decisions. This study sought to answer the following: (a) what characteristics and skills do nurse administrators in higher education believe are essential to positively influencing the policy-making process, and (b) what organizational features do these nurse executives believe impede or facilitate their ability to influence policy processes? This study utilized an exploratory qualitative design representing a collective case study. The sample selection was purposive and included in-depth interviews with nurse educators who had at least two years’ experience as nursing education executives. Themes emerging from the narrative data were that a collaboration leadership style, effective communication, and political awareness were considered essential skills for successfully navigating the policy process. The theme of complexity created by institutions and stakeholders involved in policy was observed. Implications of the study included (a) the complexity of higher education institutions regarding the need to interface with multiple internal and external stakeholders acts as a barrier to policy process, (b) lack of formal preparation to manage policy can be a barrier for nurse leaders who typically lack such preparation, and (c) collaboration is at the center of how these nurse leaders drive and implement policy in their educational institutions. Recommendations made for future research include, (a) complexity and nursing education, (b) preparation of nurse education for policy-making, and (c) understanding policy experiences of a more diverse group of nurse educators.

      McBride, Jonica H. (Indiana State University, 2014-12)
      This study considered the impact of explicit teaching of misconceptions regarding randomness on cognitive growth of preservice teachers. Specifically, the purpose was to compile and validate instructional materials that facilitate preservice teachers’ conceptual understandings of randomness. The quasiexperimental design compared the cognitive effects of the instructional materials. Hence, in addition to the instructional materials, assessment instruments were compiled and validated. These items were intended to illuminate the cognitive growth resulting from the treatment instruction. The convenience sample of 67 students represented approximately one third of the teacher-education students enrolled in a mathematics education content course at this institution. Three sections were chosen and then two were randomly assigned to the experimental course (pooled to form one treatment group) that included a brief task-based module on misconceptions of randomness in the probability unit and one was assigned to the traditional course that did not include the experimental module. The participants were pretested and posttested for evidence of misconceptions regarding randomness. The data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric tests for means and proportions. Results indicated that there were no significant differences found between the groups on total posttest scores; however, the treatment group did show a significant increase in scores from the pretest to the posttest (gain scores). An item analysis revealed significant differences between the groups’ posttest scores on three of the assessment items and a proportional analysis indicated that the treatment instruction had a significant effect on evidence of two of the misconceptions. Explicit instruction on misconceptions may not be sufficient to overcome all invalid probabilistic reasoning involving randomness; however, it appears that addressing the common misconceptions of randomness has the potential to remedy preservice teachers’ mistaken ideas that lead to incorrect probabilistic reasoning and possible transmission of invalid reasoning to future students.